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Full text of "Mathur: a district memoir"

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MATHURA: 



District ^^emoir 



rr 
F. S. GROWSE, M.A., | 

BENGAL CIVIL SERVICE. j_ 



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PRINTED AT THE KOETH-WESTEBN PBOTIXCES' GOVERKMEMT PRISS. 



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MATHURA: 



DISTRICT 3TEMOIR 



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F. S, GROWSE, M.A., 



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JT BENGAL CIVIL SERVICE. 



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PEINXED AT THE NORTH-WESXEEN PROVINCES' GOVERNMENT PRESS. 



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PREFACE. 



As this Memoir will form one of the uniform series of local histo- 
ries compiled by order of the Government, it requires no special 
introduction beyond a few words explanatory of those points in 
which my mode of treatment may be thought somewhat excep- 
tional. Being intended mainly as a book of reference for the use 
of district officers — a class including men of the most diverse tastes 
and acquirements — it dwells — more especially in Part II. — upon 
many topics which the general reader will condemn as trivial and 
uninteresting ; while in the earlier chapters my explanations are 
more detailed and minute than the professed student of history 
and archaeology will probably deem at all necessary. But a local 
memoir can never be a severely artistic performance. On a small 
scale it resembles a dictionary or encyclopaedia, and must, if com- 
plete, be composed of very heterogeneous materials, out of which 
those who have occasion to consult it must select what they 
require for their own purposes, without concluding that whatever 
is superfluous for them is equally fomiliar or distasteful to other 
people. 

As good libraries of standard works of reference are scarcely 
to be found anywhere in India out of the presidency towns, I 
have invariably given in full the very words of my authorities, 
both ancient and modern. And if I have occasion to mention 
any historical character — though he may have achieved somewhat 
more than a mere local re]nitation — I still narrate succinctly all the 
material facts of his life rather than take them for granted as 
already known. Thus, before quoting the Chinese Pilgrims, I ex- 
plain under what circumstances they wrote; and when describing 
the Mathurd, Observatory, I introduce an account of the famous 
royal astronomer by whom it was constructed. Hence my pages 



U PBEFAOE. 

are not unfrequently overcrowded with names and dates, which 
must give them rather a repellent appearance ; but I shall be com- 
pensated for this reproach if residents on the spot find in them an 
answer to all enquiries without occasion to consult other authori- 
ties, which, though possibly far from obscure, may still under the 
circumstances be difficult to obtain. 

1 dwell at considerable length on the legends connected with 
the deified Krishna, the tutelary divinity of the district : because, 
however puerile and comparatively modern many of them may 
be, they have materially afiected the whole course of local his- 
tory, and are still household words to which allusion is constantly 
made in conversation either to animate a description or enforce 
an argument. The great years of famine and the mutiny of 1857, 
though calamities which were much more lightly felt in this 
neighbourhood than in many other parts of India, yet form the 
eras by which the date of all domestic occurrences is ordinarily 
calculated, and have therefore been duly noticed. But there has 
been no need to enter much into general history, for Mathurd 
has never been a political centre except during the short period 
when it formed the theatre for the display of the ambitious pro- 
jects of Siiraj Mall and his immediate successors on the throne 
of Bharat-pur. All its special interest is derived from its reli- 
gious associations in connection with the Vaishnava sects — far 
out-numbering all other Hindu divisions — of whom some took birth 
here. All regard it as their Holy Land. Thus, the space devoted 
to the consideration of the doctrines which they profess and 
the observances which they practise could scarcely be curtailed 
without impairing the fidelity of the sketch by suppression of the 
appropriate local colouring. It may also be desirable to explain 
that the long extracts of Hindi poetry from local writers of the 
last two centuries have been inserted, not only as apropos of the 
subjects to which they refer, but also as affording the most un- 
mistakeable proofs of what the language of the country really is. 
No such specimens could be given of indigenous Urdu literature, 
simply because it is non-existent, and is as foreign to the people 
at large as English. 



PREFACE. iii 

So much irreparable damage has been done in past years from 
simple ignorance as to the value of ancient architectural remains, 
that I have been careful to describe in full every building in the 
district which possesses the slightest historical or artistic interest. 
I have also given a complete resume of all the results hitherto 
obtained in archaeological research among the relics of an earlier 
age. On both these heads my special thanks are due to the 
Government for supplying me with funds for excavations, and in 
supporting the claim which I put forward on behalf of the pre- 
servation of the famous temple at Brindd-ban. The identifica- 
tion which I have been able to establish between Maha-ban and 
the Clisobora of Ptolemy and Arrian, and between Malioli and the 
Madhu-puri of the Sanskrit chronicles — the most ancient capital 
of the kingdom of Mathm*d — are definite contributions to Indian 
archaeology, which I believe will be universally accepted as of some 
slight but permanent value. 

Besides noting the characteristics of peculiar castes, 1 have 
given an account of the origin and present status of all the prin- 
cipal residents in the district, mentioning every particular of any 
interest connected with their family history or personal qualifica- 
tions. Only a few such persons of special repute will be found 
included in Part I. ; the remainder have been relegated to the more 
strictly topographical sequel, where they are noticed in connection 
with their estates. Upon purely agricultural statistics I touch 
very briefly, thinking that such matters will be more ably dis- 
cussed by the officer in charge of the settlement operations now 
in progress. At their close, should a second edition of this Memoir 
be required, it will be greatly enhanced in value by the incorpo- 
ration of his report with my village lists. 

It is hoped that these lists will prove usefid to district officials. 
No one who has not had experience in matters of the kind can 
form any idea of the labour and vexation involved in the prepara- 
tion for the first time of such tables, when the materials on which 
they are based consist exclusively of manuscripts written in the 
Persian character. An attempt to secure accuracy induces a feel- 
ing of absolute despair, for the names of the places and people 



^ 1M 



IV PREFACE. 

mentioned can only be verified on the spot, inasmuch as they are 
too obscure to be tested by reference to other authorities, and the 
words as written, if not absolutely illegible, can be read at least 
three or four different ways. The Qotes by which the lists are 
accompanied furnish incidentally many illustrations to a ques- 
tion which now more than any other is occupying the minds 
of Indian statesmen. In 1857, Avhen all settled government was 
in abeyance, a mutinous army marched through the entire 
length of one division of the district ; but was regarded only with 
aversion and dismay by all the people of the country, except- 
ing one class. These were the victims of our revenue laws 
and civil courts, who seized the opportunity of turning upon 
the usurer by whom they had been ejected from their ances- 
tral estates, and, whenever he was found rash enough to be 
living among the people he had aggrieved, of putting him to 
death, occasionally under circumstances of some atrocity, together 
with the Patwdri, or village accountant, whom they regarded as 
the instrument of his oppression and the official custodian of the 
documents that recorded their degradation. To re-attach the 
loyalty of so influential a class would be a supreme effort of legisla- 
tion : nor need the remedy for the ill be a very drastic one. To 
restore them in their old proprietary rights is an impossibility; but 
to concede a few slight privileges, and (in accord with national sen- 
timent) to recognise them as a class of higher social status than the 
mere village serfs with whom in the eyes of the law they have been 
assimilated, would go far to obliterate their animosity to existing 
iustitutions. Either from mere reckless improvidence, or from 
the impoverished condition of the laud — the result of over-assess- 
u^ent — at the time of the forced sale, or in somewhat earlier days 
from a distrust in the stability of British rule, and a belief that 
they would soon in some political convulsion be able to recover 
all that they had lost, — from these and other similar causes, the 
price that they accepted from the in-coming landlord was so 
utterly incommensurate with the value of the purchase, that the 
slio'ht interference with the rights of property involved in the 
subsequent creation of a privileged class of tenants could only 



PREFACE. 1 

be regarded as tbe recognitioii of a most just and equitable 
claim. 

The notes will be seen to vary greatly in point of fullness, 
according to the situation of the pargana to which they refer. Of 
the western half of the district I have been able to acquire a 
thorough personal knowledge. But on the other side of the 
Jamund, to the east of the town of Baladeva, I have spent only 
two months of one cold season. My acquaintance, therefore, with 
the whole of S'adabad and Jalesar and half of Mahd-ban is very 
superficial, almost confined to the principal roads and towns, and 
has been very scantily supplemented by the resident subordinate 
officials. 

The population returns show clearly the relative size of the 
different villages, and may be accepted as close approximations 
to the absolute truth. On the night of the Census no pains were 
spared to ensure accuracy in the enumeration, and I fully believe 
that success was attained. Whatever errors may exist are due 
to other causes, for, what with illegible writing to begin with, 
and a great number of subsequent erasures and insertions, it be- 
came a matter of exceeding difficulty to add up the totals cor- 
rectly ; the combination of correctness with rapidity may have 
been unattainable. 

After the final orders on the subject of transliteration issued 
by the Supreme Government, the system which I have adopted 
scarcely stands in need either of explanation or defence. I have, 
however, been more consistent than is prescribed of necessity, in 
the belief that compromise is always an evil, and in this matter 
is exceptionally so, for with a definite orthography there is no 
reason w^iatever w^hy in the course of two or three generations 
the immense diversity of Indian alphabets, which at present form 
such an obstacle to literary intercourse and intellectual progress, 
should not all be abolished and the Roman character substituted 
in their stead. 

As to the word ' Mathura' itself: the place has had an histo- 
rical existence for more than 2,000 years, and may reasonably 
denuir to appearing in its old age under such a vulgar and ofi^en- 
sive form as ' Muttra,' which represents neither the correct pro- 



VI PREFACE. 

nunciatioii nor tlie etymology. Though it has been visited by 
Europeans of many different nationalities, it was never so muti- 
lated till it fell into the hands of the English, now seventy years 
ago ; and even the Chinese, with a language that renders trans- 
literation all but impossible, represent it, more correctly than we 
have hitherto done, under the form Mothulo. But this is a suliject 
upon which, as my own personal views are not in accord with 
those of the Local Government, it would be out of place for me 
here to enlarge. 

Camp, Kabahai: | p g^ GROWSE. 

JSovemher 22nd, 1873. J 



RULES FOR INDIAN PRONUNCIATION. 

a unaccented is like 

a accented is like 

€ is always long, like ... 

i unaccented is like 

i accented is like 

It unaccented is like 

ti accented is like 

o is always long, like ... 

ai is like 

au is like 
The consonants are pronounced as in English 
in father ; g is always hard, as in gag ; y is ahvays a consonant, and c, q, and x 
are not used at all. The fixed sound of each letter never varies ; and it is, 
therefore impossible for any person of the most ordiuaiy intelligence to hesi- 
tate for a moment as to the correct way of pronouncing a word the first time he 
sees it. Without the slightest knowledge of the language he may read a page 
of a Sanskrit or Hindustaui book to an Indian audieuco, and be perfectly iu- 
tellio-ible, if ho will only take the trouble to reuicuiber the few simple rules 
given above. 



a 


in India. 


a 


„ hath. 


^ 


„ fete. 


i 


„ India. 


i 


„ Mile. 


u 


„ put. 


u 


,, rural. 





„ oval. 


ai 


„ aisle. 


on 


,, cloud. 


th 


as in boot-hool; never as 



CONTENTS, 



PART I. 

Chapter. Pagb. 
I.— General description of the district ; its earlier extent and divisions ; character of 
tiie people and their language ; notices of peculiar castes and leading fami- 
lies ; agricultural classification of land ; canals ; years of famine ; Delhi road 

and its saraes ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

A^o^e on CAap?er /.—Specimens of the Byom Sar and Suni Sar ... ... 19 

II.— The Jats of Bharat-pur and Sahar ... ... ... ... 21 

III,— The story of Krishna, the tutelary divinity of Mathura ... ... SO 

Note on Chapter 111. — Krishna's genealogy ... ... ... 45 

IV. — The Braj-mandal and the Ban-jatra ... ... ... ... 47 

v.-— The city of Mathura ; its history ... ... ... ,., 61 

VL— The city of Mathura ; its archasology and topography ... ,„ ... 72 

Supplement to Chapter VI. — Buddhist sites ... ... ... ... 104 

Notes to Chapter VI. — 1. Governors of Mathura in the seventeenth century ... 106 

2. City quarters of Mathura ... ... ,„ 107 

3. Principal buildings in the city of Mathura ,., 108 

4. Mathura calendar ... .. ... 110 

5. Wealthy residents in the city of Mathura ... 112 
VII.— Brind4-han and the Vaishnava reformers ... ... ... ... 113 

Notes to Chapter VII.— I. Brinda-ban calendar ... ... ... 140 

2. Brinda-ban Ghats .. ... ... 143 

3. City quarters of Brinda-ban ... ... ib. 

4. The Laid Bftbu's Mathura estate ... ... 144 

6. Inscriptions at the temple of Gobind Deva ... 145 

Vin.— Maha-ban ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 147 

Gokul and the Gokulastha Qosains ... ... ... ,., 153 

Baladeva ... ,„ ... ... ,.. ,,, ,„ 161 

Notes to Chapter VIII.— I. Catalogue of Vallahhacharya literature ... 164 

2. Specimen of the Chaurasi Varta ... ... ib. 

IX.— The three hill places of Mathura : 

Gobardhan ... ... ... ,„ ... ... ,„ 168 

Barsana ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 177 

Nandganw ... ... ... ... ... ... ,., 180 

List of iLLUsxRATioifs. 

Map of the district ... ... ... ... ... ,„ 1 

Environs of the city of Mathura ... ... ,„ ... ... 72 

Plan of temple of Gobind Deva at Brinda-baa ... ... ... ... 134 

Ditto of Madan Mohan ditto ... ... ,„ ... 127 

Ditto of Rang Ji ditto ... ,., ... ... 135 

Ditto of Radha Gopal ditto ... ... ,„ ... 138 

Ditto of Hari Deva at Gobardhan ... ... ... ..♦ 172 



M ATHUE A 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE DISTRICT; ITS EARLIER EXTENT AND DIVISIONS; 
CHARACTER OF THE PEOPLE, AND THEIR LANGUAGE ; NOTICES OF PECULIAR 
CASTES AND LEADING FABIILIES ; AGRICULTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF LAND ; 
CANALS; YEARS OF FAMINE; DELHI ROAD, AND ITS SARAES. 

The district of Mathimi is in its form the result of jiolitical exigencies, and 
consists of two tracts of country which have little or nothing in common 
beyond the name which unites them. The outline is that of a carjDenter's square, 
of which the two parallelograms are nearly equal in extent ; the upper one lying 
due north and south, and the other, at right angles to it, stretching eastward 
below. The capital of the local administration is situated near the interior angle 
of junction, and is therefore more accessible from the contiguous district of 
Aligarh and the independent State of Bharat-pur than from the greater part 
of its own territory. Yet the position is the most central that could be deter- 
mined in an area of such eccentric outline. It has, however, long been in con- 
templation to cut off the whole of the Jalesar Pargana ; and if this were done, 
and part of Mursnn and Hathras annexed in its stead, unquestionable advantage 
would result, and the district "v^'ould be made much more compact and manage- 
able. But if any change is made, it is more probable that the new territory will 
be detached from Giirgjxnw ; an increment which will leave the district nearly 
as straggling as ever and only transfer the inconvenience from one point of the 
compass to another. 

The eastern parallelogram, which as yet comprises the parganas of Jalesar, 
Sa'dabad, and half of Mahaban, is some 42 miles long with an average breadth 
of 16 miles. It is a fair specimen of the ordinary character of the Doab, and is 
abundantly watered, mainly by wells and rivers, but also to some extent by the 
Ganges Canal, and is carefully crdtivated. Its luxuriant crops and fine or- 
chards indicate the fertility of the soil and render the landscape not unpleas- 
ing to the eye ; but though far the most valuable part of the district for the pur- 
poses of the farmer and the economist, it possesses few historical associations 
to detain the antiquary. On the other hand, the western parallelogram, though 
comparatively poor in natural products, is rich in mythological legend, and con- 
tains a series of the masterpieces of modern Hindu architecture. Its still 
greater wealth in earlier times is attested by the extraordinary merit of the few 



2 EARLIER EXTENT OF THE DISTRICT. 

specimens which have survived the torrent of Muhammadan barbarism and the 
more slowly corroding lapse of time. 

Yet, widely as the two traots of country differ in character, there is reason 
to believe that their first union dates from a very early period. Thus, Vaniha 
Mihira, writing in the latter half of the fifth centuiy of the Christian era, seems 
to speak of Mathura as consisting at that time also of two very dissimilar por- 
tions. For, in the 16th section of the Brihat Sanhita, he includes its eastern 
half, with all river lands (such as is the Doab) under the protection of the planet 
Budha, that is, Mercury ; and the western half, with the Bharatas and Purohits 
and other managers of religious ceremonies (classes which still to the present 
day form the mass of the population of Western Mathura, and more particularly 
so if the Bharatas are taken to mean the Bharat-pur Jats) under the tutelage of 
Jiva, that is, Jupiter. The Chinese pilgrim, Hwen Thsang, may also be adduced 
as a -witness to the same effect. He visited India in the seventh century after 
Christ, and describes the circumference of the kingdom of Mathura as 5,000 li, 
i. e., 950 miles, taking the Chinese li as almost one-fifth of an English mile. Tlic 
soil, he says, is rich and fertile and specially adapted to the cultivation of grain and 
cotton; while the mango trees are so abundant that they form complete forests — 
the fruit being of two varieties, a smaller kind, which turns yellow as it ripens, 
and a larger, which remains always green. From this description it would ai>- 
pear that the then kingdom of Mathura extended east of the capital along the 
Doab in the direction of Mainpuri ; for there the mango flounshes most luxuri- 
antly and almost every village boasts a fine grove ; whereas in Western Mathura 
it will scarcely grow at all except under the most careful treatment. In support 
of this inference it may be obseiwed that, notwithstanding the number of monas- 
teries and stupas mentioned by the Buddhist pilgrims as existing in the kingdom 
of Mathura., few ti-aces of any such buildings have been discovered in the modern 
district, except in the immediate neighbourhood of the capital In Mainpun, 
Oil the contrary, and more especially on the side where it touches Mathura, frag- 
ments of Buddhist sculpture may be seen lying in heaps in almost every village. 
In all probability the territory of Mathura, at the time of Hwen Thsang's visit, 
included not only the eastern half of the modern district but also some small 
});irt of Agra and the whole of the Shikohabud and Mustafabad Parganas of 
IMuinpuri ; while the remainder of the present Mainpuri District fonned a por- 
tion of the kingdom of Sankasya, which extended to the borders of Kanauj. 
But all local recollection of this exceptional period has absolutely perished, and 
the nmtilated effigies of Buddlia and Maya are replaced on their pedestals and 
adored as Brahma and Devi by the ignorant villagers, whose forefathers, after 
long struggles, had triumphed in their overthrow. 

The modern district is one of the five which together make up the Agra 
Division of the North-West Provinces. It has au area of 1,031,5 G2 acres, and 



EARLIER DIVISIONS OF THE DISTRICT. ?, 

is svilxlivided into seven parganas, co-extensive with as many talisils ; viz., on the 
rio^ht bank of the Jamuna, Kosi, Chhata, and Mathura ; on the left, Mat cnm 
Noh-jhil, Mahaban, Sa'dabad, and Jalesar. Its present existence dates only 
from the year 1 832, when it was formed out of parts of the old Agra and Sa'da- 
bad Districts. In Akbar's time, it came under three different Sarkars, or divi- 
sions, viz., Agra, Sahar, and Kol. Tlie Agra Sarkar comprised 33 mahals, five of 
them being Mathura, Maholi, Mangotla, Mahaban, and Jalesar. Of these, Ma- 
holi (the Madhupuri of Sanskrit litei'ature) is now quite an insignificant vil- 
lage and is only some four miles distant from Mathura ; while Mangotla, or Ma- 
gora, has disappeared altogether from the revenue roll, ha^dng been divided, into 
four pattis, which are now accounted so many distinct villages. In the first 
years of Biitish administration it was included in the newly formed pargana of 
Aring, which has quite recently been again made one with Mathui'a. Mahaban, 
in Akbar's time, included some ten villages of the present Sa'dabad Pargana 
and the whole of Mat ; while Noh-jhil was then the centre of Pargana Noh^ 
of Sarkar Kol. Tlie Sa dal^ad Pargana was not formed till the reign of Shah- 
jalian, when his famous minister, Sa'dullah Khan, founded the tOAvn which still 
bears his name and subordinated to it all the surrounding country, including part 
of Khandauli, now in Agra. Jalesar extended beyond the modern Aligarh bor- 
der, over a considerable part of Hathras and Mursan. 

Tne Sahar Sarkar consisted of seven mahals, or pai'ganas, and included the 
territory of Bharat-pur. Its home pargana comprised a large portion of the 
modem Mathura District, extending from Kosi and Shergarh on the north to 
x\ring on the south. It was not till after the dissolution of the Muhammadan 
power that Kosi was formed by the Jats into a separate pai'gana; as also was 
the case with Shahpur, near the Gurgdnw border, which is now merged again 
in Kosi. About the same unsettled period a separate pargana was formed of Go- 
bardhan. Subsequently, Sahar dropped oitt of the list of Sarkars altogether ; 
great part of it, including its principal to%vn, was subject to Bharat-piu-, while 
the remainder came rmder the head of Mathura, then called Islampur, or Islam- 
abad. Since the mutiny, Sahar has ceased to give a name even to a pargana ; 
as the head-quarters of the tahsildar were at that time removed, for greater 
safety, to the large fort-like sarae at Chhata. 

In 1871-72, the niunber of persons taxed in the district as ha^nng an annual 
income of Es. 500 and upwards was 2,846 ; the total of their incomes amounted 
to Bs. 36,56,394-10, and yielded a tax of Rs. 1,13,920-12-10. The total popu- 
lation, according to the census of the same year was 892,542, making Mathura 
seventeenth in the list of 35 districts which compose the North-West Pro\-inccs. 

^ There is another large town, bearing the same strange name of Noh, at no great distance, 
but Tvest of the Jamuna, in the district of Gurgaow. It is specially noted for its extensive salt- 
workB. 



4: LOCAL DIALECT. 

Tlie vast majority, viz., 810,870, were Hindus, 75,G49 Muhammadans, and 
the small remainder of 23 Christians. The Muhammadans are insigniticant, 
not only numerically, but also from their social position ; a large proportion 
of them are the descendants of converts made by force of the sword in earlier 
days and are distinguished by the title of Malakana. In Western Mathura they 
nowhere form a considerable community, except at Shahpur, where they are 
the zamindars, and constitute nearly a half of the inhabitants of the town, and 
at Kosi, where they have been attracted by the large cattle-market, Avhich they 
attend as dealers. In the principal toA^nis of Eastern Mathura, as, for instance^ 
Jalesar, they are more numerous and of somewhat higher stamp ; and the head 
of a Muliammadan family seated at Sa'dabad ranks among the leading gentry 
of the district. There is also, at Mahaban, a Saiyid clan, who have been settled 
there for several centuries, being the descendants of Sufi Yahya of Mashhad, 
who recovered the fort from the Hindus in the reign of Ala-ud-din ; but they arc 
not in veiy affluent circumstances, and, beyond their respectable pedigree, have 
no other claim to distinction. The head of the family, Sarda,r Ali, now holds 
the appointment of Naib Tahsildar at Chbatt'i. The ancestral estate consists, in 
addition to the Thok Saiyidai at Mahaban, of the villages of Goharpur and 
Nagara Bharu ; while some of his kinsmen are the proprietors of Shahpur 
Ghosna, where they have resided for several generations. 

As might be expected from this almost total absence of the Muliammadan 
element, the language of the people, as distinct from that of the official classes, is 
purely Hindi. In ordinary speech, "water" is jal; "land" is dJiarti; "a father," 
2nta; a "grandson," ?i a/ 1 (for the Sanskrit naptri) and "time" is often samay. Ge- 
nerally speaking, the conventional Persian phrases of compliment are represent- 
ed by Hindi equivalents, as, for instance, ikbdl hy pratdp and tash7'(f land hy 
kripd karnd. The number of words absolutely peculiar to the district is probably 
very small ; for Braj Bhasha (and Western Mathura is coterminous with Braj), 
is the typical form of Hindi to which other local varieties are assimilated as far as 
possible. A short list of some expressions that might strike a stranger as un- 
usual has been prepared, and will be found in the Appendix. In village reckon- 
ings, the Hindustani numerals, Avliich are of singularly irregular formation 
and therefore difficult to remember, are seldom employed in their integrity, and 
any sum above 20, except round numbers, is expressed by a pariphrasis — thus, 
75 is not pachhattar, but pdnch ghat assi, i. e., 80 — 5 ; and 97 is not sattdnawe, but 
Un ghat sau, i. e., 100 — 3. In pronunciation, there are some noticeable deviations 
from established usage; thus — 1st, s is substituted for sh, as in sdmil for shdmil; 
sum dr for shumdr ; ^nd, ch takes the place of s, as in cMta f or sitd, and occasion- 
ally vice versd, as in charm for charcha ; and ^rd, in the vowels there is little 
or no distinction between a and ?', thus we have Lakshmin for Lakshman. The 
prevalence of this latter vulgarism explains the fact of the word Brahman being 



HINDI TERMINOLOGY. 5 

ordinarily spelt in English as Brahmin. It is still more noticeable in the 
adjoining district of Mainpuri ; where, too, a generally becomes o, as clialo gayOy 
" he went," for chald gajjd — a provincialism seldom heard in the mouths of the 
Mathura peasants. It may also, as a grammatical pecnliarity, be remarked that 
hayn, the older form of the past participle of the verb harvd, " to do," is much 
more popular than its modern abbreviation, ki ; and the demonstrative pronouns 
with the open vowel terminations, td and ivd, are always preferred to the sibi- 
lant Urdu forms is and us. As for Muliammadan proper names, they have as 
foreign a sound and are as much corrupted as English ; for example, Vazir-iid- 
d{n would be known in his own village only as Wojii, and would himself be ra- 
ther shy about claiming the longer title. 

The merest glance at the map is sufficient proof of the almost exclusively 
Hindi character of the district. In the two typical parganas of Kosi and Chhata, 
there are 172 villages, not one of which bears a name with the familiar ter- 
mination of -dbdd. Not a score of names altogether betray any admixture of 
a Muliammadan element, and even these are formed with some Hindi ending, as 
-pur, -nagar, or 'garli ; for instance, Akbar-pur, Sher-nagar, and Sher-garh. All 
the remainder, to any one but a philological student, denote simply such and such 
a village, but have no connotation whatever, and are at once set down as utterly 
barbarous and unmeaning. Yet an application of the rules of the ancient 
Prakrit Grammarian, Vararuchi, will, in many cases, without any wonderful 
exercise of ingenuity, sviffice to discover the original Sanskrit form and explain 
its corruption. Thus, Maholi is for Madhupuri ; Parsoli for Parasu-rama-puri 
(Parsabeing the ordinary colloquial abbreviation for Parasurama) Dham-Sinha 
for Dharma-Sinha, Bati for Bahula-vati, and Khaira for Khadira. It would seem 
that the true explanation of these common endings, -oH, -auli, -aicri, -dwar, has 
never before been clearly stated. They are merely corruptions of -puri or -pnra^ 
combined with the prior member of the compound, as explained by Vararuchi, 
in Sutra II., 2, which directs the elision of certain consonants, includino- the letter 
p, where they are simple and non-initial ; the term " non-initial" being expressly 
extended to the first letter of the latter member of a compound.^ The Mu- 
hammadans in their time made several attempts to remodel the local nomen- 
clature, the most conspicuous illustrations of the vain endeavour being the sub- 
stitution of Islam-pur for the venerable name of Mathura and Mi'iminabad 
for Brinda-ban. The former is still occasionally heard in the law courts when 

1 The practical application of this rule was first suggested to me by observing that the 
two large tanks at Barsand and Gobardhan were called indiscriminately in the neighbourhood, 
the one Kusam-sarovar or Kusumokhar (for Kusuma-Fushkara), the other Brikh-bhau-Pokhar, 
or Bhanokhar. As the rule was laid down by Vararuchi 1800 years ago, I can only claim credit 
for its practical resuscitation; but it is of great importance, and at once affords a clue to the 
formation of otherwise unintelligible local names. 



6 MATnUUlYA CHAUBES, 

documents of the last generation liaA'e to be recited ; and several others, though 
almost unknoAm in the places to which they refer, arc regularly recorded in the 
register of the revenue otficials. Thus, a village near Gobardhan is Parsoli to 
its inliabitants, but Muhammad-pur in the office ; and it would be possible to 
live many 3'ears in Mathura before discovering that the extensive gardens on 
the opposite side of the river were not, properly speaking, at Hans-ganj, but at 
a place called Isa-pur. A yet more curious fact, and one which would scarcely 
be possible in any country but India, is this, that a name has sometimes been 
changed simply through the mistake of a copying-clerk. Thus, till the last set- 
tlement, a village in the Kosi Pargana had always been known as Chacholi ; the 
name was inadvertently copied as Piloli and has remained so ever since. Simi- 
larly with two populous villages now called Great and Little Bharna in the 
Chhata Pargana : the Bharna Khurd of the record-room is Lohra Marna on 
the spot ; lohra being the Hindi equivalent for the more common chhotd, 
" little," and Marna being the original name which from the close resem- 
blance in Nagri writing of m to hh has been corrupted by a clerical error into 
Bharna. 

As in almost every part of the country where Hindus are predominant, the 
population consists mainly of Brahmans, Thakurs, and Baniyas ; but to these 
three classes a fourth of equal extent, the Jats, must be added as the specially 
distinctive element. During part of last century the ancestors of the Jat Raja, 
who still governs the border State of Bharat-pur, exercised sovereign power over 
nearly all the western half of the district ; and their influence on the country has 
been so permanent in its results that a separate chapter will be devoted to a 
sketch of their history. Nothing more clearly indicates the alien character of 
the Jalesar Pargana than the remark that in all its 203 villages the Jats occupy 
only one ; while in Kosi and Mahaban they hold more than half, and in Chhata 
at least one-third. 

Of Bruhmans the most numerous class is the Sanadh, frequently called Sa- 
naurhiya, and next the Gaur ; but these will be found in every part of India and 
claim no special investigation. The Chaubes of Mathura, however, numbering 
in all some 6,000 persons, are a pecuhar race, and must not be passed over so 
summarily. Their learning and other virtues are extolled in the most extrava- 
gant terms in the Mathura Mahatmya ; but either the writer was prejudiced, or 
time has had a sadly deteriorating effect. They are now ordinarily described by 
their own countrymen as a low and ignorant horde of rapacious mendicants. 
Like the Prag-walas at Allahdbad, they are the recognized local cicerones ; and 
they may always be seen with their portly forms lolling about the most popu- 
lar ghats and temples, ready to bear down upon the first pilgrim that approaches. 
One of their most noticcaljle peculiarities is that they are very reluctant to make 
a match with an outsider, and, if by any possibility it can be managed, will 



AnivAsiis. 7 

always find bridegrooms for their daughters among the residents of the town.^ 
Hence the popular sa^ang — 

^«7 tf[3 HT '^ SITU 

which may be thus roughly rendered — 

Mathura girls and Gokul cows 
Will never move, while fate allows, 
because, as is implied, there is no other place where they are likely to be so 
well off. This custom results in two other exceptional usages : Jirst — that mar- 
riage contracts are often made while one, or even both, of the parties most con- 
cerned are still unborn ; and secondli/ — that little or no regard is paid to relative 
age ; thus a Chaube, if his friend has no available daughter to bestovr upon him, 
will agree to wait for the first grand-daughter. Many years ago, a considerable 
migration was made to Mainpuri, where the Mathuriya Chaubes now form a 
large and wealthy section of the community and are in every way of better re- 
pute than the parent stock. 

Another Brahmanical, or rather pseudo-Brahmanical, tribe peculiar to the dis- 
trict, is that of the Ahivasis, a name which probably no one beyond the borders 
of Mathura has ever heard, unless he has had dealings with them in the way of 
business.^ They are largely employed as general carriers and have almost a 
complete monopoly of the trade in salt, and some of them have thus acquired 
considerable substance. They are also the hereditary proprietors of several 
villages on the west of the Jamuna, chiefly in the pargana of Chhata, where they 
rather aflFect large brick-built houses, two or more stories in height, and cover- 
ing a considerable area of ground, but so faultily constructed that an uncracked 
wall is a noticeable phenomenon. Without exception, they are utterly ignorant 
and illiterate, and it is popularly believed that the mother of the race was a 
Chamar woman, who has influenced the character of her offspring more than 
the Brahman father. The name is derived from aid, the great " serpent" Kaliya, 

1 Tieffenthaller mentions this as a peculiarity of the women of Gokul. He says, " Vis a vis 
d' Aurengabad est un village nommo Gokul, ou Ton dit que demeuraient size raille femmes avec 
les quelles Krishna etait marie Les femmes de ce village se distinguent in ce quelles n'en sortent 
pas et ne se marient pas ailleurs." The writer, Father Joseph TiefEenthaller, a native of Bolzano, 
in the Austrian Tyrol, came out to India as a Jesuit missionary in 1743, and remained in the coun- 
try all the rest of his life, nearly 42 years. As he never resided long in any one place, his travels 
eventually extended over nearly the whole continent, and supplied him with matter for several trea- 
tises, which he composed in Latin. None of them hare been published in that language ; but a French 
translation of his Indian Geography, from which the above extract is taken, appeared in 1786 at 
Berlin, as the first volume of JBeruoulli's Description de 1' Inde. He died at Lucknow in July 
1785, and his remains were interred in the Catholic Cemetery at Agra. I quote from him on 
several oocasions, rather on account of the rarity than the intrinsic value of the book. 

'•' They are not mentioned either by Wilson or Elliot in their Glossaries. There are two 
sub-divisions called Dighija and Bajravat. 



8 SARAUGIS. 

whom Krishna ilofoated : and their first home is stated to have been the viUagc 
of Sunrakh, which adjoins the KuH-mardan Ghat at Brinda-ban. The Pandes 
of the great temple of Baladeva are all Aliivasis, and it is matter for regret that 
tlie revenues of so wealthy a shrine should be at the absolute disposal of a com- 
munity so extremely unlikely ever to make a good use of them. 

The main divisions of Thakurs in ]\Iathura are the Jadon and the Graurua. 
Tlie origin of the latter name is obscure, but it implies impui-e descent and is 
merely the generic title which has as many subordinate branches as the original 
Thakur stock. Thus we have Gauruas,who call themselves — some Kachhwahas, 
some Bachhals, some Jasavats, and so on, throughout the whole series of Tha- 
kur clans. Similarly, the Jadons of Mathura are not recognized as the same in 
rank with the Jadons of Rajwara, though their present head. Raja Prithi Sinh, 
is one of the wealthiest landed proprietors in the whole of Upper India. 

The great majority of Baniyas in the district are Agarwalas. The Saraugis, 
whose ranks are recrviited exclusively from the Baniya class, are not making 
such rapid progress here as notably in the adjoining district of Mainpuri and 
in some other parts of India. In this centre of orthodoxy the naked gods are 
held in unaffected horror by the great mass of Hindus, and the submission of 
any well-to-do convert is generally productive of local disturbance, as has been 
the case more than once at Kosi. The temples of the sect are therefore few 
and far between, and only to be found in the neighbourhood of the large trad- 
ing marts. There is one in the centre of the city, close to Abd-un-nabi's mosque 
and said to be of the same date with it, which is dedicated to Chandra Prabhu, the 
same as Chandninana, one of the four Siisvat, or eternal, Jinas. In the suburb 
of Keso-pur is another in honour of Jambu Swami. He is reputed the last 
of the KevaHs, or divinely inspired teachers, being the pupil of Sudharma, who 
was the only surviving disciple of Mahavira, the great apostle of the Digam- 
baras, as Parsvanath was of the Svetambara sect. Before the present temple was 
built by Mani Ram, the father of Seth Lakhmi Chand, there was a chabutara, 
or charan-chauki, on the same site, said to be still there and to bear the date 
Samhat 1522. Here is now held an annual fair, lasting for a week, from Kartik 
badi 5 to 12, which was instituted in 1870 by Nain-sukh, a Saraugi of Bharat- 
pur. There are other Jain temples at Hans-ganj, Jay-sinh-pm-a, Brinda-ban, 
and Kosi. 

From a report made to the Board of Commissioners by the acting Collector 
of Aligarh in 1808, we learn that at that time the two principal landed proprie- 
tors in this district wei-e Thakur Daya Ram of Hathras, who held Mat, Ma- 
haban, Sonai, Raya, Hasan-garh, Sahpau and Kliandauli, and Raja Bhag- 
avant Sinh of Mursan, who owned Sa'dabad, Sonkh, etc. Their title, however, 
docs not appear to have been altogether unquestioned ; for the writer goes on 
to say : — " The valuable and extensive parganas which they farmed were placed 



THAKUR DAYA RAM. V 

imder their authority by Lord Lake, immediately after the conquest of these 
Provinces ; and they have since continued in their possession, as the resump- 
tion of them was considered to be calculated to excite dissatisfaction and as it 
was an object of temporary policy to conciliate their confidence." 

This unwise reluctance on the part of the paramount power to enquire into 
the validity of the title by which its vassals held their estates, was naturally 
construed as a confession of weakness, and hastened the very evils which it 
was intended to avert. Both chieftains claimed to be independent, and assumed 
so menacing an attitude that it became necessary to dislodge them from their 
strongholds. Mursan was reduced without dillficulty ; but Hathras, where the 
defences had been improved in imitation of the neighbouring British fort of 
Aligarh, was subjected to a regular siege. It is said that Thakur Daya Ram 
was anxious to negotiate, but was opposed in this design by Nek Rtim Sinh 
(his son by an ahiri concubine), who even made an attempt to have his father 
assassinated as he Avas returning in a litter from the English camp. Hostili- 
ties at all events were recommenced, and, on the 23rd of February, 1817, the 
town was breached. On the evening of the same day, a magazine in the fort 
exploded, and caused such general devastation that Daya Ram gave up all for 
lost, and fled away by night on a little hunting pony, which took him the whole 
way to Bharat-pur.^ There Raja Randhi'r Sinh declined to run the risk of 
affording him protection, and he continued his flight to Jay-pur. His estates 
were all confiscated ; but subsequently a pension of Rs. 2,200 was assigned 
him. He died in 1841, leaving one son born in lawful wedlock, Gobind Sinh; 
who after the mutiny, in compensation for loss sustained at the hand of the 
rebels during their occupation of Brinda-ban, and in acknowledgment of his 
loyalty under trying circumstances, received a grant from Government of the 
confiscated villages in the Mathura District, which now yield his widow, the 
Rani Sahib Kunvar, a gross rental of some Rs. 33,000 a year. The present 
Mursan estate in the Sa'dabad Pargana, as enjoyed by Raja Tikam Sinh, Baha- 
dur, C.S.L, the son of Raja Bhagwant Sinh, represents an annual income of 
not more than Rs. 3,000. 

The memory of Thakur Daya Ram is perpetuated by two poems entitled 
**Byom Sar" and " Suni Sar," which Avere written by a Bairagi in his ser\nce, 
named Bakhtawar, who is most enthusiastic in his patron's praises. Their pur- 
port is to show that all is vanity, and that nothing in earth or in heaven, either 
visible or invisible, natui'al or supernatural, has any real existence. Atheistical 
works of the kind are very rare in Hindu literature ; and as neither of the 
poems has ever yet been printed, nor is ever likely to be, some extracts taken 
from a manuscript in the possession of the RajWs family are given at the end of 
this chapter. 

^ Hence "Thakur Daya I\am's pony'" is still n proverb in the neighbourhood. 

C 



10 THE RAJA OF AWA. 

At the present day, though more than half tlie population are engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, the number of landed gentry in the district is excep- 
tionally small. To take four of the largest estates : one belongs to the Seths, 
who are more properly city people ; two to the heads of religious establish- 
ments, viz., Swami Rangachari and Gosain Purushottam Lai ; and the fourth 
to absentees, the heirs of the Lala Babu, who was himself a native of Cal- 
cutta. The only resident landowners of any note are Raja Prithi Siuh, of Awa ; 
Chaudhari Daulat Sinh, of Riil ; Kunwar Irshad Ali Khan, of Sa'dabad ; 
Tluikur Buddh Sinh, of Umargarh ; and Pachauri Kalyan Sinh, of Go- 
kharauli. 

Tlie fortmiate owner of the Awa estate does not lay claim to any very 
illustrious descent. Tlie family annals go back only to the reign of Muham- 
mad Shah (1720-48 A. D.), when Thakur Chaturbhuj, a zamindar of Nari in 
the Chhata Pargana, came and settled at Jalesar and was employed by the 
Local Governor in the professional capacity of a physician. His son, Bijay 
Sinh, for a short time also followed the vocation of his father, but was after- 
wards appointed to a small military command. Tlie Jadon zamindars of some 
adjacent villages having become involved in pecuniary difficulties, were as- 
sisted by Chaturbhuj, now become a wealthy man, and his son, themselves also 
members of the Jadon elan. They thus acquired considerable local influence, 
which was further extended by Bijay Sinli's eldest son, Bhakt Sinh. Two 
of his younger brothers were named Ratii Siuli and Jawiihir Sinh ; the third 
was carried off and killed by wolves while yet an infant. The heir was for 
a time in the service of Jawahir Sinh, the Maharaja of Bharat-pur, and also 
lent some support to Thakur Bahadur Sinh, of Umargarh, from whom he 
received a grant of the village of Misa. A number of other villages, belonging 
to different Thakur clans, also passed into his hands; and this accession of 
revenue enabled him to enlist under his standard a troop of marauding Mewatis, 
with whose aid he established himself, according to the custom of the time, 
as an independent free-booting chief. Finally, he obtained a sanad from the 
Mahrattas, authorizing him to build a fort at Awa. This was simply a garhi 
with a circuit of mud walls ; the present formidable stronghold Avas built by 
his successor, Hira Sinh. 

For many years Bhakt Sinh was unblessed with issue. At last, in despair, he 
betook himself to a fakir of much sanctity, who hved in the woods near Rajtiuli, 
and besought him to have compassion on his childless estate. The fakir pro- 
mised that a son should be born, and in due course the promise was fulfilled by 
the birth of Hira Sinh. At the very same time the ftikir vanished from human 
sight ; and, as the boy, on growing up to manhood, evinced a rude and unsociable 
disposition, a rumour spread that he was no actual personage, but only the 
fakir's temporary cnibodimcut. In the Mahraita ^^^Ar he was able to reader 



CUAUDIIAUI DAULAT SINII. 11 

some service to the English ; and in 1838, it is said that his son, Pitambar Sinh, 
was honoured with the title of Raja. The latter, who died in 1845, had no issue 
save one daughter, who was married to a Rajput chief in the Gwaliar territory. 
It is probably this alliance to which Elliot refers in his Glossary (written in the 
year 1844) under the word Jadon, where he says : — " Some marriages lately 
made by the family of Awa Misa have raised their respectability to a high stand- 
ard, insomuch that the Taluka-dar now lays claim to a direct descent from Anand 
Pal, the son of the Kurauli Raja Kunwar Pal." Upon this passage it may be 
remarked that the title of Raja, said to have been conferred in 1838, does not 
appear to have been recognized by the Government six years later ; and, indeed, 
rumour has it that the title was never formally granted, but only inadvertently 
slipped into some official document, which established a precedent that was 
never afterwards disputed. 

However that may be, Raja Pi-ithi Sinh, Pitambar's adopted son and a des- 
cendant of Thakur Bijay Sinh, the second of the family, has an estate which 
many independent princes might envy. It yields an annual income of nearly 
four lakhs of rupees and consists— ^rs^, of 55 villages, all immediately round 
about Awa, which have come down to him from Bhakt Sinh ; secondly, of a 
group of 19 villages called the Amanabad estate, acquired by Thakur Pitambar 
Sinh from the old proprietors, who were mostly Dhakara Thakurs ; and thirdhj, of 
seven villages known as the Ral estate in the home pargana. He is also part 
proprietor of no less than 129 other villages in the Jalesar Pargana, of two or 
three more in Sa'dabad, and has land besides in the four adjoining districts of 
Eta, Agra, Main-puri, and Aligarh. 

The mention of the Ral estate naturally suggests the name of Chaudhari 
Daulat Sinh, whose family has for many years resided in that town. He is the 
only Honorary Magistrate in the district, a gentleman of approved integrity, 
and one held in high esteem by all his neighbours. Under the Mahratta Gov- 
ernment, his ancestors are said to have enjoyed the chaiidhardyat of as many as 
307 villages ; but his landed estate has now dwindled down almost to nothing, 
and consists merely of the two small villages of Pasoli and Pilhora, in the Chhata 
Pargana, and some 500 bighas of freehold in the township of Ral. His good 
services in the mutiny were acknowledged by a donation of Rs. 7,000, to 
which was originally added a grant of 43 villages ; but he only held them for 
six months, when they were resumed. Though his proprietary rights in Ral 
passed some years ago into the hands of the Raja of Awa, he has hitherto 
managed the estate in an ill-defined intermediate capacity between landlord and 
tenant. This anomalous position has naturally, but most unfortunately, eno-en- 
dered a feeling of jealousy which has been developed into the most bitter ani- 
mosity. The settlement now pending will doubtless determine authoritatively 
the respective rights and privileges of either party. 



12 PACHAURI KALYAN SINH. 

Kuuwar Irsbad Ali Khun of Sa'diibad has already been inontionod as tbo sole 
representative in the district of Muhammadan aristocracy. Even he, as his title 
denotes, is the descendant of an ancient Thtikur family, who were converted to 
Islam in the days of the Delhi Emperors. Strictly speaking, he is only the 
manager of the estate on behalf of his aunt, the Thakurani Hakim-ul-nissa, but 
is the presumptive heir. His brother, Nawab Faiz Ali Khan, C.S.I., is the 
Prime Minister of the Maharaja of Jay-pur. 

Thakur Buddh Sinh, of Uniar-garh is, like his neighbour the Raj.iof Awa, a 
member of the Jadon clan, with greater pretensions on the score of family, 
but with means that are quite inadequate to support him in any real rivalry. 
The fort, where his ancestors have resided for many generations, encloses a wide 
circuit in its crumbling walls, and spi-eading round about it in all directions are 
magnificent mango groves — the unmistakeable signs of former affluence. The 
family traces its descent from Biana in Bharat-pur ; its present representative is 
the son of Thakur TIkam Sinh, who, in the mutiny, showed his good will to the 
Government by protecting the inmates of the Umar-garh Indigo Factory. He 
was the son of Moti Sinh and grandson of Bahadur Sinh, who is said to have 
been the master of more than 300 villages, and is locally famous for a gallant 
defence which he maintained for some days against the forces of Sindhia. 

Pachauri Kalyan Sinh, of Grokharauli in Maha-ban is quite a type of the old 
school in his uncultured address and rude style of living. The actual head of 
the family, who has adopted one of his sons by name Ram Chand, is the Tha- 
kurani Pran Kunwar, his cousin Bakhtiiwar Sink's widow. They ti'ace their 
descent from one Bhupat Sinh of Savaran-khera in Bhadaura, who came from 
thence to settle at Satoha, a village between Mathura and Gobardhan. There 
he died and also his son, Parasu-ram Sinh ; but the grandson, Puran Chand, 
removed to Gokharauli, where he acquired large possessions in the time of the 
Mahrattas. At the present day there is not a single village in the old pargana 
of Maha-ban, in which his descendants have not some share, though it may often 
be a small one. In several they are sole proprietors, and they have other estates 
in the Agra District. At the outbreak of the mutiny, the fort of Gokharauli 
was surprised and taken in the absence of the head of the family, Ballabh Sinh, 
grandson of Piiran Chand. It was, however, soon after recovered by him and 
his cousin, Kalyan Sinh, then Risaldar Major in the 17th Regiment ; and their 
great local influence further enabled them to raise a large body of volunteers 
in pursuit of the rebel army. When the disturbances were over, Ballabh Sinh 
was appointed Tahsildiir of Kosi, but he soon threw up the appointment, as he 
had no taste for office work, and his private property required superintendence. 
Of the smaller estates in the district, some few belong to respectable old families 
of the yeoman type ; others have been recently acquired by speculating money- 
lenders, but the far greater number are split u}) into infinitesimal fractions 



AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION. 13 

among the whole village community. Owing to this prevalence of the Bhaiya- 
chari system, as it is called, the small farmers who cultivate their own lands 
constitute a very large class, while the total of the non-proprietary classes is 
proportionately reduced. A decided majority of the latter have no assured 
status, but are merely tenants-at-will. Throughout the district, all the land 
brought under the plough is classified under two heads, — -first, according to its 
productiveness; secondly, according to its accessibility. The fields capable of 
artificial irrigation — and it is the supply of water which mostinfluences the amount 
of produce — are styled clialii, all others khaki; those nearest the village are 
known as hard, those rather more remote as mmijhd, and the furthest away bar- 
Jta, The combinations of the two classes give six varieties, and, ordinarily, no 
others are recognized, though alon^ the course of the Jamuna the tracts of alluvial 
land are, as elsewhere, called k:}idar ; the high sterile banks are hangar, and 
whei'e broken into ravines hehar ; a soil exceptionally sandy is hhilr, sand-hills are 
imth, and the levels between the \a\\% pulaj. The Ganges Canal runs across the 
north-east corner of the Jalesar Pargana, and has enormously increased the value 
of land in its vicinity. The same result may be confidently anticipated from the 
opening of the Agra Canal, now in course of construction. This will traverse 
the entire length of Western Mathura, passing close to the towns of Kosi, Sahar, 
and Aring, and having, as its extreme points, Hatana to the north and Little 
Kosi to the south. A cut from the Aligarh Division of the Ganges Canal has 
also been brought into the north of the Mat Pargana, but it extends only to 
four villages, and stops short near the town of Bajana. The total area of rabi 
crops brought under canal irrigation during the present season up to the end 
of February was 12,544 acres. 

In past years, when both roads and canals were alike unknown, Mathura, like 
other parts of India, has suffered severely from drought and famine. In 1813-14 
Sahar was one of the localities where the distress was most intense. Many 
died from hunger, and others were glad to sell their wives and children for a 
few rupees, or even for a single meal. In 1825-26, the whole of the territories 
known at that time as the Western Provinces were afflicted with a terrible 
drought. The rabi crops of the then Sa'dabad District were estimated by Mr. 
Boddam, the Collector, as below the average by more than 200,00(J mans; 
Mahaban and Jalesar being the two parganas which sufi^ored most. But the 
famine of 1837-38 was a far greater calamity and still forms an epoch in native 
chronology mider the name of" the chauranawd,''' or "the 94 ;" 1894 being its 
date according to the Hindu era. Though Mathura was not one of the districts 
most grievously afflicted, the distress was still extreme, as appears from the 
report submitted by the Counnissioner, Mr. Hamilton, after personal inves- 
tigation. About Raya, Mat, and Mahaban, he found the crops scanty and the 
soil dry, and cultivated only ia the immediate vicinity of masonry ^vells. About 



14 FAMINE OF 18G0-G1. 

Matliurd, the people were almost in despair from the wells fast turning so brack- 
ish and salt as to destroy, rather than refresh, vegetation. " All of the Ari'ng and 
Gobardhan Parganas (he writes) which came under my observation was an 
extensive arid waste, and for miles I rode over ground which had been both 
ploughed and sown, but in which the seed had not germinated and where there 
seemed no prospect of a harvest. The cattle in Aring were scarcely able to 
crawl, and they were collected in the village and suffered to pull at the thatch, 
the people declaring it useless to drive them forth to seek for pasture. Emi- 
gration had already commenced, and people of all classes appeared to be suffering." 
Of the famine of 1800-61, commonly called the dth-sei'a, the following 
narrative was recorded by Mr. Robertson, the Officiating Collector : — " Among 
prosperous agricultui'ists," he says, " about half the land usually brought under 
cultivation is irrigated, and irrigated lands alone produced crops this year. But 
though only half the crop procured in ordinary years was obtained by this class 
of cultivators, the high price of corn enabled them, while realizing considerable 
profits, to meet the Government demand without much difficulty. The poorer 
class of cultivators were however ruined, and with the poorest in the cities taking 
advantage of the position of Mathura as one of the border famine tracts, they 
abandoned the district in large numbers, chiefly towards the close of 1860. 
Rather more than one-fourth of the agricultural emigrants have returned, and 
the quiet unmurmuring industry with which they have recommenced life is not 
a less pleasing feature than the total absence of agrarian outrage during the 
famine. The greatest number of deaths from stai'vation occurred during the 
first three months of 1861, when the average per mensem was 497. During 
the succeeding three months, this average was reduced to 85, while the deaths in 
July and August were only five and six respectively. The total number of deaths 
during the eight months has been 1,758. Viewing the universality of the famine, 
these results sufficiently evidence the active co-operation in measures of relief 
rendered by the native officials assisted by the Police, and the people every- 
where most pointedly express their obligation to the Goverinnent and English 
liberality. No return of the nximber of deaths caused by starvation seems to 
have been kept from October, 1860, to January, 1861, but judging by the sub- 
sequent returns, 250 per mensem might be considered as the highest average. 
Thus the mortality caused by the famine in this district in the year 1860-61 
may approximately be estimated at 2,500."^ If such a large number of persons 
really died simply from starvation — and there seems no reason to doubt the fact — 
the arrangements for dispensing relief can scarcely have merited all the praise 
bestowed upon tlicm. There was certainly no lack of funds towards the end, 

1 Mr. Ilobcrtson's narrative has been copied from the original paper in the District OfQcc; 
the other particuhirs have bccQ extracted from Mr. Girdlestone'a report on past famines, pub- 
lished by Government in 1868. 



DELHI KO AD. 15 

but possibly they came when it was almost too late. In the month of April, 
some 8,000 men were employed daily on the Delhi road ; the local donations 
amounted to Rs. 16,227, and this sum was increased by a contribution of 
Rs. 8,000 from the Agra Central Committee, and Rs. 5,300 from Govern- 
ment, making a total of Rs. 29,528. An allotment of Rs. 5,000 was also 
made from the Central Committee for distribution among the indigent agricul- 
turists that they might have wherewithal to purchase seed and cattle. 

The metalling of the Delhi road, which has been incidentally mentioned as 
the principal relief work, was not only a boon at the time, but still continues a 
source of the greatest advantage to the district. The old imperial thoroughfare, 
which connected the two capitals of Agra and Lahor, kept closely to the same 
line as is shown by the ponderous kos minars, which are found still standing 
at intervals of about three miles, and nowhere at any great distance from the 
wayside. Here was the " delectable alley of trees, the most incomparable ever 
beheld," which the Emperor Jahangir enjoys the credit of having planted. That 
it was really a fine avenue is attested by the language of the sober Dutch topo- 
grapher, John de Laet, who, in his India Vera, written in 1631, that is, early 
in the reign of Shahjahan, speaks of it in the following terms : — " The whole of 
the country between Agra and Lahor is well-watered and by far the most fertile 
part of India. It abounds in all kinds of produce, especially sugar. The high- 
way is bordered on either side by trees which bear a fruit not unlike the mul- 
berry, ^ and," as he adds in another place, "form a beautiful avenue." "At 
intervals of five or six coss," he continues, " there are saraes built either by the 
king or by some of the nobles. In these, travellers can find bed and lodging ; 
when a person has once taken possession he cannot be turned out by any one." 
The glory of the road, however, seems to have been of short duration, for 
Bernier, writing only 30 years later, that is, in 1663, says,— " Between Delhi 
and Agra, a distance of 50 or 60 leagues, the whole road is cheerless and unin- 
teresting ;" and even so late as 1825, Bishop Heber, on his way down to Cal- 
cutta, was apparently much struck with what he calls " the wildness of the 
country," but mentions no avenue, as he certainly would have done, had one 
then existed. Thus it is clear that the more recent administrators of the dis- 
trict, since its incorporation into British territory, are the only persons entitled 
to the traveller's blessing for the magnificent and almost unbroken canopy of 
over-arching boughs, which now extends for more than 30 miles from the city 
of Mathura to the border of the Gurgdnw District, and forms a sufficient protec- 
tion from even the mid-day glare of an Indian summer's sun. Though the 
country is now generally brought under cultivation, and can scarcely be described 

1 In the original Latin text the word is moras, which Mr. Lethbridge in his scholarly English 

edition translates by " fig ;" but I think that "mulberry" is a more accurate rendering, and that 

^ the tree intended 



16 DE last's itinerary. 

as even well-wooded, there are still, here and there, many patches of waste land 
covered with low trees and jungle, which might be considered to justify the 
Bishop's epithet of wild-looking. The herds of deer are so numerous that the 
traveller Avill seldom go many miles in any direction along a bye-road without 
seeing a black-buck, followed by his harem, bound across the path. The number 
has probably inci'eased rather than diminished in late years, as the roving and 
vagabond portion of the population, who used to keep them in check, were all 
disarmed after the mutiny. Complaints are now frequent of the damage done 
to the crops; and in some parts of the district yet more serious injury is occa- 
sioned by the increase in the number of wolves. 

From Jait, seven miles out of Mathura, the customs hedge runs beside the 
Delhi road the whole way ; except that at Kosi it makes a detour to avoid pass- 
ing through the centre of the town. At short intervals all along are huts for the 
shelter of the cha'prasis, and two bungalows for the superior officers of the de- 
partment, for a patrol at Kosi, for an assistant patrol at Chaumuha. All 
salt consumed above the line at a distance of more than 7^ miles from the 
hedge is free from duty, while all imported to any place below is taxed; the duty 
on sugar, which is solely an export one, being considered an equivalent burden. 

The quantity of sugar-cane now grown in this part of the district is very 
inconsiderable. The case may have been different in De Laet's time ; but on 
other grounds there seems reason for believing that his descriptions are not 
drawTi from actual observation, and are therefore not thoroughly trustworthy. 
For example, he gives the marches from Agra to Delhi as follows : — "From Agra, 
the residence of the king, to Rownoctan, twelve coss ; to Bady, asarae,ten ; to Ach- 
barpore, twelve ; this was formerly a considerable town, now it is only visited 
by pilgrims who come on account of many holy Muhammadans buried here. 
To Hondle, 1.3 coss ; to Puhvool, twelve ; to Fareedabad, twelve ; to Delhi, ten.'* 
Now, this passage requires much manipulation before it can be reconciled with 
established facts. Rownoctan, it may be presumed, would, if correctly spelt, 
appear in the form Raunak-than, meaning " a royal halting-place," and was 
probably merely the fashionable appellation, for the time, of the Hindu village 
of Rankatj'i, which is still the first stage out of Agra. Bady or Bad, is a small 
village on the narrow strip of Bharat-pur territory which so inconveniently in- 
tersects the Agra and Mathura road. There has never been any sarae there ; 
the one intended is the Jalal-pur sanic, some three kos further on, at the entrance 
to the civil station. The fact that Mathiira has dropt out of the Itinerary alto- 
gether, in favour of such an insignificant little hamlet as Bad, is a striking 
illustration of the low estate to whi 'h the great Hindu city had been reduced afc 
the time in question.'- Again, the place with the Muhammadan tombs is not 

I Similarly it will be seen that Tavcrnicr, writing about 1G50, recognizes Mathura as tlie 
name of a temple only, not of a towu at all. 



IMPERIAL SARAES. 17 

Akbar-pur, but the next village, Dotana ; and the sarae, which he ascribes to 
Hondle, i. e., Hodal, has no existence there, but must he the one at Kosi. 

These seraes are fine furt-like buildings, with massive battlemented Avails 
and bastions and high-arched gateways. They are five in number ; one at the 
entrance to the ci^-il station ; the second at 'Azamabad, two miles beyond the 
city on the Delhi road ; another at Chaumuha ; the fourth at Chhata, and the fifth at 
Kosi. The three latter are generally ascribed by local tradition to Sher Shah, 
whose reign extended from 1540 to 1545, though it is also said that Itibar Khdn 
was the name of the founder of the two at ]\Iathura and Kosi, and A'saf Khan 
of the one at Chhata. It is probable that both traditions are based on facts : 
for at Chhata it is obvious at a glance that both the gateways are double build- 
ings, half dating from one period, and half from another. The inner front, 
which is plain and heavy, may be referred to Sher Shah, while the lighter and 
more elaborate stone front, looking towards the town, is a subsequent addition. 
As A'saf Khan is simply a title of honour (the Asaph the Kecorder of the Old 
Testament) which was borne by several persons in succession, a little doubt 
arises at fii'st as to the precise individual intended. The presumption, howevei-, 
is strongly in favour of Al)d-u!-majid, who was first Humayun's Diwdn, and 
on Akbar's accession was appointed Grovernor of Delhi. The same post was 
held later on by Khwaja Itibar Khau, the reputed founder of the Kosi sarao. 
The general style of architecture is in exact conformity with that of similar 
buildings known to have been erected in Akbar's reign, such, for example, as 
the fort at Agra ; and there is a still more special reason for connecting two 
of the saraes with that monarch, since they both bear, or rather bore, his name. 
The one in the civil station, which is smaller than the others and has been much 
modernized, has, for many years past, been occupied by the police reserves 
and is ordinarily knoAvn as the Damdaraa. But its origiual name, and the 
one still borne by the little hamlet at its rear, was Jalalpur sarae, after Akbar's 
well-known title of Jalal-ud-din. Similarly the Chaumuha sarae^ is always des- 
cribed in the old topographies as at Akbar-pur. This latter name is now res- 
tricted in application to a village some three miles distant ; but in the 16th 
century local divisions were few in num])er and wide in extent, and beyond a 
doubt the foundation of the imperial sarae was the origin of the village name 
which has now deserted the spot that suggested it. The separate existence of 
Chaumuha is known to date from a very recent period, when the name was 
bestowed in consequence of the discovery of an ancient Jain sculpture, supposed 
by the ignorant rustics to represent the four-headed (chau-muhd) god, Brahma. 
Though these saraes were primarily built mainly from selfish motives on the 
line of road traversed by the imperial camp, they were at the same time enor- 

^ Chaumuha is distorted by TiefiEtnthaler into Tschaomao. He speaks of its sarae as " hotel- 
letie belle et commode." 



18 'azamabad sarae. 

jiious boons to the general iiublie ; for the highway was then beset with gangs 
of robbers, with whose vocation the law either dared not, or cared not, to inter- 
fere. On one occasion, in the reign of Jahangir, we read of a caravan having 
to stay six weeks at Mathura before it was thought strong enough to proceed 
to Delhi ; no smaller number than 500 or 600 men being deemed adequate to 
encounter the dangers of the road. Now, the solitaiy traveller is so confident 
of protection, that rather than drive his cart up the steep ascent that conducts 
to the portals of the fortified enclosure, he prefers to spend the night unguarded 
on the open plain. Hence it comes that not one of the saraes is now applied to 
the precise purpose for which it was constructed. At Chhata, one corner is 
occupied by the school, and another by the offices of the tahsildar and local 
police, while the rest of the broad area is neaidy deserted ; at Chaumuha the 
solid walls have in past years been undermined and carted away piecemeal for 
building materials ; and at Kosi, the principal bazar lies between the two 
gateways, and forms the nucleus of the town. 

Still more complete destx'uction has overtaken the 'Azamabad sarae, which 
eeems to have been the largest of the series, as it certainly was the plainest and 
the most modern. Its erection is ordinarily ascribed by the people on the spot 
to Prince 'Azam, the son of Aurangzeb, being the only historical personage of 
the name Avith whom they are acquainted. But, as with the other buildings 
of the same character, its real founder was a local governor, 'Azam Khan Mir 
Muhammad Bakir, also called Iradat Khan, who was Faujdar of Mathura from 
1642 to 1645. In the latter year he was superseded in office, as his age had 
rendered him unequal to the task of suppressing the constant outbreaks against 
the Government, and in 1648, he died.^ As the new road does not pass im- 
mediately under the walls of the sarae, it had ceased to be of any use to tra- 
vellers ; and, a few years ago, it was to a great extent demolished and the mate- 
rials used in paving the streets of the adjoining city. Though there was little 
or no architectural embellishment, the foundations were most securely laid, 
reachino- down below the ground as many feet as the sui^erstructure which 
they supported stood above it. Of this, ocular demonstration w\as recently 
afforded ; for one of the villagers, in digging, came upon what he hoped would 
prove the entrance to a subterranean treasure chamber ; but deeper excavations 
showed it to be only one of the line of arches forming the foundation of the 
sarae wall. The original mosque is still standing, but is little used for reli- 
o-ious purposes, as the village numbers only nine Muhammadans in a population 
of 343, all.of whom live within the old ruinous enclosure. 

1 For this and several other facts gathered from the Persian chronicles, I am indebted to 
Mr. Blochmann, the Secretary of the Calcutta Asiatic Society; a gentleman whose knowledge of 
Muhammadan history and literature is so extensive as only to be C(iuallcd by the courtesy with 
which he communicates it. 



THE BYOM SAR. 19 

NOTE ON CHAPTER I. 

Of tlie following extracts, to which reference is made in page 9, the first 
forms the commencement of the Byom Sar ; the second and third are taken from 
the Suni Sar. 

11 triT n 
sqtrimT 371 ?rq 1 ^^T t^ ii ^R WT^ ^mTj^ tj% ^j^j o^J^ f%^TT ii % w 

^■SWK <i4l<W rrt ^'TrTT ^ ^^ mil 5Tg ^Irim qPT ^127 T=^ ^^ m^ II ^ It 

tn:f^ ^ ^ ^^ 1 Tw^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^Trm ^f=T fifsr f^rHiii %t =^^ ii 8 it 
^fTT^ 5R ^giPT %* ^T fTif ^H sng ^3"f^ mm ^u ^ttr ^irt ^g n t ii 
ffR 5FT 3im 2?iHT^ ^ ^^^r =ft^* i^TB sgiTT =gR ^T=T^ Hfrs^ '^^^ ^ wn^ ii < u 

^^ ^* ^^ m^ % ^^ ^ ^r^i ^^T^ ^'^^^^T^^u^%^rl^T^^T^^^mm nun 

'' This book is called the Byom Sar and contains the essence of the Vedas, 
excogitated by Sri Thakur Daya Ram. Between the Jamuna and the Sursuri, 
(i. e., the Ganges) stands Hathras in the midst, in the holy land of Antarbed, 
where nought ill can thrive. There Tliakur Daya Ram holds undisturbed sway, 
the fame of whose glory has spread through the Avhole universe — a thorn in the 
breast of his enemies, a root of joy to his friends, ever growing in splendour 
like the crescent moon. One Bakhtawar came and settled there and was fa- 
voured by the Thakur, who recognized his fidelity. Under the light of his 
gracious countenance, joy sprung up in his soul and he wrote the science of 
Vanity for the enlightenment of the understanding. Be assured that all things 
are like the void of heaven, contained in a void, as when you look into yourself 
and see your o\^ti shadow. After long ruminating, the noble Tliakur has elicited 
the cream of the matter. In accordance with his teaching, I publish these 
thoughts. Listen, ye men of sense, to my array of arguments ; first understand, 
then reply. The beginning of all things is in hollowness, hollow is also the 
end and hollow the middle ; so says the preacher. Tlie highest, the lowest, and 
the mean are all hollow ; so the wise man has expounded. From nothing all 
things are born; in nothing all things perish ; even the illimitable ex])anse of 



20 THE SUNI SAR. 

sky is all liollowncss. What alone has no hcginning, nor will ever have an 

end, and is still of one character, that is vacuum." 

T%rT ^ mrT ^f| ^ 1^ I ^^ t^ '^T^ftl II 
"5^11 mm ■^W% W^ ^^T% ^ ^SI ^iZl ^^ II I \l 

•O vO xO C\ 

ig^r^ ^^T m^ T^^T ^^^ 5R^ '^FH IT w II 

^Wl ^ '5pg =^ %^T ^^ IT ^3TT 'jpq '^T^^ II 3 || 
^^fi t^^ ^^ ff t^TT ^^f^ ^ ^R7 W\ ^m II 
^^ ^1 ^^ ^T ^^ ^^fiR ^i T^ % q^fTm II « II 
" All that is seen is nothing and is not really seen; lord or no lord, it is all one. 
Maya is nothing ; Brahm is nothing ; all is false and delusive. The Avorld is all 
emptiness ; the egg of Brahma, the seven dicipas, the nine kJiandas, the earth, the 
heaven, the moon, the glorious sun, all, all are emptiness ; so are Brahma, Vishnu, 
and Mahadeva; so are Kunna and Seshnag. The teacher is nothing, the disciple 
nothing ; the ego and the 7ion ego are alike nothing. The temple and the god are 
nought ; nought is the worship of nought, and nought the prayer addressed to 
nought; so know they who are enlightened by the influence of the Guru." 

'?(T^^ TTT]^ ^=|3i iT[ TTriT ■^t^ t|t ^^wi ti^ -Rim ii x w 

^T% ^T^ ^T ^H W(^\ W{m ^ff Tm =3^^ tm 11 
'gTlT ^if TIT^rlT ^3TT f%r\Wl ^ ^ ?7^ |^T II ^ II 

^TT ^^ vs^^z ^^ »TH 'n ^^ ^w ^ii ^^ i??^ ii ^ u 
^^ ^ -^n 2^ ^f T:rTt %Tfe sprr ^ ^-k -^^m w 

q% 2^ ^^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^3T^T ^^TTT^r ^^q II 8 \\ 
" Tlie whole world was disconsolate, but is now gladdened for ever by the 
doctrine of Vacuity : it is pkmged in joy and ecstatic delight, drunk with the 
wine of perfect knowledge. I enuntiate the truth and doubt not ; I know 
neither prince nor beggar ; I court, neither honour nor reverence ; I take a 
friend by the hand and seek none other ; what comes easily I accept and am con- 
tented ; a palace and a thicket to mc are all the same ; the error of mine and 
thine is obliterated ; nothing is loss, nothing is gain. To get such a teacher of 
the truth puts an end to the errors of a million of bii-ths. Such a teacher as has 
now been revealed — the incomparable Thakur Daya Ram." 

Wilson, in his Sketch of the Tleligious Sects of the Hindus, translates several 
passages from the Suni Sar, but does not mention the Byoni Sar, and probably 
was not awai'c of its existence. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE JATS OF BHARAT-PUR AJS^D SAHAR. 

It is said that the local traditions of Biana and Bharat-pur point to Kanda- 
har as the parent country of the Jats, and attempts have been made^ to 
prove their ancient power and renown by identifying them ^%ath certain tribes 
mentioned by the later classical authors — the Xanthii of Strabo, the Xuthii of 
Dionysius of Samos, the Jatii of Pliny and Ptolemy, and at a more recent period 
with the Jats or Zaths, whom the Muhammadans found in Sindh when they 
first invaded that country.^ These are the speculations of European scholars, 
which, it is needless to say, have never reached the ears of the persons most 
interested in the discussion. But lately the subject has attracted the attention of 
Native enquirers also, and a novel theory has Ijeen propounded in a little San- 
skrit pamphlet, entitled Jiitharotpati, compiled by Sastri Angad Sarmma for the 
gratification of Pandit Giri Prasad, himself an accomplished Sanskrit scholar,^ 
and a Jat by caste, who resides as Beswa on the Aligarh border. It is a 
catena of all the ancient texts mentioning the obscure tribe of the Jatharas, with 
whom the writer wishes to identify the modern Jats and so bring them into the 
ranks of the Kshatriyas. The origin of the Jatharas is related in very similar 
terms by all the authorities ; we select the passage from the Padma Purana as 
being the shortest. It runs as follows : — " Of old, when the world had been 
bereft by the son of Bhrigu of all the Kshatriya race, their daughters, seeing 
the land thus solitary and being desirous of conceiving sons, laid hold of the 
Brahmans, and carefully cherishing the seed sown in their womb (Jathara) 
brought forth Kshatriya sons called Jatharas."* Now, there is no great 
intrinsic improbability in the hypothesis that the word Jatharas has been 

1 Cunningliam's Archaeological Survey, Vol. II., page 55. 

- Tod, however, considered the last-mentioned tribe quite distinct. He writes, •' The Jata 
or Jits, far more numerous than perhaps all the Rajput tribes put together, still retain their 
ancient appellation throughout the whole of Sindh. They are amongst the oldest converts to 
Islam." 

3 He is the author of a commentary on the White Yajur Veda. 





vjmm ^T wi II 


f^^T^i^H^i yni 


sh-^I^Cff ^•^^jj'ijl II 


8([^UI|? 31JJ|WH4^^ 


^^I^i||^-^k<^q^zIl ii 


^zX yiKri -m 




w^ '^^X wm 


5IT3^T? ^^SI^3lT5 H 



22 ORIGIN OF THE JATS. 

shortened into Jat ; but if the one race is really descended from the other, it is 
exceedingly strange that the fact should never liave been so stated before. 
This difficulty might be met by replying that the Jats have always been, with 
very few exceptions, an illiterate class, Avho were not likely to trouble them- 
selves about mythological pedigrees ; wdiile the story of their parentage would 
not be of sufficient interest to induce outsiders to investigate it. But a more 
unanswerable objection is found in a passage, which the Sastri himself quotes 
from the Brihat Sanhita (XIV. 8.) This^ places the homo of the Jatharas 
in the south-eastern quarter, whereas it is certain that the Jats ha^^e come from 
the west. Probably the leaders of Jat society would refuse to accept as their 
progenitors both the Jatharas of the Beswa Pandit and the Sindhian Zaths of 
General Cunningham ; for the Bharat-pur princes affect to consider themselves 
as the same race with the Jadavas, and the Court bards in their panegyrics are 
always careful to style them Jadu-vansi. 

However, all these speculations and assumptions have little basis beyond a 
mere similarity of name, which is often a very delusive test ; and it is certain 
that Avhatever may have been the status of the Jats in remote antiquity, in his- 
toric times they were no way distinguished from other agricultural tribes, such as 
the Kurmis and Lodhas, till so recent a period as the beginning of last century. 

The fouuder of the present royal house was a robber chief, by name Chiira- 
mani^ wdio built two petty forts in the villages of Thvin and Sinsini^ a little 
south of DiiT, from which he organized marauding expeditions, and even ven- 
tured to harass the rear of the imperial army on the occasion of Aurangzeb's 
expedition to the Dakliin. This statement is contradicted by Thornton in his 
Gazetteer, under the word Bharat-pur ; but his reasons for doing so are not 
very conclusive. He writes, " Chura-man did not become the leader of the 
Jats until after the death of Aurangzeb. Besides, the scene of the operations 
of the Jats was widely remote from that of the disasters of Aurangzeb, which 
occurred near Ahmad-nagar. According to the Sair-i-Muta aklikhirin, during 
the struggle between Aurangzeb's sons 'Azam and Muazzim, Chura-man beset 
the camp of the latter for the purpose of plunder." This correction, if it really 
is one, is so slight as to be absolutely immaterial ; the army, which was led 
into the Dakhin by Aurangzeb, was brought back by 'Azam after the Emperor's 
decease, and both father and son died within four months of each other. 

A little later. Jay Sinh of Amber was commissioned by the two Saiyids, 
then in pow(;r at Delhi, to reduce the Jiit freebooters. He invested their two 

2 General Cunnitigliam spcaka of Chura-man, Jut, migrating with his followers to Bharat- 
pur from the banks of the Indus after the death of Aurangzeb ; but this can scarcely be accepted 
as an accurate statemcut of facts. 

3 From this place the Bharat-pur Raja's family derives its name of Sinsiuwar. 



THAKUR BADAN SINH. 



23 



strono-holds, but could not succeed in making any impression upon them, and 
accordingly retired : only, however, to return almost immediately ;"]]this time 
bringing with him a larger army, and also a local informant in the person of 
Badan Sinh, a younger l)rother of Chiira-mani's, who, in consequence of some 
family feud, had been placed in confinement, from Avhich he had contrived to 
escape and make his way to Jay-pur. Thun w\'is then (1712 A.D.) again 
invested, and, after a seige of six months, taken, and its fortifications demo- 
lished. Chiira-mani and his son Muhkam fled the country and Badan Sinh 
was formally proclaimed as Dig as leader of the Jats, with the title of 
Thakur. 

He is chiefly commemorated in the Mathura District by the handsome man- 
sion he built for himself at Sahar. This appears to have been his favourite 
residence in the latter years of his life. Adjoining it is a very large tank, of 
wdiich one side is faced with stone, and the rest left unfinished, the works having 
probably been interrupted by his death. The house was occupied as a tahsili 
imder the English Government till the mutiny, when all the records were 
transferred for greater safety to Chhat-i, which has ever since continued the 
head of the pargana, and the house at Sahar is now unoccupied and falhng 
into ruin. He married into a family seated at Kamar, near Kosi, where also 
is a large masonry tank, and in connection with it a walled garden con- 
taining three Chhattris in memory of Chaudhari Maha Ram, Jat, and his wife 
and child. The Chaudhari was the Thakurani's brother, and it appears that 
her kinsmen were people of considerable wealth and importance, as the Castle 
Hill at Kamar is still crowned with several imposing edifices of brick and stone 
where they once resided. For some years before his death, Thakur Badan 
Sinh had retired altogether from public life. To one of his younger sons, 
by name Pratap Sinh,^ he had specially assigned the newly erected fort at 
Wayar, south-west of Bharat-pur, vnth. the adjoining district; while the remain- 
der of the Jat principality was administered by the eldest son, Siiraj Mai. On 
his father's death, Suraj Mai assumed the title of Raja, and fixed his ca- 
pital at Bharat-pur, from which place he had ejected the previous Governor, 
a kinsman, by name Khema. The matrimonial alliances which he contracted 
indicate his inferiority to the Rajput princes of the adjoining territories, 
for one of his wives was a Kurmin, another a Malin, and the remainder 
of his own caste, Jatnis. Yet, even at the commencement of his rule, 
he had achieved a conspicuous position, since, in 1748, we find him accept- 
ing the invitation of the Emperor Ahmad Shah to join with Holkar, under the 
general command of the Vazir Safdar Jang, in sujipressing the revolt of the 
Rohillas. In the subsequent dispute that arose between Safdar Jang and 
Ghazi-ud-din, the grandson of the old Nizam, the former fell into open rebel- 
^ Two other sons were named tiobha Ram and I3ir Narayau. 



24 PAJA SURAJMA L. 

lion and called in the assistance of the Jats, while his rival had recourse to the 
Mahrattas. Safdar, seeing the coalition against him too strong, withdrew to 
his vicero3\alty of Audh, leaving Siirnj Mai to bear alone the brunt of the battle. 
Bharat-pur was besieged, but had not been invested many days when Ghazi- 
iid-din, suspecting a secret understanding between his nominal allies, the Mah- 
rattas and the Emperor, discontinued his operations against the Jats and re- 
turned hastily to Delhi, where he deposed Ahmad Shah, and raised Alaragir 
II. to the throne in his stead. This Avas in 1754. Three years later, when 
the army of Ahmad Shah Durani, from Kandahar appeared before Delhi, 
Ghazi-ud-din, by Avhose indiscretion the invasion had been provoked, was 
admitted to pardon in consideration of the heavy tribute which he undertook 
to collect from the Doab. Sardiir Jahan Khan was despatched on a like er- 
rand into the Jat territory, but finding little to be gained there, as the entire 
populace had withdrawn into their numerous petty fortresses, and his foraging 
parties were cut off by their sudden sallies, he fell back upon the city of Ma- 
thura, which he not only plundered of all its wealth, but further visited with 
a Avholesale massacre of the inhabitants. In the second invasion of the Durani, 
consequent upon the assassination of the Emperor Alamgir II., in 1759, the 
infamous Ghazi-ud-din again appeared at the gates of Bharat-[)ur ; this time 
not with a hostile army, but as a suppliant for protection. By his unnatural 
persuasions a powerful Hindu confederacy was formed to oppose the progress 
of the Muhammadan, but was scattered for ever in the great battle of Pani- 
pat, in January, 1761, when the dreams of Maliratta supremacy were finally 
dissolved. Siiraj Mai, foreseeing the inevitable result, withdrew his forces 
before the battle, and falling unexpectedly upon Agra ejected from it the gar- 
rison of his late allies and adopted it as his own favourite residence. Mean- 
while, Shah Alam was recognized by the Durani as the rightful heir to the 
throne, but continued to hold his poor semblance of a Court at Allahabad ; and, 
at Delhi, his son Mi'rza Jawau Bakht was placed in nominal chai'ge of the 
Government under the active protectorate of the Kohilla, Najib-ud-daula. With 
this administrator of imperial power, Siiraj Mai, emboldened by past success, 
now essayed to try his strength. He put forth a claim to the Faujdiirship of 
Farrukh-nagar ; and when the envoy, sent from Delhi to confer with him on the 
subject, demurred to the transfer, he dismissed him most unceremoniously and 
at once advanced with an army to Shahdara on the Hindun, only six miles from 
the capital. Here, in bravado, he was amusing himself in the chase, accom- 
panied by only his personal retinue, when he was surprised by a flying squadron 
of the enemy and put to death. His army coming leisurely up behind under 
the command of his son Jawaliir Sinh, was charged by the Mughals, bearing 
the head of Siiraj Mai on a horseman's lance as their standard, the first indi- 
cation to the sou of his father's death. The shock was too much for the Jats, 



EA.TA JAWAHIR SINH. 25 

wlio were put to fliglit, Ijut still contiuued for tbree months hovei'lng about 
Delhi in concert with Holkar. This was in 1764.* 

In spite of this temporary discomfiture, the Jats were now at the zenith 
of their power ; and Jawahir had not been a year on the throne when he 
resolved to provoke a quarrel with the Raja of Jaypur. Accordingly, without 
any previous intimation, he marched his troops through Jaypur territory with 
the ostensible design of visiting the holy lake of Pushkara. There his vanity 
was gratified by the sovereign of Marwar, Raja Bijay Sinh, who met him 
on terms of brotherly equality; but he received warning from Jaypur that 
if he passed through Amber territory on his return, it would be considered 
a hostile aggression. As this was no more than he expected, he paid no 
regard to the caution. A desperate conflict ensued on his homeward route 
(17G5 A.D.), which resulted in the victory of the Kachhwahas, but a victory 
accompanied with the death of almost every chieftain of note. Soon after, 
Jawahir Sinh was murdered at Agra, at the instigation, as is supposed, of the 
Jaypur Raja. 

Sui-aj Mai had left five sons, viz., Jawahir Sinh, Ratn Sinh, Naval Sinh, and 
Ranjit Sinh, and also an adopted son, Hardeva Bakhsh, whom he is said to 
have picked up in the woods one day when hunting. On the death of Jawahir, 
Ratn succeeded, but his rule was of very short duration. A pretended alchemist 
from Brinda-ban had obtained large sums of money from the credulous prince 
to prepare a process for the transmutation of the meaner metals into gold. When 
the day for the crucial experiment arrived, and detection had become inevitable, 
he assassinated his victim and fled. 

His brother, Naval Sinh, succeeded, nominally as guardian for his infant 
nephew Kesari, but virtually as Raja. The Mahrattas had now (1768) reco- 
vered from the disastrous battle of Panipat, and re-asserting their old claim 
to tribute, invaded first Jaypur and then Bharat-pur and mulcted both territo- 
ries in a very considerable sum. They then entered into an understandino- 
with the Delhi Government, which resulted in the restoration of Shah Alam to 
his ancestral capital. But as the only line of policy which they consistently 
maintained was the fomentation of perpetual quarrels, by which the strength 
of all parties in the State might be exhausted, they never remained long faith- 
ful to one side ; and, in the year 1772, we find them fighting with the Jats 
against the Imperialists. Naval Sinh, or, according to some accounts, his bro- 
ther and successor, Raujit Sinh, laid claim to the fort of Ballabh-garh, held by 
another Jat chieftain. The latter applied to Delhi for help, and a force was 
despatched for his relief ; but it was too weak to resist the combined armies 

* A magnificent cenotaph was erected by Jawahir Sinh in honour of his father, on the mar- 
gin of the KuBum Sarovar, an artificial lake a short distance from Golxardhan, and will be des- 
cribed in conaection with that town. 



26 KAJA RANjfT SINH. 

of Sindbia and Bliarat-pnr, and was driven back in disorder. Tbe Mabrattas 
tben pusbed on to Delbi, but finding the Commander-in-Chief, Niyaz Khan, ready 
to receive them, they, with incomparable versatiHty, at once made terms with him 
and even joined him in an expedition to Rohilkhand. Meanwhile, the Jdts, thus 
lightly deserted, espoused the cause of Najafs unsuccessful rival, Zabita Khan. 
But this Avas a most illjudged move on their part : their troops were not only 
repulsed before Delhi, but their garrison was also ejected from Agra,* which 
they had held for the last 13 years since its occupation by Siiraj Mai after the 
battle of Panipat in 1701. From Agra the Vazir Najaf Khan hastily returned 
in the direction of the capital, and found Ranji't Sinh and the Jats encamped 
near Hodal. Dislodged from this position, they fell back upon Kotban and 
Kosi, which they occupied for nearly a fortnight, and then finally withdrew 
towards Dig ; but at Barsana wore overtaken by the Vazir and a pitched battle 
ensued. The Jat infantry, 5,000 strong, were commanded by Sumroo, or, 
to give him his proper name, Walter Reinhard, an adventurer who had first 
taken service under Ranjit's father, Siiraj Mal.f Tlie ranks of the Imperialists 
were broken by his gallant attack, and the Jats feeling assured of victory were 
following in reckless disorder, when the enemy rallied from their sudden panic, 
turned upon their pursviers, who were too scattered to offer any solid resis- 
tance, and effectually routed them. They contrived, however, to secure a 
retreat to Dig,$ while the town of Barsana, which was then a very wealthy 
place, was given over to plunder, and several of the stately mansions recently 
erected almost destroyed in the search for hidden treasure. Dig Avas not 
reduced till March of the following year, 1776, the garrison escaping to the 
neighbouring castle of Kumbhir. The value of the spoil taken is said to have 
amounted to six lakhs of rujx^es. The whole of the country also was reduced 
to subjection, and it was only at the intercession of the Rani Kishori, the 
widow of Suraj Ma],§ that the conquei-or allowed Ranjit Sinh to retain the 
fort of Bharat-pur with an extent of territory yielding an annual income of 
nine lakhs. 

* The comiiiamler of the Jat garrison ia Agvu was Dau Sahay, brother-iu-law (sdla) of 
Naval Sinh, 

f In the following year he established himself as a petty sovereign atSirdhana; where, after 
his death, which occurred in 1778, as appears from the inscription on his tomb in the old cemetery 
at Afjra, his widow, the Begam, who hid been received into the Catholic Church aiid baptized 
in 1781, founded a cathedral and native seminary, which are still in existence ; though the for- 
mer has ceased to be the seat of a bishop, and the latter has never yet supplied a candidate for 
holy orders. 

% According to local tradition, Naval Sinh died some 20 days after the battle of 
Barsana. 

§ Tliere is h little doubt as to the names of the different Bharat-pur Rauis. They are some- 
times given as follows : the U:ini of Siiraj Mai, Svariipi ; the Ranis of Ranjit Sinh, Ganga and 
Kishori ; the Rani of Randhir Sinh, Laksumi. 



GHULAM KADIR. 27 

In 1782, the great minister, Najaf Khan, died ; and in 1786 Sindhia, who 
had been recognized as his successor in the administration of the empire, pro- 
ceeded to demand arrears of tribute from the Rajputs of Jaypur. His claim 
was partly satisfied ; but finding that he persisted in exacting the full amount, 
the Eajas of Jaypur, Jodh-pur and Uday-pur, joined by other minor chiefs, 
organized a formidable combination against him. The armies met at Lalsot, 
and a battle ensued which extended over three days, but Avithout any deci- 
sive result, till some 14,000 of Sindhia' s infantry, who were in arrears of pay, 
went over to the enemy. In consequence of this defection, the Mahratta 
fell back upon the Jats, and secured the alliance of Ranjit Sinh by the res- 
toration of Dig, Avhich had been held by the Emperor since its capture by 
Najaf Khan in 1776, and the cession of eleven pargauas yielding a revenue 
of ten lakhs of rupees. The main object of the new allies was to raise the 
siege of Agra, which was then being invested by Ismail Beg, the Imperial 
captain, in concert Avith Zabita Khan's son, the infamous Ghulam Kadir. 
In a battle that took place near Fatihpur Sikri, the Jats and Mahrattas met 
a repulse, and were driven back upon Bharat-pur ; but later in the same 
year, 1788, being reinforced by troops from the Dakhin under Rana Khan, 
a brother of the officer in command of tbe besieged garrison, they finally 
raised the blockade, and the province of Agra again acknowledged Sindhia as 
its master. 

Ghulam Kadir had previously removed to Delhi and Avas endeavouring to per- 
suade the Emperor to break off intercourse Avith the Mahrattas. Failing in this, 
he dropped all disguise and commenced firing upon the palace, and having in a 
few days taken possession of the city, he indulged in the most brutal excesses, 
and after insulting and torturing his miserable and defenceless sovereign in every 
conceivable Avay, completed the tragedy by, at last, Avith his OAvn dagger, robbing 
him of his eye-sight. Sindhia, Avho had before been urgently summoned from 
Mathura, one of his faA'ourite residences, on heai'ing of these horrors, sent a 
force to the relief of the city. Ghulam Kadir, whose atrocities had disgusted 
all his adherents, fled to Merath, and, endeavouring to escape from there at 
night alone on horseback, fell into a Avell from Avhich he Avas unable to extricate 
himself. There he Avas found on the folloAving morning by a Brahman peasant 
by name Bhikha, who had him seized and taken to the Malu-atta camp. Thence 
he was despatched to Sindhia at Mathura who first sent him through the bazar 
on an ass with his head to the tail, and then had him mutilated of all his mem- 
bers one by one, his tongue being first torn out, and then his eyes, and subse- 
quently his nose, ears, and hands cut off^^ In this horrible condition he Avas 
despatched to Delhi ; but to anticipate his death from exhaustion, AA'hich seemed 
imminent, he Avas hanged on a tree by the roadside. It is said that his barbarous 
treatment of the Emperor, for which he suffered such a condign penalty, Avas in 



28 SIEGE OF BHARAT-PUR. 

revenge for an injury inflicted upon liim when a handsome child by Shah Alam, 
who converted him into a haram page. 

On the termination of the Mahratta War in 1803, the British Government 
concluded a treaty with Ranjit Sinh, who with 5,000 horse had joined General 
Lake at Agra, and thereby contributed to Sindhia's defeat. In return for this 
service he received a grant of the districts of Kishangarh, Kathawar, Rewari, 
Gokul, and Sahar. After the battle of Dig in the following year, Holkar fled 
for refuge to the fort of Bharat-pur, whither he was pursued by General Lake. 
His surrender was demanded; but Ranjit refused to give him up. The fort 
was thereupon besieged ; Ranjit made a memorable defence, and repelled four 
assaults with a loss to the besiegers of 3,000 men, but finally made overtures 
for peace, which were accepted on the 4th of May, 1805. A new treaty was con- 
cluded, by which he agreed to pay au indemnity of twenty lakhs of rupees, 
seven of which were subsequently remitted, and was guaranteed in the terri- 
tories which he held previously to the accession of the British Government. 
The parganas granted to him in 1803 were resumed. 

Ranjit died that same year, leaving four sons, Randhir, Baladeva, Harideva, 
and Laehhman. He was succeeded by the eldest, Randhir, who died in 1823, 
leaving the throne to his brother, Baladeva.* After a rule of about 18 months 
he died, leaving a son, Balavaut, then six years of age. He was recognized by 
the British Government, but his cousin, Durjan Sal, who had also advanced 
claims to the succession on Randhir's death, x'ose up against him, and had him 
cast into prison. Sir David Ochterlony, the resident at Delhi, promptly moved 
out a force in support of the rightful heir, but their march was stopped by a 
peremptory order from Lord Amherst, who, in accordance with the disastrous 
policy of non-interference which was then in vogue, considered that the recog- 
nition of the heir apparent during the life of his father did not impose on the 
Government any obligation to maintain him in opposition to the presumed 
wishes of the chiefs and people. Vast preparations were made, with the secret 
support of the neighbouring Rajput and Mahratta States, and at last, when the 
excitement threatened a protracted war, the Governor-General reluctantly con- 
firmed the eloquent representations of Sir Charles Metcalfe, and consented to 
the deposition of the usurper. After a siege that extended over nearly six 
weeks, Bharat-pur was stormed by Lord Oombermere on the 18th of January, 
182G. Durjan Sal was taken pi'isoner to Allahabad, and the young Maharaja 
established on the throne under tlio regency of his mother and the Superinten- 
dence of a Political Agent.f He died in 1853, and was succeeded by his only 

* Randhir Sinh and Baladeva Sinh are commemorated by two handsome chhattries ou the 
margin of the Milnasi Gangd at Gobardhan. 

f The Rani of Jialavant Sinh was a native of Dhadhu in the Sa'dabad Pargana, where is a 
garden with a double chhattri erected by her iu memory of two of her rclativea. 



NOTE TO CHAPTER II. 29 

son, Jasavant Singh, the present sovereign, who enjoys a revenue of about 
Rs. 21,00,000, derived from a territory of 1,974 square miles in extent, with a 
population of 650,000. 



NOTE TO CHAPTER 11. 

In compiling this chapter, though I have always consulted the original 
authorities, I have in many places based my narrative on Keene's Mughal 
Empire ; as being a lucid sketch of a dreary and involved period. The book 
however is strangely misnamed : a more appropriate and far more taking title 
would have been " The Fall of the Mughal Empire." 



/ 



CHAPTER III. 



THE STORY OF KRISHNA, THE TUTELARY DIVINITY OF MATHURA. 

Of all the sacred places in India, none enjoys a greater popularity than the 
capital of Braj, the holy city of Mathura. For nine montlis in the year festival 
follows upon festival in rapid succession, and the ghats and temples are daily 
thronged with new troops of wayworn pilgrims. So great is the sanctity of 
the spot that its panegyrists do not hesitate to declare that a single day spent 
at Mathura is more meritorious than a lifetime passed at Banaras. All this 
celebrity is duo to the fact of its being the reputed birthplace of the demi-god 
Krishna ; henco it must be a matter of some interest to ascertain who this 
famous hero was, and what were the acts by which he achieved immortality. 

Tlie attempt to extract a grain of historical truth from an accumulation of 
mythological legend is an interesting but not very satisfactory undertaking ; 
there is always a risk tliat the fancied substantial residuum is in reality as 
imaginary as the later development. However, reduced to simplest elements, 
the stor'y of Krishna runs as follows : — At a very remote period, a branch of 
the great Jadav clan settled on the banks of the Jamvma and made Mathura 
their capital city. Here Krishna Avas born. At the time of his birth, Ugra- 
sen, the rightful occupant of the throne, had been deposed by his own son, 
Kansa; who, relying on the support of Jarasandha, King of Magadha, whose 
daughter he had married, ruled the country with a rod of iron, outraging alike 
both gods and men. Krishna, who was a cousin of the usurper, but had been 
brought up in obscurity and employed in the tending of cattle, raised the stan- 
dard of revolt, defeated and slew Kansa, and restored Ugrasen to the throne 
of his ancestors. All authorities lay great stress on the religious persecution 
that had prevailed under the tyranny of Kansa, from which fact it has been 
surmised that he was a convert to Buddhism, zealous in the propagation of his 
adopted faith, and that Krishna owes much of his renown to the gratitude of the 
Brdhmans, who, under his championship, recovered their ancient influence. If 
however 1000 B. C. is accepted as the approximate date of the Great War, in 
which Krishna took part, it is clear that his contemporary, Kansa, cannot have 
been a Buddhist, since the founder of that religion, according to the received 
chronology, was not born till the year 598 B. C. Probably the struggle was 
really between the votaries of fSiva and Yishuu ; hcucc Krishna, the apostle of 



THE niSTOmCAL KRISHNA. 31 

the latter faction, would find a natural enemy in the King of Kashmir, a coun- 
try Avhere Saivism has always predominated. On this hypothesis, Kansa was 
the conservative monarch, and Krishna the innovator, a position which has been 
inverted by the poets, influenced by the political events of their own times. 
To avenge the death of his son-in-law, Jarasandha marched an army against 
Mathura, and was supported by the powerful king of some western country, who 
is thence styled Kala-Yavana : Yavana in Sanskrit corresponding to the Arabic 
Yiinan (Ionia), and, like Vilayat in the modern vernacular, denoting any foreign 
and specially any western country. The actual personage was probably the 
King of Kashmir, Gonarda I., who is known to have accompanied Jarasandha ; 
though the description would be more applicable to one of the Bactrian sover- 
eigns of the Panjab. It is true they had not penetrated into India till some 
hundreds of years after Krishna ; but their power was well established at the 
time when the Mahabharat was written to record his achievements : hence the 
anachronism. Similarly, in the Bhagavat Puriina, which was written after the 
Muhammadan invasion, the description of the Yavana king is largely coloured 
by the author's feelings towards the only western power with which he was 
acquainted. Originally the word denoted the Greeks, and the Greeks only. 
But the Yavanas were the foremost, the most di-eaded of the Mlechhas {i. e. 
Barbarians), so that Yavana and Mlechha became synonymous. "When the 
Muhammadans trod in the steps of the Greeks, they became the chief Mlech- 
has, consequently Yavanas. Krishna eventually found it desirable to abandon 
Mathura, and with the whole clan of Yadavs retired to the Bay of Kachh. 
There he founded the flourishing city of Dwaraka, Avhich at some later period 
was totally submerged in the sea. While he was reigning at Dwaraka, the 
great war for the throne of Indraprastha (Delhi) arose between the five sons of 
Paudn and Durjodhan, the son of Dhritarashtra. Krishna allied himself Avith 
the Pandav princes, who were his cousins on the mother's side, and was the 
main cause of their ultimate triumph. Before its commencement Krishna 
had invaded Magadha, marching by a circuitous route through Tirhut, and 
so taking Jarasandha by surprise ; his capital was forced to surrender, and 
he himself slain in battle. Still, after his death, Kama, a cousin of Krishna's, 
of illegitimate birth, was placed on the throne of Mathura, and maintained 
there by the influence of the Kauravas, Krishna's enemies, a clear proof that 
the latter's retirement to Dwaraka was involuntary. 

Whether the above narrative has or has not any historical foundation, it is 
certain that Krishna was celebrated as a gallant warrior prince for many ages 
before he was metamorphosed into the amatory swain who now, under the title 
of Kanhaiya, is worshipped throughout India. He is first mentioned in the 
Mahabharat, the most voluminous of all Sanskrit poems, consisting in the 
printed edition of 91,000 couplets. There he figures simply as the King of 



32 LEGENDARY AUTHORITIES. 

Dwdraka and ally of the Ptindavs ; nor in the whole length of the poem, of which 
he is to a great extent the hero, is any allusion Nvhatever made to his early 
hfe, except in one disputed passage. Hence it may be presumed that his boyish 
frolics at Mathura and Brinda-ban, which now alone dwell in popular memory, 
are all subsequent inventions. They are related at length in the Harivansa, 
which is a com})aratively modern sequel to the Mahabharat,* and Avith still 
greater circumstantiality in some of the later Puranas, which probably date 
no further back than the tenth century after Christ. So rapid has been the 
development of the original idea when once planted in the congenial soil of the 
sensuous east, that Avhile in none of the more genuine Puranas, even those 
specially devoted to the inculcation of Vaishnava doctrines, is so much as the 
name mentioned of his favourite mistress, Radha, she now is jointly enthroned 
with him in every shrine, and claims a full half of popular devotion. Among 
ordinary Hindus the recognized authority for his life and exploits is the 
Bhao-avat Purana,t or rather its tenth book, which has been translated into 
every form of the modern vernacular. The Hindi version, entitled the Prem 
Sagar, is the one held in most repute. In constructing the following legend 
of Krishna, in his popular character as the tutelary divinity of Mathura, the 
Vishnu Purana has been adopted as the basis of the narrative, while many 
sup})lementary incidents have been extracted from the Bhagavat, and occa- 
sional references made to the Harivansa. 

In the days when Kama was king of Ajodhya, there stood near the bank of 
the Jamuna a dense forest, once the stronghold of the terrible giant Madhu, 
who called it after his own name, Madhu-ban. On his death it passed into 
the hand of his son, Lavana, who in the pride of his superhuman strength sent 
an insolent challenge to Rama, provoking him to single combat. The god-like 
hero disdained the easy victory for himself, but, to relieve the world of such an 
oppressor, sent his youngest brother, Satrughna, who vanquished and slew the 
giant, hewed dow^n the wood in which he had entrenched himself, and on its 
sitel founded the city of Mathura. The family of Bhoja, a remote descend- 
ant of the great Jadu, the common father of all the Jadav race, occupied the 
throne for many generations. The last of the line was King Ugrasen. In his 

• Though many episodes of later date have been interpolated, the composition of the main 
body of the Mahabharat may with some confidence be referred to the second or third century 
before Christ. 

f The B'.iiigavat is written in a more elegant style than any of the other Puranas, and is 
traditionally ascribed to the grammarian Bopadeva, who flourished at the Court of Hemadri, 
Eaji'i of Dcvagiri or Daulatabad, in the twelfth or tliirteeuth ccntTiry after Christ. 

X The present Madhu-ban is in the village of Maholi, some five miles from Mathura and 
the bank of the Jamuna. Tlie site, however, as now recognized must be very ancient, since it is 
evident that the f>an has given its name to the village : Maholi being a corruption of the original 
form, Madhupui'i. 



THE BIRTH OF KRISHNA. 33 

house Kansa was born, and was nurtured by the King as his o-wn son, though 
in truth he had no earthly father, but was the great demon Kalauemi incar- 
nate. As soon as he came to man's estate he deposed the aged monarch, 
seated himself on the throne, and filled the city with carnage and desolation. 
The priests and sacred cattle were ruthlessly massacred, and the temples of 
the gods defiled with blood. Heaven was besieged with prayers for deliver- 
ance from such a monster, nor were the prayers unheard. A supernatural 
voice declared to Kansa that an avenger would be born in the person of the 
eighth son of his kinsman, Vasudeva. Now, Vasudeva had married Devaki, a 
niece of King Ugrasen, and was living away from the Court in retirement at the 
hill of Gobardban. In the hope of defeating the prediction, Kansa immediately 
summoned them to Mathura and there kept them closely watched.* From 
year to year, as each successive child was born, it was taken and delivered to the 
tyrant, and by him consigned to death. When Devaki became pregnant for 
the seventh time, the embryo was miraculously transferred to the womb of 
Rohini, another wife of Vasudeva, living at Gokul, on the opposite bank of 
the Jamuna, and a report was circulated that the mother had miscarried from 
the effects of her long imprisonment and constant anxiety. The child thus 
marvellously preserved was first called Sankarshanat but afterwards received the 
name of Balaram or Baladeva, under which he has become famous to all posterity. 

Another year elapsed, and on the eighth of the dark fortnight of the month 
of Bhadont Devaki was delivered of her eighth son, the immortal Krishna. 
Vasudeva took the babe in his arms, and, favoured by the darkness of the night 
and the direct interposition of heaven, passed through the prison guards, who 
were charmed to sleep, and fled with his precious burden to the Jamuna. It 
was then the season of the rains, and the mighty river was pouring down a 
wild and resistless flood of waters. But he fearlessly stepped into the eddying 
torrent : at the first step that he advanced the wave reached the foot of 
the child slumbering in his arms ; then, marvellous to relate, the waters were 
stilled at the touch of the divine infant and could rise no higher§ and in a 
moment of time the wayfarer had traversed the torrent's broad expanse and 
emerged in safety on the opposite shore. || Here he met Nanda, the chief 
herdsman of Gokul, whose wife Jasoda at that very time had given birth to a 

• The site of their prison-house, called the Kara-grah, or luore commonly Janmbhumi, t.e, 
* birth-place,' is still marked by a small temple in Mathura near the Potara Kund. 

f Signifying ' extraction,' i.e., from his mother's womb. 

X On this day is celebrated the annual festival in honour of Krishna's birth, called the Janm 
Ashtami. 

§ This incident is popularly commemorated by a native toy called Vasudeva, of which 
great numbers are manufactured at Mathura. From the centre of a brass cup rises the 
figure of a man carrying a child at his side, and if water is poured into the cup it cannot rise 
«bove the child's foot, being then carried off by a hidden duct and running out at the bottom, 

il The landing-place is still shown at Gokul and called ' Uttaresvar Ghat.' 



34 KRISHNA AT GOKTJL. 

daughter, no earthly child however, save in semblance, but the delusive power 
Joganidra. Vasudeva dexterously exchanged the two infants and, returning, 
placed the female child in the bed of Devaki. At once it began to cry. The 
guards rushed in and carried it off to the tyrant. He, assured that it was the 
very child of fate, snatched it furiously from their hands and dashed it to the 
ground ; but how great his terror when he sees it rise resplendent in celestial 
beauty and ascend to heaven, there to be adored as the great goddess Dtirga.* 
Kansa started from his momentary stupor, frantic with rage, and cursing the 
gods as his eneuiies, issued savage orders that every one should be put to death 
who dared to offer them saci-ifice, and that diligent search should be made 
for all young children, that the infant son of Devaki, wherever concealed, 
might perish amongst the number. Judging these precautions to be sufficient, 
and that nothing farther was to be dreaded from the parents, he set Vasudeva 
and Devaki at liberty. The former at once hastened to see Nanda, who had 
come over to Mathura to pay his yearly tribute to the king, and after congra- 
tulating him on Jasoda's having presented him with a son, begged him to take 
back to Grokul Rohini's boy Balaram and let the two children be brought up to- 
gether. To this Nanda gladly assented, and so it came to pass that the two 
brothers Krishna and Balaram spent the days of their childhood together at 
Gokul, imder the care of their foster-mother Jasodd. 

They had not been there long, when one night the witch Putana, hovering 
about for some mischief to do in the service of Kansa, saw the babe Krishna 
lying asleep, and took him up in her arms and began to suckle him with her 
own devil' s-milk. A mortal child would have been poisoned at the first drop, 
but Krishna drew the breast with such strength that her life's blood was drained 
with the milk, and the hideous fiend, terrifying the whole countr}' of Braj with 
her groans of agony, fell lifeless to the ground. Another day Jasoda had gone 
down to the river-bank to wash some clothes, and had left the child asleep 
under one of the wagons. He all at once Avoke up hungry, and kicking out 
with his baby foot upset the big cart, full at it Avas of pans and pails of milk. 
AVhen Jasoda came running back to see what all the noise was about, she 
found him in the midst of the broken fragments quietly asleep again, as if 
nothing had happened. Again, one of Kansa's attendant demons, by name 
Trinavart, hoping to destroy the child, came and swept him off in a whirlwind; 
but the child was too much for him and made that his last journey to Braj.t 

The older the boy grew the more troublesome did Jasoda find him ; he would 
crawl about everywhere on his hands and knees, getting into the cattle-sheds and 

♦ The scene or this trausforraatiou is laid at the Jog Ghdt in Mathura, so called from the 
child Joganidia. 

fThc event is comrucmoratcd by a small cell at Mahfihan, in which the demou whirlwiad 
is represented by a pair of cuoruioiis wings ovcrshadowiDg the infant Krishna. 



KRISHNA AT BRINDA-BAN. 35 

pulling the calves by their tails, upsetting the pans of milk and whev, sticking 
his fingers into the curds and butter, and daubing his face and clothes all over ; 
and one day she got so angry with him that she put a cord round his waist and 
tied him to the great wooden mortar* while she went to look after her household 
affairs. No sooner was her back turned than the child, in his efforts to get loose, 
dragged away the heavy wooden block till it got fixed between two immense 
Arjun trees that were growing in the courtyai-d. It was wedged tight only 
for a minute, one more pull and down came the two enormous trunks with a 
thundering crash. Up ran the neighbovu-s, expecting an earthquake at least, and 
found the village half buried under the branches of the fallen trees, with the 
child between the two shattered stems laughing at the mischief it had caused.f 

Alarmed at these successive portents, Nanda determined upon removing to 
some other locality, and selected the neighbourhood of Brinda-ban as affording 
the best pasturage for the cattle. Here the boys lived till they were seven years 
old, not so much in Brinda-ban itself as in the copses on the opposite bank of 
the river, near the town of Mat ; there they wandered about, merrily disporting 
themselves, decking their heads with plumes of peacock's feathers, stringing 
long wreaths of wild flowers round their necks, and making sweet music Avith 
their rustic pipes. | At evening-tide they drove the cows home to the pens, 
and joined in frolicsome sports with the herdsmen's children under the shade of 
the great Bhandir tree.§ 

But even in their new home they were not secure from demoniacal ag- 
gression. When they had come to five years of age, and were grazing their 
cattle on the bank of the Jamuna, the demon Bachhdsur made an open onset 
against them.|| When he had received the reward of his temeritv, the demon 

* From this incident Krishna derives his popular name of Damodar, fi-om dam, a cord, and 
itdar, the body. The mortar, or utuhhala, is generally a solid block of wood, three or four feet 
high, hollowed out at the top into the shape of a basin. 

t The traditionary scene of all these adventures is laid, not at Gokul as might have been 
anticipated, hut at Mahaban, which is now a distinct town, further inland. There are shown the 
jugal arjun ki thaur, or site of the two Arjua trees, and the spots where Putaua, Trinavart, and 
Sakatasur, or the cart-demon (for in the Bhagavat the cart is said to have been upset by the 
intervention of an evil spirit), met their fate. The village of Koila, on the opposite bank, is said 
to derive its name from the fact that the ' ashes' from Piitana's funeral pile floated down there ; 
or that Vasudeva, when crossing the river and thinking he was about to sink, called out for 
some one to take the child, saying ' Koile, koile.' 

X From these childish sports, Krishna derives his popular names of Ban mdli, « the wearer 
of a chaplet of wild flowers,' and Bansi-dhar and Murli-dhar, 'the flute-player.' Hence, too, the 
strolling singers, who frequent the fairs held on Krishna's fete days, attire themselves in high- 
crowned caps decked with peacocks' feathers. 

§ The Bhandir-ban is a dense thicket of ber and other low prickly shrubs in the hamlet of 
Chhahiri, a little above Mat. In the centre is an open space with a small modern temple and 
well. The Bhandir bat is an old tree a few hundred yards outside the grove, 

II This adventure gives its aame to the Baclili-bau near Bmmmt z^-^- - 



36 Krishna's boyish exploits. 

Bakasur tried tlio efficacy of stratagem. Transforming himself into a crane of 
gigantic proportions he perched on the hill-side, and when the cowherd's chil- 
dren came to gaze at the monstrous apparition, snapped them all up one after the 
other. But Krislina made such a hot mouthful that he was only too glad to 
drop him ; and, as soon as the boy set his feet on the ground again, he seized 
the monster by his long bill and rent him in twain. 

On another day, as their playmate Tosh* and some of the other children 
were rambling about, they spied what they took to be the mouth of a great 
chasm in the rock. It was in truth the expanded jaws of the serpent-king, 
Aghdsur, and as the boys were peeping in he drew a deep breath and sucked 
them all down. But Krishna bid them be of good cheer, and swelled his body 
to such a size that the serpent burst, and the children stept out into the plain 
uninjured. Again, as they lay lazily one sultry noon under a Kadamb tree, 
enjoying their lunch, the calves strayed away quite out of sight.f In fact, 
the jealons god Brahma had stolen them. When the loss was detected, all 
ran ofp in different directions to look for them ; but Krishna took a shorter 
plan, and as soon as he found himself alone, created other cattle exactly like 
them to take their place. He then waited a little for his companions' return ; 
but when no signs of them appeared, he guessed, as was really the case, that 
they too had been stolen by Brahma ; so without more ado he continued the 
work of creation, and called into existence another group of children identical 
in appearance with the absentees. Meanwhile, Brahma had dropped off into 
one of his periodical dozes, and waking up after the lapse of a year, chuckled 
to himself over the forlorn condition of Braj, without either cattle or children. 
But when he got there and began to look about hira^ he found everything 
iust the same as before : then he made his submission to Krishna, and acknow- 
ledged him to be his lord and master. 

One day, as Krishna was strolling by himself along the bank of the Jamund, 
he came to a deep pool by the side of which grew a tall Kadamb tree. He 
climbed the tree and took a plunge into the water. Now, this lake was the 
haunt of a savage dragon, by name Kaliya, who at once started from the 
depth, coiled himself round the intruder, and fastened upon him with his poi- 
sonous fangs. The alarm spread, and Nanda, Jasodd, and Balaram, and all 
the neio-hbours came running, frightened out of their senses, and found Krish- 
na still and motionless, enveloped in the dragon's coils. The sight was so ter- 
rible that all stood as if spell-bound ; but Krishna with a smile gently shook off 
the serpent's folds, and seizing the hooded monster by one of his many heads, 
pressed it down upon the margin of the lake, and danced upon it till the poor 

* Hence the name of the village Tosh in the Mathura parg-ana. 

+ The scene of this adventure is laid at Khadira-ban, near Khaira. The khadira is a species 
of acacia. The Sanskrit word assumes in Prakrit the form khaira. 



ADVENTURES AT TAL-BAN AND BHADRA-BAN. 37 

wretch was so torn and lacerated that his wives all came from their watery cells 
and threw themselves at Krishna's feet and begged for mercy. The dragon 
himself in a feeble voice sued for pardon ; then the beneficent divinity not only 
spared his life and allowed him to depart with all his family to the island of Rama- 
nak, but further assured him that he would ever hereafter bear upon his brow 
the impress of the divine feet, seeing which no enemy would dare to molest him.* 
After this, as the two boys were straying with their herds from wood to 
wood, they came to a large palm-grove (tal-ban), where they began shaking 
the trees to bring down the fruit. Now, in this grove there dwelt a demon, 
by name Dhenuk, who, hearing the fruit fall, rushed past in the form of an 
ass and gave Balaram a flying kick full on the breast with both his hind legs. 
But before his legs could again reach the ground, Balaram seized them in his 
powerful grasp, and whirling the demon round his head hurled the carcase on 
the top of one of the tallest trees, causing the fruit to drop like rain. The 
boys then returned to thoir station at the Bhandir fig-trees, and that very 
night, while they were in Bhadra-banf close by, there came on a violent storm. 
The tall dry grass was kindled b}' the lightning and the whole forest was in 
a blaze. Off scampered the cattle and the herdsmen too, but Krishna called 
to the cowards to stop and close their eyes for a minute. When they opened 
them again, the cows were all standing in their pens, and the moon shone 
calndy down on the waving forest trees and rustling reeds. 

Another day Krishna and Balaram were running a race up to the Bhandir 
tree with their playmate Sridama, when the demon Pralamba came and 
asked to make a fourth. In the race Pralamba was beaten by Balaram, and so, 
according to the rules of the game, had to carry him on his back from the goal 
to the starting point. No sooner was Balaram on his shoulders than Pralamba 
ran off with him at the top of his speed, and recovering his proper diabolical 
form made sure of destroying him. But Balaram soon taught him differently, 
and squeezed him so tightly with his knees, and dealt him such cruel blows on 
the head with his fists, that his skull and ribs were broken, and no life left in 
the monster. Seeing this feat of strength, his comrades loudly greeted him 
with the name of BalaramJ which title he ever after retained. 

* One of the ghats at Brinda-ban is named in commemoration of this event Kali-mardan, 
and the, or rather a, Kadamb tree is still shown there. 

•f Bhadra-ban occupies a high point on the left bank of the Jamuna, some three miles above 
Mat. With the usual fate of Hindi words, it is transformed in the official map of the district into 
the Persian Bahddur-ban, Between it and Bhandir-ban, is a large straggling wood called mekh- 
han. This, it is said, was open ground, till one day, many years ago, some great man encamped 
there, and all the stakes to which his horses had been tethered touk root a d grew up. 

% Balaram, under the name of Belus, is described by Latin writers as the Indian Hercules, 
and said to be one of the tutelary divinities of Mathura ; a proof that the local cultus has a higher 
antiquity than is sometimes allowed it. 



38 KRISHNA AT GOBAKDIIAN. 

But who so frolicsome as the boy Krishna ? Seeing the ftiir maids of Braj 
performing their ahhitions in the Janiuna, he stole along the bank, and picking 
up the clothes of which they had divested themselves, climbed up with them 
into a Kadamb tree. There he mocked the frightened girls as they came shi- 
vering out of the water ; nor would he yield a particle of vestment till all had 
rann-ed before him in a row, and with clasped and uplifted hands most piteous- 
ly entreated him. Thus the boy-god taught his votaries that submission to 
the divine will was a more excellent virtue even than modesty.* 

At the end of the rains all the herdsmen began to busy themselves in pre- 
paring a great sacrifice in honour of Indra, as a token of their gratitude for the 
refreshing showers he had bestowed upon the earth. But Krishna, who had 
already made sport of Brahma, thought lightly enough of Indra's claims and 
said to Nanda : — " The forests where we tend our cattle cluster round the foot 
of the hills, and it is the sjiii-its of the hills that we ought rather to worship. 
They can assume any shapes they please, and if we sHght them Avill surely 
transform themselves into lions and wolves, and destroy both us and our 
herds." The people of Braj were convinced by these arguments, and taking 
all the rich gifts they had prepared, set out for Gobardhan, where they solemnly 
circumambulated the mountain and presented their oflPerings to the new divi- 
nity. Krishna himself, in the character of the mountain god, stood forth on 
the highest peak and accepted the adoration of the assembled crowd, while 
a fictitious image in his own proper person joined humbly in the ranks of the 
devotees. 

When Indra saw himself thus defrauded of the promised sacrifice, he was 
very wroth, and summoning the clouds from every quarter of heaven bid them 
all descend upon Braj in one fearful and unbroken torrent. In an instant 
the sky was overhung with impenetrable gloom, and it was only by the vivid 
flashes of lightning that the terrified herdsmen could see their houses and cattle 
beaten down and swept away by the irresistible deluge. The ruin was but 
for a moment ; with one hand Krishna uprooted the mountain from its base, 
and balancing it on the tip of his finger called all the people under its cover. 
There they remained secure for seven days and nights, and the storms of In- 
dra beat harmlessly on the summit of the uplifted range ; while Krishna stood 
erect and smiling, nor once did his finger tremble beneath the weight. When 
Indra found his passion fruitless the heavens again became clear ; the people 
of Braj stepped forth from under Gobardhan, and Krishna qiiietly restored it 
to its original site. Then Indra, moved with desire to beliold and worship the 
incarnate god, mounted his elephant Airavata and descended upon the plains of 

* This popular incident is commemorated by tlie Chir Gliat at Siyara ; chir meaning clothes. 
The same name is frequently given to the Chain Ghat at Briuda-bau, which is also so called 
in the Vraja-hhakti-vilusa, written 1553 A.D. 



KRISHNA AND THE GOPIS. 39 

Eraj. There lie adored Krishna in his humble pastoral guise, and, saluting 
him by the new titles of Upeudra* and Gobind, placed under his special 
protection his own son the hero Arjun, who had then taken birth at Indra- 
prastha in the family of Pandu. 

When Krishna had completed his twelfth year, Nanda, in accordance with 
a vow that he had made, went with all his family to perform a special devotion 
at the temple of Devi. At night, when they were asleep, a huge boa-con- 
strictor laid hold of Nanda by the toe and would speedily have devoured him ; 
but Krishna, hearing his foster-father's cries, ran to his side and lightly set his 
foot on the great serpent's head. At the very touch the monster was transform- 
ed and assumed the figure of a lovely youth ; for, ages ago, a Ganymede of 
heaven's court, by name Sudarsan, in the pride of beaiity aiid exalted birth, had 
vexed the holy sage Angiras when deep in divine contemplation, by dancing 
backwards and forwards before him, and by his curse had been metamorphosed 
into a snake, in that vile shape to expiate his oifence until the advent of the 
gracious Krishna. 

Beholding all the glorious deeds that he had performed, the maids of Braj 
could not restrain their admiration. Drawn from their lonely homes by the 
low sweet notes of his seductive pipe, they floated around him in rapturous 
love, and through the moonlight autumn nights joined with him in the circling 
dance, passing from glade to glade in ever increasing ecstasy of devotion. To 
whatever theme his voice was attuned, their song had but one burden — his per- 
fect beauty ; and as they mingled in the mystic maze, with eyes closed in the 
intensity of voluptuous passion, each nymph as she grasped the hand of her 
partner thrilled at the touch, as though the hand were Krishna's and dreamed 
herself alone supremely blest in the enjoyment of his undivided affection. 
Badha, fairest of the fair, reigned queen of the revels, and so languished in the 
heavenly delight of his embraces that all consciousness of earth and self was 
obliterated, t 

* The title Upendra was evidently conferred upon Krishna before the full development of 
the Vaishnava School ; for however Pauranik writers may attempt to explain it, the only gram- 
matical meaning of the compound is ' a lesser Ir.dra.' As Krishna has long been considered 
much the greater god of the two, the title has fallen into disrepute and is now seldom used. 
Similarly with ' Gobind;' its true meaning is not, as implied in the text, 'the Indra of cows,' but 
simply ' a finder ' or ' tender of cows,' from the root ' vid.' 

t Any sketch of Krishna's adventures would be greatly defective which contained no allu- 
eion to his celebrated amours with the Gopis, or milkmaids of Braj. It is the one incident in 
his life upon which modern Hindu writers love to lavish all the resources of their eloquence. Yet, 
in the original authorities it occupies a no more prominent place in the narrative than that which 
has been assigned it above. In pictorial representations of the 'circular dance,' or Rasmandal, 
•whatever the number of the Gopis introduced, so often is the figure of Krishna repeated. Thus, 
each Gopi can claim him as a partner, while again, in the centre of the circle, he stands in larger 
form with his favourite Eddha. 



40 THE ORIGIN OF KADHA-KUND. 

One niglit, as tlie cLoir of attendant damsels followed through the woods the 
notes of his wayward pipe, a lustful giant, by name Sankhchur, attempted to 
intercept them. Then Krishna showed himself no timorous gallant, but cast- 
ing crown and flute to the ground pursued the ravisher, and seizing him from 
behind by his shaggy hair, cut oti' his head, and taking tl>e precious jewel which 
he had worn on his front presented it to Balaram. 

Yet once again was the dance of love rudely internipted. The demon 
Arishta, disguised as a gigantic bull, dashed upon the scene and made straight 
for Krishna. The intrepid youth, smiling, awaited the attack, and seizing him 
by the horns forced down his head to the ground ; then twisting the monster s 
neck as it had been a wet rag, he wrenched one of the horns from the socket 
and with it so belaboured the brute that no life was left in his body. Then all 
the herdsmen rejoiced ; but the crime of violating even the semblance of a bull 
could not remain unexpiated. So all the sacred streams and places of pilgrim- 
age, obedient to Krishna's summons, came in bodily shape to Grobardhan and 
poured from their holy urns into two deep reservoirs prepared for the occasion.* 
There Krishna bathed, and by the efficacy of this concentrated essence of sanctity 
was washed clean of the pollution he had incurred. 

When Kan saheai'd of the marvellous acts performed by the two boys at Brinda- 
ban, he trembled with fear and recognized the fated avengers who had eluded all 
his cruel vigilance and would yet wreak his doom. After pondering for a while 
w^hat stratagem to adopt, he proclaimed a great tournay of arms, making sure 
that if they were induced to come to Mathuni and enter the lists as combatants, 
they would be inevitably destroyed by his two champions Chanur and Mushtika. 
Of all the Jadav tribe Akrur was the only chieftain in whose integrity the tyrant 
could confide; he accordingly was despatched with an invitation to Nanda and 
all his family to attend the coming festival. But though Akrur started at once 
on his mission, Kansa was too restless to wait the result: the demon Kesin, 
terror of the woods of Brinda-ban, was ordered to try his strength against them 
or ever they left their home. Disguised as a wild horse, the monster rushed 
amongst the herds, scattering them in all directions. Krishna alone stood 
calmly in his way, and when the demoniacal steed bearing down upon him 
with wide-extended jaws made as though it would devour him, he thrust his 
arm down the gaping throat and, with a mighty heave, burst the huge body 
asunder, splitting it into two equal portions right down the back from nose to 
tail.f 

• These are the famous tanks of Hadluikund, which is the next village to Gohardhan. 

f There are two kIkUb at IJrinda-han named after tliis adventure: the first Kesi Ghiit, where 
the monster was slain ; the second Chain Ghat, where Krishna rested and bathed. It is from 
this exploit, according^ to Pauranik etymology, that Krishna derives his popular name of Kesava, 
The name, however, Is more ancient than the legend, and signifies simply the lung-hairid, 
• crinitus,' or radiant— au appropriate epithet, if Krishna be taken for tlie Indian Apollo. 



Krishna's return to mathura. 41 

All unconcerned at this stupendous encounter, Krishna returned to his 
childish sports and was enjoying a game of blind-man's buff when the demon 
Byomasur came up in guise as a cowherd and asked to join the party. After 
a little, he proposed to vary the amusement by a turn at wolf-and-goats, and 
then lying in ambush and transforming himself into a real wolf he fell upon 
the children, one by oue, and tore them in pieces, till Krishna, detecting his wiles, 
dragged him from his cover and, seizing him by the throat, beat him to death. 

At this juncture, Akriir* arrived with his treacherous invitation : it was at 
once accepted, and the boys in high glee started for Mathurd, Nanda also, and 
all the village encampment accompanying them. Just outside the city they 
met the king's washerman and his train of donkeys laden with bundles of clothes 
which he was taking back fresh washed from the river-side to the palace. 
What better opportunity could be desired for country boys, who had never be- 
fore left the woods and had no clothes fit to wear. They at once made a rush 
at the bundles and tearing them open arrayed themselves in the finery just as 
it came to hand, without any regard for fit or colour ; then on they went 
again, laughing heartily at their own mountebank appearance, till a good tailor 
called them into his shop, and there cut and snipped and stitched away till he 
turned them out in the very height of fashion : and to complete their costume, 
the mdli Sudama gave them each a nosegay of flowers. So going through 
the streets like young princes, there met them the poor humped-back woman 
Kubja, and Krishna, as he passed, putting one foot on her feet and one hand 
under her chin, stretched out her body straight as a dart.f 

In the courtyard before the palace was displayed the monstrous bow, the 
test of skill and strength in the coming encounter of arms. None but a giant 
could bend it ; but Krishna took it up in sport and it snapped in his fingers 
like a twig. Out ran the king's guards, hearing the crash of the broken 
beam, but all perished at the touch of the invincible child : not one survived 
to tell how death was dealt. 

When they had seen aU the sights of the city, they returned to Nanda, who 
had been much disquieted by their long absence, and on the morrow all repaired 
to the arena, where Kansa was enthroned in state on a high dais overlookino- the 
lists. At the entrance they were confronted by the savage elephant Kuvalaya- 
pida, upon whom Kansa relied to trample them to death. But Krishna, after 
sporting with it for a while, seized it at last by the tail, and whirling it round 
his head dashed it hfeless to the groimd. Then, each bearing one of its tusks 
the two boys stepped into the ring and challenged all comers. Chanur was 



* Akrur is the name of a hamlet between Mathura and Brinda-ban. 

fKubja's well" in Mathura commemorates this event. It is on the Delhi Road, a little 
beyond the Katra. Nearly opposite, a carved pillar from a Buddhist railing has been set up and 
is worshipped as Parvati. 



42 THE DEATH OF KANSA. 

matched against Krishna, Mushtika against Balaram. The struggle was no sooner 
begun than ended : both the king's champions were thrown and rose no more. 
Then Kansa started from his throne, and cried aloud to his guards to seize and 
put to death the two rash boys with their father Vasudeva — for his sons he 
knew they were — and the old King Ugrasen. But Krishna with one bound 
sprung upon the dais, seized the tyrant by the hair as he vainly sought to fly, 
and hurled him down the giddy height upon the sand below.* Then they drag- 
ged the lifeless body to the bank of the Jamuna, and there by the water's edge 
at last sat down to ' rest,' whence the place is known to this day as the Visrant 
Ghat.f Now that justice had been satisfied, Krishna was too righteous to insult 
the dead ; he comforted the widows of the fallen monarch, and bid them cele- 
brate the funeral rites with all due form, and himself applied the torch to the 
pyre. Then Ugrasen was reseated on his ancient throne, and Mathura once more 
knew peace and security. 

As Krishna was determined on a lengthened stay, he persuaded Nanda to 
return alone to Brinda-ban and console his foster-mother Jasoda with tidings of 
his welfare. He and Balaram then underwent the ceremonies of caste-initia- 
tion, which had been neglected during their sojourn with the herdsmen ; and^ 
after a few days, proceeded to Ujjayin, there to pursue the prescribed course of 
study under the Kasya sage Sandipani. The rapidity with which they mastered 
every science soon betrayed their divinity; and as they prepared to leave, their 
instructor fell at their feet and begged of them a boon, namely, the restoration 
of his son, who had been engulfed by the waves of the sea when on a pilgrim- 
ao-e to Prabhasa. Ocean was summoned to answer the charge, and taxed the 
demon Panchajana with the crime. Krishna at once plunged into the unfathom- 
able depth and dragged the monster lifeless to the surface. Then with Bala- 
ram he invaded the city of the dead, and claimed from Jama the Brahman's 
son, whom they took back with them to the light of day and restored to his 
enraptured parents. The shell in which the demon had dwelt (whence his title 
Sankhasur) was ever thereafter borne by the hero as his special emblem^ under 
the name of Panchajanya. 



* Kansa's Hill and the Rang-Bhumi, or ' arena, ' with an image of Rangesvar Mahadeva, 
where the bow was broken, the elephant killed, and the champion wrestlers defeated, are stiM 
sacred sites immediately outside the city of Mathura, opposite the new dispensary. 

t The Visrant Ghat, or Resting Ghat, is the most sacred spot in all Mathura. It occupies 
the centre of the river front, and is thus made a prominent object, though it has no special 
architectural beauty. 

X The legend has been inrentcd to explain why the Sankha, or conch-shell, is employed 
as a religious emblem : the simpler reason is to be found In the fact of its constant use as an aux- 
iliary to temple worship. In conseriuencc of a slight similarity in the name, this incident i» 
popularly connected with the village of Sonsa in the Mathurd Pargana, without much rcgaril 
to theexigencics of the narrative, since Prabhasa, where Panchajana was slain, is far away on the 
shore of the Western Ocean in Gnjarat. 



THE SIEGE OF MATHUKA. 43 

Meanwhile, the widows of King Kansa had fled to Magadha, their native 
land, and implored their father, Jarasandha, to take up arms and avenge their 
murdered lord. Scarcely had Krishna returned to Mathura from Banaras, 
when the assembled hosts invested the city. The gallant prince did not wait 
the attack; but, accompanied by Balaram, sallied forth, routed the enemy and 
took Jarasandha prisoner. Compassionating the utterness of his defeat, they 
allowed him to return to his own country, where, unmoved by the generosity 
©f his victors, he immediately began to raise a new army on a still larger scale 
than the preceding, and again invaded the dominions of Ugrasen. Seventeen 
times did Jarasandha renew the attack, seventeen times was he repulsed by 
Krishna. Finding it vain to continue the struggle alone, he at last called to 
his aid King Kala-yavana,* who with his barbarous hordes from the far west 
bore down upon the devoted city of Mathura. That very night Krishna bade 
arise on the far distant shore of the Bay of Kachh the stately Fort of Dwaraka, 
and thither, in a moment of time, transferred the whole of his faithful people : 
the first intimation that reached them of their changed abode was the sound 
of the roaring waves when they woke on the following morning. He then 
returned alone to do battle against the allied invaders ; the barbarian king 
was put to flight and his army annihilated ; but it was only by a stratagem 
that Krishna and Balaram contrived to secure themselves from the fury of 
the survivor. So Mathura fell into the hands of Jarasandha, who forth- 
with destroyed all the palaces and temples and every memento of the former 
dynasty, and erected new buildings in their place as monuments of his own 
conquest.f 

Thenceforth Krishna reigned with great glory at Dwaraka ; and not many 
days had elapsed w'hen, fired with the report of the matchless beauty of the 
princess Rukmini, daughter of Bhishmak, king of Kundalpur in the country 
of Yidarbha, he broke in upon the marriage feast, and carried her off before 
the very eyes of her betrothed, the Chanderi king Sisupal.f After this he 
contracted many other splendid alliances, even to the number of sixteen thou- 

* The soul of Kala-yavana is supposed in a second birth to have animated the body of the 
tyrannical Aurangzeb. 

t As Magadha became the great centre of Buddhism, and indeed derives its latter name 
of Bihar from the numerous Viharas or Huddhist monasteries which it contained, its king Jara- 
Bandha and his son-in-law Kansa, have been described by the orthodox writers of the Maha- 
bbarat and Sri Bhagavat with all the animus they felt against the professors of that religion, 
through in reality it had not come into existence till some 400 years after Jarasandha's death. 
Thus the narrative of Krishna's retreat to Dwaraka and the subsequent demolition of Hindu 
Mathura, besides its primary signification, represents also in mythological language the great 
historical fact, attested by the notices of contemporary travellers and the results of recent anti- 
quarian research, that for a time Brahmanism was almost eradicated from Central India and. 
Buddhism established as the national religion. 

t Sisopal was first cousin to Krishna 5 his mother, Srutadeva, being Vasudeva's sister. 



44 CONNECTION OF KRISHNA WITH CHRIST. 

sand and one hundred, and became the father of a hundred and eighty thou- 
sand sons.* In the Great War he took up arms with his five cousins, the 
Pandav princes, to terminate the tyranny of Duryodhan ; and accompanied by 
Bhiraa and Arjuna, invaded Magadha, and taking Jarasandha by surprise, put 
him to death and burnt his capital : and many other noble achievements did 
he perform, which are written in the chronicles of Dwaraka ; but Mathur^ 
saw him no more, and the legends of Mathura are ended. 

Attempts have been made to establish a connection between the legend of 
Krishna and the earlier chapters of S. Matthew's Gospel. There is an obvi- 
ous similarity of sound between the names Christ and Krishna; Herod's mas- 
sacre of the innocents may be compared with the massacre of the children of 
Mathura by Kansa ; the flight into Egypt with the flight to Gokul ; as Christ 
had a forerunner of supernatural birth in the person of S. John Baptist, so 
had Krishna in Balardm ; and as the infant Saviour was cradled in a manger 
and first worshipped by shepherds, though descended from the royal house of 
Judah, so Krishna, though a near kinsman of the reigning pi-ince, was brought 
up amongst cattle and first manifested his divinity to herdsmen.! The in- 
ference drawn from these coincidences is corroborated by an ecclesiastical tra- 
dition that the Gospel which S. Thomas the Apostle brought with him to India 
was that of S. Matthew, and that when his relics were discovered, a copy 
of it was found to have been buried with him. It is, on the other hand, abso- 
lutely certain that the name of Krishna, however late the full development of 
the legendary cycle, was celebrated throughout India long before the Chris- 
tian era; thus the only possible hypothesis is that some pandit, struck by the 
marvellous circumstances of our Lord's infancy, as related in the Gospel, trans- 
ferred them to his own indigenous mythology, and on account of the similarity 
of name selected Krishna as their hero. It may be added that the Harivansa, 
which possibly is as oldj as any of the Vaishnava Puranas, was certainly 
written by a stranger to the country of Braj ;§ and not only so, but it further 
shows distinct traces of a southern origin, as in its description of the exclu- 
sively Dakhini festival, the Punjal : and it is only in the south of India that a 

* These extravagant numl>er3 are merely intended to indicate the wide diffusion and power 
of tlic great Jadava (vulgarly Jadon) clan. 

f Hindu pictures of the infant Krishna in the arms of his foster-mother Jasodd, with a glory 
encirclinfj the heads both of mother and child and a background of Oriental scenery, are indis- 
tinguishable, except in name, from representations of Christ and the Madonna. 

X It is quoted by BirunI (born 970, died 1038 A. D.) as a standard authority in hie 
time. 

§ The proof of this statement is that all his topographical descriptions are utterly irreconcil- 
able with facts. Thus he mentions that Krishna and Balarama were brought up at a spot selected 
by NanJaon the bank of the Jamuna near the hill of Gobardhan (Cauto 61). Now, Gobardhan is 
some fifteen miles from the river ; and the neighbourliood of Gokula and Maha-bau, which all 
other written authorities and also ancient tradition agree in declaring to have been the scene of 



Krishna's deification. 45 

Brdhman would be likely to meet with Christian traditions. But after all that 
can be urged, the coiucidences, though curious, are too slight, in the absence 
of any historical proof, to establish a connection between the two narratives : 
probably they would uever have attracted attention had it not been for the 
similarity of name ; and it is thoroughly established by literary criticism that the 
two names had each an independent origin. Thus the speculation may be dis- 
missed as idle and unfounded. 

To many persons it will appear profane to institute a comparison between 
the inspired oracles of Christianity and Hinduism. But if we fairly consider 
the legend as above sketched, and allow for a slight element of the grotesque 
and that tendency to exaggerate which is inalienable from Oriental imagina- 
tion, we shall find nothing incongruous with the primary idea of a beneficent 
divinity, manifested in the flesh in order to deliver the world from oppression 
and restore the practice of true religion. Even as regards the greatest stumbhng 
block, viz., the " Panchadyaya," or five chapters of the Bhagavat, which des- 
cribe Krishna's amours with the Gopis, the language is scarcely, if at all, 
more glowing and impassioned than that employed in " the song of songs, which 
is Solomon's ;" and if theologians maintain that the latter must be mystical be- 
cause inspired, how can a similar defence be denied to the Hindu philosopher ? 
As to those wayward caprices of the child-god, for which no adequate explana- 
tion can be assigned, the Brahman without any derogation from his intellect 
may regard them as the sport of the Almighty, the mysterious dealings of an 
inscrutable Providence, styled in Sanskrit terminology mdt/d, and in the lan- 
guage of Holy Church sapientia — sapientia ludens omni tempoi'e^ ludens in orbe 
terrarum. 



NOTE TO CHAPTER III. 

Though it can only be mentioned as a fanciful coincidence rather than as a 
basis for soHd argument, another point of resemblance between Krishna and 
our Lord may be found in the fact that his genealogy is popularly traced not 
through the father, but through the mother. As the course of events in the 
legend is much influenced by the relationship existing between the principal 

Krishna's infancy, is several miles further distant from the ridge and on the other side of the 
Jamuna. Again Tal-bau is described (Canto 70) as lying north of Gobardhan — 

^^^m mj Ci|t if^ rrr^^^ hi^ 

It is south-east of Gobardhan and with the city of Mathura between it and Brinda-ban, though in 
the Bhagavat it is said to be close to the latter town. So also Bhindir-ban is represented in the 
Harivansa as being on the same side of the river as the Kali-Mardau Ghat, being iu reality nearly 
opposite to it. 



46 krtshna's genealogy. 

characters, it may be convenient to subjoin in a concise form his table of descent 
on either side : — 

Descent of Krishna through his father Vasudeva, from the Siirajvansi Kshatriyas. 

From the patriarch Ikshvaku, generated by a sneeze of the Supreme Being, descended at a 
long interval Madliu, giant King of Madhu-vana. 

Haryasva, banished King of Ajodliya,=Madhumati. Lavana, slain by 

founder of Gobardhan. ,,,^1 Satrughna. 

Madliava. 

Bhima (annexes Mathura). 

Andhaka. 

I 
Revati. 

Visvagarbha. 

I 
Vasu, or Sura. 



r I > 

■Vasudeva=Devaki. The Sun-God=Pritha=Pandu. Suprabha=^naraa-Ghosha, Raja 

or I or V ^ of Ch cdi. 

Kunti. I Sruta-srava. \ 

— \ i ^ I 

Krishna. Kama. Yudhiethir. Bhima. Arjuna. Sisupal. 



Descent of Krishna through his mother Devahi from the Yddava clan of Soma- 
vansi Kshatriyas. 

Soma, the Moon-God, by Tara ' the bright star ' whom he stole away from Vrihaspati, had a 
son Budlia, married to Ila. From this union sprang Pururavas=UrTasi, ' the dawn,' 

Ayu3. 

Nahusha. 

Yayati. 

Yadtt. 

I 

Vidarbha. 

Andhaka. 
Abhijit. 
Ahuka. 



Devaka. Ugrasen, King of Mathura. 

Devaki==Vasudeva=Rohini. Kansa=Rajivalochana, daughter 

of Jarasandha, King 



J V_ 



Krishna=Rukmini, daughter of Bhishmaka, Balalama=Revati. of Magadha. 

I King of Vid=irbha. 

rradyumna==a daughter of Rukmin, the brother of Rukmini. 

Aniruddha==Usha. 

Vajra, who is generally said (o have been crowned King of Matliura on Krishna's doath. But 
this belief rests on a verse in the Vishnu I'uraiia, wlicrc for ^Matliurii other MSS. — preferably as it 
would seem from the context — read Indra-prastha, or llastinapura. The more unscientific native 
philologerB are disposed to derive from Vajra the name of the country, Vraja (Braj). 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE BRAJ-MANDAL AND THE BAN-JATRA. 

Not only the city of Mathura, but with it the whole of the western half 
of the district, has a special interest of its own as the birth-place and abiding 
home of Vaishnava Hinduism. It is about 42 miles in length, with an aver- 
age breadth of 30 miles, and is intersected throughout by the river Jamuna. 
On the right bank of the stream are the parganas of Kosi and Chhata, so 
named after their principal towns, with the home pargana below them to the 
south ; and on the left bank the united parganas of Mat and Noh-jhil, with 
half the pargana of Maha-ban as fiir east as the town of Baladeva. This 
extent of country is almost absolutely identical with the Braj-mandal of Hindu 
topography ; the circuit of 84 kos in the neighbourhood of Gokul and Brinda- 
ban ; where the divine brothers Krishna and Balaram gi-azed their herds. 

The first aspect of the country is a little disappointing to the student of Sans- 
krit literature, who has been led by the glowing eulogiums of the poets to antici- 
pate a second vale of Tempe. The soil, being poor and thin, is unfavourable 
to the growth of most large forest trees ; the mango and shisham, the glory 
of the lower Doab, are conspicuously absent, and their place is most inade- 
quately supplied by tl;e nim, faras^ and various species of the fig tribe. For 
the same reason the dust in any ordinary weather is deep on all the thorouo-h- 
fares, and if the slightest air is stirring rises in a dense cloud and veils the 
whole landscape in an impenetrable haze. The Jamuna, the one great river of 
Braj, during eight months of the year meanders sullenly a mere rivulet be- 
tween wide expanses of sand, bounded by monotonous flats of arable land, or 
high banks which the rapidly expended force of contributory torrents has 
cracked and broken into ugly chasms and stony ravines, naked of all vegeta- 
tion. 

As the limits of Braj from north to south on one side are defined by the 
high lands to the east of the Jamuna, so are they on the other side by the hill 
ranges of Bharat-pur ; but there are few peaks of conspicuous height, and the 
general outline is tame and unimpressive. The villages, though large, are 
meanly built, and betray the untidiness characteristic of Jats and Gujars, who 
form the bulk of the population. From a distance they are often picturesque, 
being built on the slope of natural or artificial mounds, and thus gaining dio-- 
nity by elevation. But on nearer approach they are found to consist of laby- 
rinths of the narrowest lanes winding between tlie mud walls of large enclo- 
sures, which are rather cattle-yards than houses. At the base of the hill is ordi- 



48 CHARACTER OF THE SCENERY. 

narily a broad circle of waste laud, studded with low trees, which afford grateful 
shade and pasturage for the cattle; while the large pond, from which the earth 
was dug to construct the village site, supplies them throughout the year with 
water. These natural woods commonly consist of p'du, chhoyihar, and kadamb 
trees, among which are always interspersed clumps of karil, with its leafless 
evergreen t\vigs and bright-coloured flower and fruit. The pasenda, pdjyri, 
ami, hinrfot, ajdn-rukh, gondi, harna, and dho also occur, but less frequently; 
though the last-named, the Sanskrit dhava, at Barsana, clothes the whole of the 
hillside. At sun-rise and sun-set the thoroughfares are all but impassable, as 
the straggling herds of oxen and buffaloes leave and return to the homestead; 
for in the straitened precincts of an ordinary village are stalled every night 
from 500 or 600 to 1,000 head of cattle, at least equalling, often outnumbering, 
the human population. 

The general poverty of the district forms the motif o? iho following popular 
Hindi couplet, in which Krishua's neglect to enrich the land of his birth with 
any choicer product than the karil, or wild caper, is cited as an illustration of 
his wilfulness : 

so 

^1^^ ^ T[^^ cRTT 33 ^^ ^1 TTTTW II 

so 

which may be thus done into English : 

Krishna, you see, will never lose his wayward whims ami vapours ; 
For Kabul teems with luscious fruit, while Braj boasts only capers. 

In the rains, however, at which season of the year all pilgi-images are made, 
the Jamuna is a mighty stream, a mile or more broad ; its many contributory 
torrents and all the ponds and lakes with which the district abounds are filled to 
overflowing; the rocks and hills are clothed with foliage, the dusty plain is trans- 
formed into a green sward, and the smiling prospect goes ftxr to justify the warm- 
est panegyrics of the Hindu poets, whose appreciation of the scenery, it mustbe 
remembered, has been further intensified by religious enthusiasm. Even at all 
seasons of the year the landscape has a quiet charm of its own ; a sudden turn 
in the winding lane reveals a grassy knoll with stonc-biiilt well and overhang- 
ing pipal ; or some sacred grove, where gleaming tufts of kaHl and the white- 
blossomed anxsa weed are dotted about between the groups of weird pihi trees 
with their clusters of tiny berries and strangely gnarled and twisted trunks, 
all entangled in a dense undergrowth of prickly her and liins and chhonJcar; 
while in the centre, bordered with flowering oleander and ?iivdra, a still cool lake 
reflects the modest shrine and well-fenced bush of tulsi that surmount the raised 
terrace, from which a broad flight of steps, gift of some thankful pilgrim from 
afar, leads down to the water's edge. The most pleasing architectural works 
in the district arc the large masonry tanks, which arc very numerous and often 



LOCALIZATION OF LEGEKDS. 49 

display excellent taste in design and skill in execution. The temples, though 
in some instances of considerable size, are all, excepting those in the three 
towns of Mathura, Brinda-ban and Gobardhan, utterly devoid of artistic merit. 
To a very recent period, almost the whole of this large area was pasture and 
woodland, and, as we have already remarked, many of the villages are still en- 
vironed with belts of trees. These are variously designated as ghand, jhdrij 
rakhyd, ban, or khandi* and are often of considerable extent. Thus, the Koki- 
la-ban at Great Bathan covers 723 acres; the rakhyd at Kamar more than 
1,000; and in the contiguous villages of Pisayo and Karahla the rakliyd and 
kadamh-khandi together amount to nearly as much. The year of the great 
famine, 1838 A. D., is invariably given as the date when the land began to bo 
largely reclaimed ; the immediate cause being the number of new roads then 
opened out for the purpose of affording employment to the starving population. 
Almost every spot is traditionally connected with some event in the life of 
Krishna or of his mythical mistress Radha, sometimes to the prejudice of an 
earlier divinity. Thus, two prominent peaks in the Bharat-pur range are crowned 
with the villages of Nand-ganw and Barsana ; of which the former is venerated 
as the home of Krishna's foster-father Nanda, and the latter as the resi- 
dence of Radha's parents, Vrisha-bhanu and Kirat.f Both legends are now as 
implicitly credited as the fact that Krishna was born at Mathura ; while in 
reality, the name JSTand-ganw, the sole foundation for the belief, is an ingenious 
substitution for Nandisvar, a title of Maha-deva, and Barsana is a corruption 
of Brahma-sanu, the hill of Brahma. Only the Giri-raj at Gobardhan was, 
according to the original distribution, dedicated to Vishnu, the second person 
of the tri-murti, or Hindu trinity; though now he is recognized as the tutelary 
divinity at all three hill-places. Similarly, Bhau-gauw on the right bank of 
the Jamuna, was clearly so called from Bhava, one of the eight manifestations 
of Siva; but the name is now generally modified to Bhay-ganw, and is supposed to 
commemorate the alarm (hhay) felt in the neighbourhood at the time when Nanda, 
bathing in the river, was carried off by the god Varuna. A masonry landing- 
place on the water's edge, called Nand-Ghat, with a small temple, dating only 
from last century, are the foundation and support of the local legend. Of a 
still more obsolete cultus, viz., snake-worship, faint indications may be detected 
in a few local names and customs. Thus, at Jait, on the high-road to Delhi, an 
ancient five-headed Naga, carved in stone, rises beside a small tank in the 
centre of a low plain to the height of some four feet above the surface of the 



* When the last term is used, the name of the most prevalent kind of tree is always added, 
as for instance kadamb-khandi. 

f Kirat is the only name popularly known in the locality, but in the Brahma Vaivarta 
Purana it is given as Kalavati. It may also be mentioned that Vrisha-bhanu is always pro- 
nounced Brikh-bhan. 



50 EXPLANATION OF LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 

ground, while its tail was supposed to reach away to the Kali-mardan Ghat at 
Brinda-ban, a distance of seven miles. A slight excavation at the base of tho 
figure has, for a few years at least, dispelled the local superstition. So again, 
at the village of Pai-gauw, a grove and lake called respectively Pai-ban and 
Pai-ban-kund are the scene of an annual fair known as the Barasi Ndjd ji 
mela. This is now regarded more as the anniversary of the death of a certain 
Mahant ; but in all probabiHty it dates from a much earlier period, and the 
village name would seem to be derived from the large offerings of milk (paijas) 
with which it is usual to propitiate the Naga, or serpent-god. 

Till the close of the 16th century, except in the neighbourhood of the one 
great thoroughfare, there was only here and there a scattered hamlet in tlie 
midst of unreclaimed woodland. The Vaishuava cultus then first developed 
into its present form under the influence of the celebrated Bengali Gosains of 
Brinda-ban; and it is not imj^robable that they were the authors of the Brahma 
Vaivarta Punina,* the recognized Sanskrit authority for all the modern local 
legends. From them it was that every lake and grove in the circuit of Braj 
received a distinctive name, in addition to the some seven or eight spots which 
alone are mentioned in the earlier Puranas. In the course of time, small vil- 
lages sprung up in the neighbourhood of the different shrines, bearing the same 
name with them, though perhaps in a slightly modified form. Thus the khadira- 
han, or acacia grove, gives its name to the village of Khaira ; and the aiijan 
pohhar, on whose green bank Krishna pencilled his lady's eye-brows with anjnn^ 
gives its name to the village of Ajuokh, occasionally written at greater length 
Ajnokhari. Similarly, when Krishna's home was fixed at Nand-ganw and Ra- 
dha's at Barsana, a grove half-way between the two hills was fancifully selected 
as the spot where the youthful couple used to meet to enjoy the delights of 
love. There a temple was built with the title of Radha-Raman, and the village 
that grew up under it walls was called Sanket, that is, ' the place of assigna- 
tion.' Thus we may readily fall in with Hindu pi'ejudices, and admit that 
many of the names on the map are etymologically connected with events in 
Krishna's life, and yet deny that those events have any real connection with 
the spot; inasmuch as neither the village nor the local name had any existence 
till centuries after the incidents occurred which they are supposed to comme- 

* The Brahma Vaivarta Purdna is, as all critics admit, an essentially modern composition, 
and Professor Wilson has stated his belief that it emanated from the sect of the Vallabhachiiris, 
or Gosains of Gokul. Their great ancestor settled there about the year 1480 A. D. The popular 
Dindi authority for Radha's Life and Loves is the Braj Bihis of Braj-vasi Das. The precise date 
of the poem, sambat 1800, corresponding to 1743 A, D,, is given in the following line— 

Another work of high repute is tho Sur Siigar of Sur Diis Ji (one of the disciples Of tlw 
great religious teacher Ramdnaud) as edited and expanded by Krishndnand Vyasa. 



JIYTHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS. 51 

morate. Tlie really old local names are almost all derived from the physical 
character of the country, which has always been celebrated for its Avide extent 
of pasture land and many herds of cattle. Thus Gokul means originally a herd 
of kine ; Gobardhan a rearer of kine; Mat is so called from mat a milk-pail; 
and Dadhi-ganw (contracted into Dah-ganw) in the Kosi Pargana, from dadhi, 
* curds.' Thus, too, ' Braj ' in the first instance means ' a herd,' from the root 
vraj ' to go,' in allusion to the constant moves of nomadic tribes. And hence 
it arises that in the earliest authorities for Krishna's adventures, both Vraja and 
Gokula are used to denote, not the definite localities now bearing those names, 
but any chance spot temporarily used for stalling cattle ; inattention to this 
archaism has led to much confusion in assigning sites to the various legends. 
The word ' Mathura,' also, is probably connected with the Sanskrit root ma^A, 
' to churn ;' the churn forming a prominent feature in all poetical descriptions 
of the local scenery. Take, for example, the following lines from the Hari- 
vansa, 3395 : — 

3[mWTII^|c^ TT^Tl^Rm^^ li 

" A fine country of many pasture-lands and well-nurtured people, full of 
ropes for tethering cattle, resonant with the voice of the sputtering churn, and 
flowing with butter-milk ; where the soil is ever moist with milky froth, and 
the stick with its circling cord sputters merrily in the pail as the girls spin it 
round." 

And, again, in section 73 of the same poem — 

^%2 "^ f^^^W TT37TlJKWTm II 

" In homesteads gladdened by the sputtering churn." 
In many cases a false analogy has suggested a mythological derivation. 
Thus, all native scholars see in Mathura an allusion to Madhu-niathan, a title of 
•Krishna. Again, the word Bathan is still current in some parts of India to 
designate a pasture-ground, and in that sense has given a name to two exteu- 
eive parishes in Kosi ; but as the term is not a familiar one thereabouts a 
legend was invented in explanation, and it was said that here Balarama ' sat 
down' (baithen) to wait for Krishna. The myth was accepted ; a lake imme- 
diately outside the village was styled Bal-bhadra kund, was furnished with a 
handsome masonry ghat by Rvip Earn, the Katara, of Barsana, and is now re ward- 
ed as positive proof of the popular etymology which connects the place with 
Balarama. Of Hup Ram, the Katara, further mention will be made in connec- 
tion with his birth-place, Barsaua. There is scarcely a sacred site in the 



52 EXTENT OF THE BRAJ MANDAL. 

whole of Braj which does not exhibit some ruinous record, in the shape of 
temple or tank, of his unbounded wealth and liberality. His descendant in 
the fourth degree, a most worthy man, by name Lakshman Das, lives in a 
corner of one of his ancestor's palaces and is dependent on charity for his 
daily bread. The present owners of many of the villages which Riip Ram so 
munificently endowed are the heirs of the Lalu Babu, of whom also an account 
will be given further on. 

In the Varaha Pui'ana, or rather in the interpolated section of that work 
known as the Mathura Miihatmya, the Mathura Mandal is described as twenty 
yojajias in extent. 

n^ n^ ^t: ^ini w^^ ^lmri%: ii 

NO 

" My Mathurji circle is one of twenty ijojans ; by bathing at any place 
therein a man is redeemed from all his sins." 

And taking the yojana as 7 miles and the kos as If mile, 20 yojanas would 
be nearly equal to 84 kos, the popular estimate of the distance travelled by the 
pilgrims in performing the Pari-krama or ' perambulation' of Braj. It is pro- 
bable that if an accurate measurement were made, this would be found a very 
rough approximation to the actual length of the way ; though liberal allow- 
ance must be made for the constant ins and outs, turns and returns, which 
ultimately result in the circuit of a not very wide-spread area. There can be 
no doubt that the number 84, whicli in ancient Indian territorial divisions 
occurs as frequently as a Hundred in English counties, and which enters largely 
into every cycle of Hindu legend and cosmogony, was originally selected for 
such general adoption as being the multiple of the number of months in the 
year with the number of days in the week. It is therefore peculiarly appro- 
priate in connection with the Braj Mandal; if Krishna, in whose honour the 
perambulation is performed, be regarded as the Indian Apollo, or Sun-God. 
Thus the magnificent temple in Kashmir, dedicated to the sun under the title of 
Martand, has a colonnade of exactly 84 pillars. 

It is sometimes said that the circle originally must have been of wider 
extent than now, since the city of Mathura, which is described as its centre, is 
more than 30 miles distant from the most northern point, Kotban, and only six 
from Tarsi to the south ; and Elliot in his glossary quotes the following couplet 
as fixing its limits : — 

" On one side Bar, on aiiotlior Sona, on the third the town of Slirasen ; these 
are the limits of the Braj Chauriisi, the Mathura circle."' 



THE BAN-JATRA. 53 

According to this authority the area has been diminished by one half ; as 
Bar is in the Aligarh District ; Sotia, famous for its hot sulphur springs, is in 
Gur-ganw ; while the ' Surasen ka ganw' is supposed to be Batesar,* a place of 
some note on the Jamuna and the scene of a large horse fair held on the full moon 
of Kartik. It might equally mean any town in the kingdom of Mathura, or even 
the capital itself, as king Ugrasen, whom Krishna restored to the thone, is some- 
times styled Siirasen. Thus, too, Arrian mentions Mathura as a chief town of 
the Suraseni, a people specially devoted to the worship of Hercules, who may 
be identified with Balarama : and Manu (II. 19.) clearly intends Mathura by 
Surasenaf when he includes that country with Kuru-kshetra, Pauchala, and 
Matsya, in the region of Brahmarshi, as distinguished, from Brahmavarta. 
But though it must be admitted that the circle is sometimes drawn with a 
wider circumference, as will be seen in the sequel to this chapter, still it is 
not certain which of the two rests upon the better authority. In any case, the 
lines above quoted cannot be of great antiquity, seeing that they contain the 
Persian word hadd ; and, as regards the unequal distances between the city 
of Mathura and different points on the circumference, it has only to be re- 
membered that the circle is an ideal one, and any point within its outer verge 
may be roughly regarded as its centre. 

As the anniversary of Krishna's birth is kept in the month of Bhadon, it is 
then that the perambulation takes place, and a series of melas is held at the dif- 
ferent woods, where the rds-Uld is celebrated in commemoration of his sports with 
the Gopis. The arrangement of these dances forms the recognized occupation of 
a class of Brahmans very numerous in some of the villages, who are called Ras- 
dharis, and have no other profession or means of livelihood. The number of sacred 
places, woods, groves, ponds, wells, hills, and temples — all to be visited in fixed 
order — is very considerable ; there are generally reckoned five hills, eleven rocks, 
four lakes, eighty-four ponds and twelve wells ; but the twelve bans or woods, 
and the twenty-four upabans or groves, are the characteristic feature of the 
pilgrimage, which is thence called the Ban-jatra. The numbers 12 and 24 have 
been arbitrarily selected on account of their mystic significance ; and few of the 
local pandits, if required to enumerate either group off hand, would be able to 
complete the total without some recourse to guess work. A little Hindi manual 
for the guidance of pilgrims has been published at Mathura and is the popular 

* Father Tieifenthaler in his Geography of India makes the following mention of Batesar 
«' Lieu celebre et bien bati sur le Djemua, 28 milles d'Agra. Une multitude de peuple s'y ras- 
semble pour se laver dans ce fleuve et pour cuKbrerunefoire en Octobre. On rend un culte ici 
dans beaucoup de temples batis sur le Djemna, a Mahadeo tant revere de tout I'univers adonnca la 
luxure; car Mahadeo est le Priape des anciena qn'encen«cnt ah quelle honte ! toutes les nations." 



54 MADHU-BAN. 

authority on the subject. Tlio compiler, hon^ever great his local knowledge and 
priestly reputation, has certainly no pretensions to accuracy of scholarship. His 
attempts at etymology ai*e, as a rule, absolutely grotesque, as in the two suffi- 
ciently obvious names of Khaira (for Khadira) and Sher-garh (from Sher Shah), 
the one of which he derives from khedna, ' to drive cattle,' and the other, still 
more preposterously, from sihara, 'a marriage crown.' The list which he gives is 
as follows, his fiiulty orthography in some of the words being corrected: — 

The 12 Bans : Madhu-ban, Tal-ban, Kumud-bau, Bahula-ban, Kam-ban, 
Khadira-ban, Brinda-ban, Bhadra-ban, Bhandir-bau, Bel-ban, Loha-ban and 
Maha-ban. 

The 24 Upabans : Gokul, Gobardhan, Barsana, Nand-ganw, Sanket, Para- 
niadra, Aring, Sessai, Mat, Uncha-ganw, Khcl-ban, Sri-kund, Gandharv-ban, 
Parsoh, Bilchhu, Bechh-ban, Adi-badri^ Karahla, Ajnokh, Pisayo, Kokila-ban, 
Dadhi-ganw, Kot-ban and Baval. 

This list bears internal evidence of some antiquity in its want of close cor- 
respondence with existing facts ; since several of the places, though retaining 
their traditionary repute, have now nothing that can be dignified with the 
name either of wood or grove ; while others are known only by the villagers 
in the immediate neighbourhood and have been supplanted in popular estima- 
tion by rival sites of more easy access or greater natural attractions. 

Starting from Mathura, the pilgrims make their first halt at Madhu-ban, in 
the village of Maholi, some four or five miles to the south-west of the city. 
Here, according to the Puranas, Rama's brother, Satrughna, after hewing down 
the forest stronghold of the giant Madhu, founded on its site the town of 
Madhu-puri. All native scholars regard this as merely another name for 
Mathura, regardless of the fact that the locality is several miles from the river. 
Awhile Mathura has always, from the earliest period, been described as situate 
on its immediate bank. The confusion between the two places runs apparently 
through the whole of classical Sanskrit literature ; as, for example, in the 
Harivansa (Canto 95) we find the city founded by Satrughna distinctly called, 
not Madhu-puri, but Mathura, which Bhima, the king of Gobardhan, is repre- 
sented as annexing : — ■ 

w^^^ 2^T ^^ T]w^j^^=^^iTwm II 

^^^ ^imrTI xi^ ^JlXl^lf%rTT r{^\ II 



COURSE OF THE PILGRIMAGE. 55 

" When Sumitra's delight, prince Satrughna, had killed Lavana, he cut 
down the forest of Madhu, and in the place of that Madhu-ban founded the 
present city of Mathura. Then, after Eama and Bharata had left the world, 
and the two sons of Suraitra had taken their place in heaven, Bhima, in order 
to consolidate his dominions, brought the city, which had formerly been inde- 
pendent, under the sway of his own family." 

Some reminiscence of the ancient importance of Maholi would seem to have 
long survived ; for though so close to Mathura, it was, in Akbar's time and 
for many years subsequently, the head of a local division. By the sacred 
wood is a pond called Madhu-kund, and a temple dedicated to Krishna under his 
title of Chatur-bhuj, where an annual mela is held on the 11th of the dark 
fortnight of Bhddon. 

From Maholi, the pilgrims turn south to Tal-ban, 'the palm grove,' where 
Balarama was attacked by the demon Dhenuk. The village, in which it is 
situated, is called Tarsi, probably in allusion to the legend; though locally the 
name is referred only to the founder, one Tara Chand, a Kachhwaiia Thakur, 
who in quite modern times moved to it from Satoha, a place a few miles off on 
the road to Grobardhan. They then visit Kumud-ban, 'of the many water-lihes,' 
in Uncha-ganw, and Bahuld-ban in Bati, where the sacred cow Bahula gored 
to death the lion that dared to molest her, as is commemorated by the little 
shrine of Bahula Gae, still standing on the margin of the Krishna-kund. They 
next pass through the villages of Tos, Jakhin-gnnw and Mukharai, and ar- 
rive at Radha-kund, where are the two famous tanks prepared for Krishna's 
expiatory ablution after he had slain the bull, Arishta. Thence they pass on 
to Grobardhan, scene of many a marvellous incident, and visit all the sacred 
sites in its neighbourhood ; the village of Basai, where the two divine children 
with their foster parents once came and dwelt (basde) the Kallol-kund by 
the grove of Aring ; Madhuri-kund ; Mor-ban, the haunt of the peacock, and 
Chandra-sarovar, 'the moon lake;' where Bi-ahma, joining with the Gopis 
in the mystic dance, was so em-aptured with delight that, all unconscious of 
the fleeting hours, he allowed the single night to extend over a period of six 
months. This is at a village called Parsoli by the people, but which appears 
on the maps and in the revenue-roll only as Muhammad-pur. The tank 
is a fine octagonal basin with stone ghats, the work of Raja Nahr Sinh of 
Bharat-pur. After a visit to Paitha, where the people of Braj ' came in ' 
(paithd) to take shelter from the storms of Indra under the uplifted range, they 
pass along the heights of the Giri-raj to Anyor, ' the other side,' and so by 
many saci-ed rocks, as Sugandhi-sila, Sinduri-sila and Sundar-sila, with its 
temple of Gobardhan-nath to Gopal-pur, Bilchhu, and Ganthauli, where the 
marriage 'knot' (gdnth) was tied, that confirmed the union of Eadha and 
Krishna. 



56 COURSE OF THE PILGRIMAGE. 

Then, following the line of frontier, the pilgrims arrive at Kam-ban, now the 
head-quarters of a tahsili in Bharat-pur territory, 39 miles from Mathura, with 
the Luk-luk cave, where the bojs played blind-man's-buff; and Aghasur's cave, 
where the demon of that name was destroyed ; and leaving Kanwaro-ganw, 
enter again upoa British ground near the village of Uncha-gauw, with its ancient 
temple of Baladeva, High on the peak above is Barsana, with its series of 
temples dedicated to Larliji, where Radha was brought up by her parents, Brikh- 
bhan and Kirat ; and in the glade below, Dohani-kund near Chaksauli, where 
as Jasoda was cleansing her milk-pail (dohani) she first saw the youthful pair 
together, and vowed that one day they should be husband and wife. There 
too, is Prem Sarovar, or ' love lake,' where first the amorous tale was told ; 
and Sankari Khor, ' the narrow opening ' between the hills, where Krishna lay 
in anibush and levied his toll of milk on the Gopis as they came in from Gahvar- 
ban, the ' thick forest' beyond. Next are visited Sanket, the place of assig- 
nation ; Rithora, home of Chandravali, Radha's faithful attendant ; and Nand- 
ganw, long the residence of Nanda and Jasoda, with the great lake Pan-Saro- 
var, at the foot of the hill, where Krishna morning and evening drove his 
foster-father's cattle to water Cpcln). Next in order come Karahla,* with its fine 
Jcaclamh trees ; Kamai, where one of Radha's humble friends was honoured by a 
visit from her lord and mistress in the course of their rambles ; Ajnokh,t 
where Krishna pencilled his lady's eye-brows with anjan, as she reclined in 
careless mood on the green sward ; and Pisayo,t where she found him fainting 
with ' thirst,' and revived him with a draught of water. Then, still bearing due 
north, the pilgrims come to Khadira-ban, 'the acacia grove,' in Khaira ; Kumar- 
ban and Javak-ban in Jau, where Krishna tinged his lady's feet with the red 
Javak dye, and Kokila-ban, ever musical with the voice of ' the cuckoo ' ; and so 
arrive at the base of Charan Pahar in Little Bathan, the favoured spot, where the 
minstrel god delighted most to stop and play his flute, and where Indra descend- 
ed from heaven on his elephant Airavata, to do him homage, as is to this day 
attested by the prints of the divine ' feet' (charan) impressed upon the rock. 

• Karahla, or, as it is often spelt, Karhela, is locally derived, from /tar hilna, the movements 
of the hamis in the rds Uld. At the village of Little Marna, a pond bears the same name — 
karhela-kund — which is there explained as harm hilna, equivalent to pdp-mochan. But in the Main- 
puri district is a large town called Karhal — the same word in a slightly modified form — where 
neither of the above etymologies could hold. The name is more probably connected with a 
Biinple natural feature, viz., the abundance of the karil plant at each place. 

f Ajnokh, or, in its fuller form, Ajnokhari, is a contraction for Anjan-Fokhar, • the anjan 
lake.' 

{ BhukJw pisdi/o is, in the language of the country, a common expression for 'hungry and 
thirsty.' But moat of these derivations are quoted, not for their philological value, but as show- 
ing how thoroughly the whole country side is impregnated with the legends of Krishna, when 
some allusion to hiru is detected in crery village name. In the Vraja-bhakti-vila;a, Pisayo is called 
Pip;isa-vana. 



COURSE OF THE PILGRIMAGE. ^ 57 

They then pass ou through Dadhi-gaaw, where Krishna stayed behind to di- 
vert himself with the milk-maids, having sent Baladeva on ahead with the 
cows to wait for him at Bathan ; and so reach Kot-ban, the northernmost point 
of the perambulation. The first village ou the homeward route is Sessai (a 
hamlet of Hatana) where Krishua revealed his divinity by assuming the em- 
blems of Narayan and reclining undor the canopying heads of the great serpent 
Sesha, of whom Baladeva was an incarnation ; but the vision was all too high 
a mystery for the herdsmen's simple daughters, who begged the two boys to 
doff such fantastic guise and once more, as they were wont, join them in the 
sprightly dance.* Then, reaching the Jamuna at Khel-ban by Shergarh,t 
where Krishna's temples were decked with ' the marriage wreath' (sihajxi), 
they follow the course of the river through Bihar-ban in Pir-pur, and by Chir- 
ghat in the village of Si}ara, where the frolicsome god stole J the bathers' 
'clothes' (cMr), and arrive at Nand-ghat. Here Nanda, bathing one night, 
was carried oif by the myrmidons of the sea-god, Varuna, who had long been 
lying in wait for this very purpose, since their master knew that Krishna 
would at once follow to recov^er his foster-father, and thus, the depths of ocean 
too, no less than earth, would be gladdened with the vision of the incarnate 
deity. The adjoining village of Bhay-ganw derives its name from the 'terror' 
(bhay) that ensued on the news of Nanda's disappearance. The pilgrims next 
pass through Bachh-ban, where the demon Bachhasur was slain ; the two 
villages of Basai, where the Gopis were first ' subdued ' (bas-di) by the power 
of love ; Atas, Nari-semri,§ Chhatikra, and Akriir, where Kansa's perfidious 
invitation to the contest of arms was received ; and wending their way beneath 
the temple of Bhatrond, whei-e one day when the boys' stock of provisions 
had run short some Brahmans' wives supplied their wants, though the husbands, 
to whom application was first made, had churlishly refused, || and so arrive at 
Briuda-ban, where many a sacred ghat and venerable shrine claim devout 
attention. 

* According to the Vishnu Puruiia, this transformation was not effected for the benefit 
of the Gopis, but was a vision vouchsafed to Akriir on the bank of the Janiuuathe day he fetched 
the toys from Brinda-ban to altenJ the tourney at Mathura. 

f This is a curious specimen of perverted etymology illustrating the persistency with which 
Hindus and Muhammadans each go their own way and ignore the other's existence. The towa 
unquestionably derivei its name from a large fort, of which the ruins still remain, built by the 
Emperor Sher Shah. 

X In the Vishnu Pui'ana this famous incident is not mentioned at all. 

§ A large fair, called the Nan Durg:i, is held at the village of Nari-Semri during the dark fort- 
night of Chait, the commencement of the Hindu year. The sams^ festival is also celebrated at San- 
chauli in the Kosi Pargana and at Nagar-Kot in Gui-ganw, though not on precisely the same days. 

II To commemorate the event, a fair called the Bhatmela, is held on the spot, on the full- 
moon of Kartik. Compare the st jry of David repulsed by the churlish Nabal, but afterwards 
succoured by his wife Abigail. 



58 END OF THE PILGRIMAGE. 

The pilgrims then cross the river and visit the tangled thickets of Bel-ban 
in Jahangir-pur ; the town of Mat with the adjoining woods of Bhadra-ban, 
scene of the great conflagi-ation, and Bhandir-ban, where the son of Rohini first 
received his distinctive title of Bala-riima, i. e., Rama the strong, in consequence 
of the prowess he had displayed in vanquishing the demon Pralamba ; Dangoli, 
where Krishna dropt his ' staff' (dang)* and the fair lake of Man-sarovar, scene 
of a fit of lover's 'pettishness' (man). Tlien follow the villages of Piparauli, 
with its broad spreading p{paHrees ; Lohaban, perpetuating the defeat of the 
demon Lohasurt Gopalpur, favourite station of the herdsmen, and Raval, where 
Eadha's mother Kirat lived with her father Surbhan till she went to join her hus- 
band at Barsana. Next comes Burhiya ka-khera, home of the old dame whose 
son had taken in marriage Radha's companion, Manvati. The fickle Krishna 
saw and loved and, in order to gratify his passion undisturbed, assumed the hus- 
band's form. The unsuspecting bride received him fondly to her arms ; while 
the good mother was enjoined to keep close watch below and, if any one came 
to the door pretending to be her son, by no means to open to him, but rather, 
if he persisted, pelt him with brick-bats till he ran away. So the honest man 
lost his wife and got his head broken into the bargain. 

After leaving the scene of this merry jest, the pilgrims pass on to Bandi- 

ganw, name commemorative of Jasoda's two faithful domestics, Bandi and 

Anandi, and arrive at Baladeva, with its wealthy temple dedicated in honour of 

that divinity and his spouse, Revati. Tlien, beyond the village of Hataura are 

the two river landing places, Chinta-haran, ' the end of doubt,' and Brahmdn- 

da, 'creation,' ghat. Here Krishna's playmates came running to tell Jasoda 

that the naughty boy had filled his mouth with mud. She took up a stick to 

punish him, but then, to prove the story false, he unclosed his lips and showed 

her there, within the compass of his baby cheeks, the whole ' created' universe 

with all its worlds and circling seas distinct. Close by is the town of Maha- 

ban famous for many incidents in Krishna's infancy, where he was rocked in 

the cradle, and received his name from the great pandit, Grarg, and where he 

put to death Piitana and the other evil spirits whom Kansa had commissioned 

to destroy him. At Gokul, on the river-bank, are innumerable shrines and 

temples dedicated to the god under some one or other of his favourite titles, 

Madan Mohan, Madhava Rae, Brajesvar, Gokul-nath, Navanit-priya, and 

Dwaraka-nath ; and when all have been duly honoured with a visit, the weary 

pilcrrims finally rocross the stream and sit down to rest at the point from 

which they started, the Visrant Ghat, the holiest place in the holy city of 

Mathura. 

* The name Dangoli is really derived from the position of the village on the ' high river- 
bank,' w hich is also called ddn^. 

+ The name is really derived from the tree lodha or lodhra. 



THE VRAJ-BHAKTI VILASA. 59 

As may be gatliered from the above narrative, it is only the twelve bans 
that, as a rule, are connected vs^ith the Panranik legends of Krishna and Bala- 
rama, and these are all specified by name in the Mathura Mahatmya. On the 
other hand, the twenty-four tipahans refer mainly to Radha's adventures and 
have no ancient authority whatever. Of the entire number, only three were, till 
quite recent times, places of any note, viz., Grokul, Grobai'dhan, and Radlia-kund, 
and their exceptional character admits of easy explanation : Gokul, in aU clas- 
sical Sanskrit literature, is the same as Maha-ban, which is included among the 
bans ; Gobardhan is as much a centre of sanctity as Mathura itself, and is only 
for the sake of uniformity inserted in either Hst ; while Radha-kund, as the 
name denotes, is the one primary source from which the goddess derives her 
modern reputation. It is now insisted that the parallelism is in all respects 
complete ; for, as Krishna has four special dwelling-places, Mathura, Maha-ban, 
Gobardhan, and Nand-ganw, so has Radha four also in exact correspondence, 
viz., Brinda-ban, Raval, Radha-kund, and Barsana. 

The perambulation, as traced in the foregoing sketch, is the one ordinarily 
performed, and includes all the most popular shrines ; but a far more elaborate 
enumeration of the holy places of Braj is given in a Sanskrit work, existing only in 
manuscript, entitled Vraja-bhakti-vilasa. It is of no great antiquity, having been 
compiled in the year, 1553 A.D. by Narayan Bhatt,* who is said to have been 
a resident of Uncha-ganw near Barsana, though he describes himself as writiuo- 
at Sri-kund. It is divided into 13 sections extending over 108 leaves, and is 
professedly based on the Paramahansa Sanhita. It specifies as many as 133 
bans or woods, 91 on the right bank of the Jamuna and 42 on the left, and 
groups them under different heads as follows ; — 

I.— The 12 Bans : 1 Maha-ban ; 2 Kamya-ban ; 3 Kokila-ban; 4 Tal-ban; 
5 Kumud-ban ; 6 Bhandir-ban ; 7 Chhatra-ban ;t 8 Khadira-ban ; 9 Loha-bau ; 
10 Bhadra-ban; 11 Bahula-ban ; 12 Vilva-ban, i. e., Bel-ban. 

II. — The 12 Upabans: 1 Brahma-ban ; 2 Apsara-ban ; 3 Yihvala-ban ; 
4 Kadamb-ban; 5 Svarna-ban ; 6 Surabhi-ban ; 7 Prem-ban •,% 8 Mayura, i. e., 
Mor-ban; 9 Manengiti-ban ; 10 Sesha-saiyi-ban ; 11 Narada-ban; 12 Parama- 
nanda-ban. 

III.— The 12 Prati-bans : 1 Ranka-ban; 2 Yarta-ban; 3 Karaha ; 
4 Kamya-ban ; 5 Anjana-ban ; 6 Kama-ban ; 7 Krishna-kshipanaka ; 8 Nanda- 



* Narayan Bhatt is better known by his work on Sanskrit Prosody, a commentary on the 
"Vritta Ratnakara. The colophon of the Vraja-bhakti-vilasa runs as follows: — Srimad Bhaskar- 
itmaja-Narayana-Bhatta-virachite Vraj-bhakti-vilase Paramahansa-saahito daharaue Vraja-Mah- 
atmj-a-nirupane Vana-yatra-prasange Vraja-yatra-prasangike trayodaso 'dhyayah. 

t Chhatra-ban represents the town of Chhata, The only spot mentioned in connectioo 
with it is the Suraj-kund, a pond which still exists and bears the same name, but ia not now- 
held in any regard. 

X Surabhi-baQ adjoins Gobardhan, Near Prem-bau is the Prem-sarovar. 



GO THE VRAJ-BHAKTI VILASA. 

prekshana ; 9 Indra-ban ; 10 Sikslia-ban ; 11 Chandrdvati-ban ; 12 Loha- 
ban.* 

IV.— Tlie 12 Adhi-bans ; 1 Matlnirii ; 2 Eadha-kund ; 3 Nanda-^rrama ; 
4 Gata-sthana ; 5 Lalita-grama ; G Brisha-bhanu-purt ; 7 Gokul ; 8 Baladeva ; 
9 Gobardhan ; 10 Java-ban; 11 Brinda-ban ; 12 Sanket. 

V. The 5 Sevja-bans; VI. The 12 Tapo-bans; VII. the 12 Moksha-bans ; 
VIII. the 12 Kama-bans ; IX. the 12 Artha-bans ; X. the 12 Dharma-bans ; XI. 
the 12 Siddhi-bans. All of which the reader will probably think it unnecessary 
to enumerate in detail. 

To every Ban is assigned its own tutelary divinity ; thus Halayudha (Balade- 
va) is the pati-on of Maha-ban ; Gopinath of Kam-ban ; Nata-vara of Kokila- 
ban ; Damodar of Tal-ban ; Kesava of Kumud-ban ; Sridhara of Bhandir-ban; 
Hari of Chhatra-ban ; Narayan of Khadira-ban ; Hayagriva of Bhadra-ban ; 
Padma-nabha of Bahula-ban ; Janardana of Bel-ban ; Adi-vadi*isvara of Para- 
mananda ; Paramesvara of Kam-ban (prati-ban) ; Jasoda-nandan of Nand- 
ganw ; Gokul-chandrama of Gokul ; Murlidhar of Karahla ; Lila-kamala-lo- 
chana of Hasya-ban; Lokesvara of Upahara-ban ; Lankadhipa-kula-dlvansi 
of Jahnu-ban ; and Sri-shatsilankshyana of Bhuvana-ban. 

The four last named woods are given as the limits of the Braj Mandal in 
the following sloka, and it is distinctly noted that the city of Mathura is at the 
same distance, viz., 21 kos, from each one of them. 

3[I%W ^^^^ISR g^^l^^ET rl^lrl^ II 

The Pandits, who were asked to reconcile these limits with those mentioned 
in the Hindi couplet previously quoted, declai'ed Hasya-ban in the east to be 
the same as Barhadd in Aligarh ; Upahara-ban in the west as Sona in Gnr- 
ganw ; and Jahnu-ban to the south the same as Surasen-ka-ganw, or Batesar. 
The identification is probably little more than conjectural ; but a superstition 
which is at once both comparatively modern and also practically obsolete 
scarcely deserves a more protracted investigation than has already been bestow- 
ed upon it. 

* The one Loha-ban on the right bank of the river is described as the scene of the de- 
struction of Jaraaandha's armies ; the other, on the left bank is more correctly styled Loha- 
jangha-ban. 

•j- Brisha-bhanu-pur is intended aa the Sanskrit original of Barsaua, but incorrectly so. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE CITY OF MATHURA: ITS HISTORY. 

Apart from its connection with the deified Krishna, the city of Mathura has 
been a place of note from the most distant antiquity. In Buddhist times it 
was one of the centres of that religion, and its sacred shrines and relics at- 
tracted pilgrims even from China, two of whom have left records of their travels. 
The first, by name Fa Hian, spent, as he informs us, three years in Western 
Asia, visiting all the places connected with events in the life of the great teacher 
or of his immediate successors ; his main object being to collect authentic 
copies of the oldest theological texts and commentaries to take back with him to 
his own coiintry. Commencing his journey from Tibet, he passed successively 
through Kashmir, Kabul, Kandahar, and the Panjab, and so arrived in Cen- 
tral India, the madhya-des of Hindu geographers. Here the first kingdom 
that he entered was Mathtira, with its capital of the same name situate on the 
bank of the Jamuna. All the people from the highest to the lowest were staunch 
Buddhists, and maintained that they had been so ever since the time of Sakya 
Muni's translation. This statement must be accepted with considerable reserve, 
since other evidence tends to show that Hinduism was the prevalent religion 
during part of the interval between Buddha's death and Fa Hian's visit, which 
was made about the year 400 A. D. He assures us, however, that many of 
the ecclesiastical establishments possessed copper plates engraved with the ori- 
ginal deeds of endowment in attestation of their antiquity. In the capital — 
where he rested a whole month — and its vicinity, on the opposite banks of the 
river, were twenty monasteries, containing in all some 3,000 monks. There 
were, moreover, six relic-towers, or stiipas, of which the most famous was the 
one erected in honour of the great apostle Sari-putra. The five other stiipas 
are also mentioned by name ; two of them commemorated respectively Ananda, 
the special patron of religious women, and Mudgala-putra, the great doctor of 
Samddhi or contemplative devotion. The remaining three were dedicated to 
the cultus of the Abhi-dharma, the Sutra and the Vinaya, divisions of the 
sacred books, treating respectively of Metaphysics, Religion, and Morality, and 
known in Buddhist literature by the collective name of the Tri-pitaka or ' three 
baskets,' 

Some 200 years later, Hwen Thsang, another pilgrim from the Flowery 
Land, was impelled by like religious zeal to spend sixteen years, from 629 to 
645 A, D., travelling throughout India. On his return to China, he compiled, 



62 HWEN thsang's description of mathura. 

by special command of the Emperor, a work in twelve books entitled ' Memoirs 
of Western Countries,' giving succinct geographical descriptions of all the 
kingdoms, amounting in number to 128, that he had either personally visited, 
or of which he had been able to acquire authentic information. After his death, 
two of his disciples, wishing to individuaUze the record of their master's adven- 
tures, compiled in ten books a special narrative of his life and Indian travels. 
This has been translated into French by the great Orientalist, Mons. S. Julien. 
Mathura is described as being 20 li, or four miles in circumference, and as con- 
taining still, as in the days of Fa Hian, 20 monasteries. But the number of 
resident monks had been reduced to 2,000, and five temples had been erected to 
Brahmanical divinities ; both facts indicating the gradual decline of Buddhism. 
Seven stupas were reverenced as containing relics of the great teachers of the 
law ; and apparently — though there is some slight variation in the titles — are 
the same as those mentioned by the earlier pilgrim, with the addition of one 
dedicated to the memory of Rahula, the son of Buddha. To quote the original : — 
*' In the kingdom of Mathura there are still to be seen the stupas in which were 
deposited of old the relics of the holy disciples of Sakya Muni, viz., Sari-putra, 
Mudgalayana, Purna-maitrayani-putra, Upali, Ananda, Rahula, and Manjusri. 
On the yearly festivals, the religious assemble in crowds at these stilpas, and 
make their several offerings at the one which is the object of their devotion. 
The followers of Abhi-dharma offer to Sari-putra, and those who practise con- 
templation (dhydna) to Mudgalyayana. Those who adhere to the Sutras pay 
their homage to Purna-maitrayani-putra ; those who study the Yinaya honour 
Upali ; religious women honour Ananda ; those who have not yet been fully 
instructed (catechumens) honour Eahula; those who study the Maha-yana 
honour all the Bodhi-satwas.* Five or six li — i.e., about a mile and a quarter — 
to the east of the town is a monastery on a hill, said to have been built by the 
venerable Upagupta. His nails and beard are preserved there as relics. At 
a hill to the north of this monastery is a cave in the rock, twenty feet high and 
thirty feet broad, where had been collected an immense number of little bambu 
spikes, each only four inches long. When any man or woman, whom the 
venerable Upagupta had converted and instructed, obtained the rank of an 
Arhan,t he added a spike. But he took no note of other persons, even though 
they had attained the same degree of sanctity." In the Memoirs it is added 
that 25 li to the south-east of this cave was a large dry tank, where it was said 
that one day as Buddha was pacing up and down, he was offered some honey 
by a monkey, which he graciously accepted. The monkey was so charmed at 
the condescension that he forgot where he was, and in his ecstasy fell over into 

• A B.jdlu eatwa is deflncd iis a being wlio haa arrived at supreme wisdom (bodhi), and yet 
consents to remain as a creature (satwa) for tlie good of men. 

t Au Arhaa is a saiut who has attained to the fourth grade in the scale of perfection. 



MATHURA SACKED BY MAHMUD OF GAZNI. 63 

the tank and was drowned : as a reward for his meritorious conduct, when he 
next took birth, it was in human form. A httle to the north of this tank* was 
a wood with several stt/pas to mark the spots that had been hallowed by the 
presence of the four earlier Buddhas, and where various famous teachers of the 
law had either sat in meditation or had expounded the Scriptures. 

After Hwen Thsang's visit in 634 A.D., there is no contemporary record of 
Mathurd till the year 1017, when it was sacked by Mahmiid of Gazni in his 
ninth invasion of India. The original source of information respecting Mah- 
miid's campaigns is the Tari'kh Yamini of Al Utbi, who was himself secretary 
to the Sultan, though he did not accompany him in his expeditions. He men- 
tions by name neither Mathura nor Maha-ban, but only describes certain 
localities which have been so identified by Firishta and later historians. The 
place supposed to be Maha-ban, he calls ' the Fort of Kulchand,' a Raja, who 
(he writes) " was, not without good reason, confident in his strength ; for no one 
had fought against him without being defeated. He had vast territories, enor- 
mous wealth, a numerous and brave army, huge elephants, and strong forts 
that no enemy had been able to reduce. When he saw that the Sultan advanced 
against him, he drew up his army and elephants in a 'deep forest'f ready for 
action. But finding every attempt to repulse the invaders fail, the beleaguered 
infidels at last quitted the fort, and tried to cross the broad river which flowed 
in its rear. When some 50,000 men had been killed or drowned, Kulchand 
took a dagger with which he first slew his wife, and then drove it into his own 
body. The Sultan obtained by this victory 185 fine elephants besides other 
booty." In the neighbouring holy city, identified as Mathura, " he saw a build- 
ing of exquisite structure, which the inhabitants declared to be the handiwork 
not of men but of Genii.J The town wall was constructed of hard stone, and 
had opening on to the river two gates, raised on high, and massive basements 
to protect them from the floods. On the two sides of the city were thousands 
of houses with idol temples attached, all of masonry and strengthened throuo-h- 
out with bars of iron ; and opposite them were other buildings supported on 
stout wooden pillars. In the middle of the city Avas a temple, larger and finer 
than the rest, to which neither painting nor description could do justice. The 
Sultan thus wrote respecting it :— ' If any one wished to construct a building 
equal to it, he would not be able to do so without expending a hundred million 
dinars, and the work would occupy two hundred years, even though the most 
able and experienced workmen were employed.' Orders were given that all 



* Identified with the tank at the back of the Damdama or Jalalpur sarae, to the north- 
west of whicli are the mounds on the Sonkh road. 

t These words may be intended as a literal translation of the name Maha-ban. 

% Possibly 'Jin a,' the name both of the Buddhist and Jami deity, was the word actually 
used, which was mistaken for the Arabic 'Jinn.' 



64 MATHURA UNDER THE EARLY MUHAMMADAN EMPERORS. 

the temples should be burnt with naphtha and fire, and levelled with the ground." 
The city was given up to plunder for twenty days. Among the spoil are said 
to have been five great idols of pure gold with eyes of rubies and adornments 
of other precious stones, together with a vast number of smaller silver images, 
which, when broken up, formed a load for more than a hundred camels. The 
total value of the spoil has been estimated at three millions of rupis ; while the 
number of Hindus carried away into captivity exceeded 5,000. 

Nizam-ud-din, Firishta, and the other late Muhammadan historians take 
for granted that Mathura was at that time an exclusively Brahmanical city. 
It is barely possible that such was really the case ; but the original authorities 
leave the point open, and speak only in general terms of idolaters, a name 
equally applicable to Buddhists. Many of the temples, after being gutted of 
all their valuable contents, were left standing; probably because they were too 
massive to admit of easy destruction. Some writers allege that the conqueror 
spared them on account of their exceeding beauty, founding this opinion on the 
eulogistic expressions employed by Mahmiid in his letter to the Governor of 
Gazni quoted above. It is also stated that, on his return home, he introduced 
the Indian style of architecture at his own capital, where he erected a splendid 
mosque, upon which he bestowed the name of ' the Celestial Bride.' But, how- 
ever much he may have admired the magnificence of Mathura, it is clear that 
he was influenced by other motives than admiration in sparing the fabric of the 
temples ; for the gold and silver images, which he did not hesitate to demolish, 
must have been of still more excellent workmanship. 

During the period of Muhammadan supremacy, the history of Mathura is 
almost a total blank. The natural dislike of the ruling power to be brought 
into close personal connection with such a centre of superstition divested the 
town of all ]iolitical importance; while the Hindu pilgrims, who still continued 
to frequent its impoverished shrines, were not invited to present, as the priests 
were not anxious to receive, any lavish donation which would only excite the 
jealousy of the rival faith. Thus, while there are abundant remains of the 
earlier Buddhist period, there is not a single building, nor fragment of a build- 
ing, which can be assigned to any year in the long interval between the inva- 
sion of Mahmdd in 1017 A.D., and the reign of Akbar in the latter half of the 
sixteenth century. 

Nor can this be wondered at, since whenever the unfortunate city did attract 
the emperor's notice, it became at once a mark for pillage and desecration : 
and the more religious the sovereign, the more thorough the persecution. Take 
for example the following passage from t!ic Tilrikh-i-Dauili of Abdullah (a 
•writer in the reign of Jahangir), who is speaking of Sultan Sikandar Lodi 
(X488 — 1516 A.D.), one of the most able and accomplished of all the occupants 
of the Dellii throne : " lie was so zealous a Musalman that he utterly destroyed 



MATHURA VISITED BY AURANGZEB. 65 

many places of worship of the infidels, and left not a single vestige remaining 
of them. He entirely ruined the shrines of Mathura, that mine of heathenism, 
and turned their principal temples into sarcies and colleges. Their stone images 
were given to the butchers to serve them as meat-weights, and all the Hindus 
in Mathura were strictly prohibited from shaving their heads and beards, and 
performing their ablutions. He thus put an end to all the idolatrous rites of 
the infidels there ; and no Hindu, if he wished to have his head or beard shaved, 
could get a barber to do it." 

The reign of tolerance which Akbar* had initiated was of very short duration ; 
for in 1636 we find Murshid Kuli Khan made a commander of 2,000 horse, 
and appointed by the Emperor Shah-jahan Grovernor of Mathura and Maha- 
ban with express instructions to be zealous in stamping out all rebellion and 
idolatry. But the climax of wanton destruction was attained by Aurangzeb, 
the Oliver Cromwell of India, who, not content with demolishing the most 
sacred of its shrines, thought also to destroy even the ancient name of the city, 
by substituting for it Islampur or Islamabad. Thus it is only from the days 
when the Jats and Mahrattas began to be the virtual sovereigns of the country, 
that any series of monumental records exists. 

Mathura was connected with two important events in Aurangzeb's life. 
Here was born, in 1639, his eldest son, Muhammad Sultan, who expiated the sin 
of primogeniture in the Oriental fashion by ending his days in a dungeon ; as 
one of the first acts of his father, on his accession to the throne, was to confine 
him in the fortress of Gwaliar, where he died in 1665. In the last year of the 
reign of Shah-jahan, Aurangzeb was again at Mathura, and here established 
his pretensions to the crown by compassing the death of his brother, Murad. 
This was in 1658, a few days after the momentous battle of Samogarh,f in 
which the combined forces of the two princes had routed the army of the right- 
ful heir, Dara. The conquerors encamped together, being apparently on the 
most cordial and aflFeetionate terms ; and Aurangzeb, protesting that for him- 
self he desired only some sequestered spot, where, unharassed by the toils of 
government, he might pass his time in prayer and religious meditation, persist- 
ently addressed Munid by the royal title as the recognized successor of Shah- 
jahan. The evening was spent at the banquet ; and when the wine cup had begun 
to circulate freely, the pious Aurangzeb, feigning religious scruples, begged 
permission to retire. It would have been well for MuraH, had he also regarded 
the prohibition of the Koran. The stupor of intoxication soon overpowered him, 
and he was only restored to consciousness by a contemptuous kick from the foot 

* As an indication of reviving importance, it may be mentimed that in Akbar's time there 
was a mint at Mathura, though only for copper coinage. 

t Samogarh is a village, one march from Agra, since named, in honour of the event, Fatha- 
1 41, 'the place of victory.' 



GQ REBELLION OF 16G8 A. D. 

of the brother ■\vho had just declared himself his faithfid vassal. That same 
night the unfortunate Murad, heavily fettered, was sent a prisoner to Delhi, 
and thrown into the fortress of Saliin-garh.* He, too, was subsequently re- 
moved to Gwaliar, and there murdered. 

In spite of the agreeable reminiscences which a man of Aurangzeb's tem- 
perament must have cherished in connection with a place where an act of such 
unnatural perfidy had been successfully accomplished, his fanaticism was not a 
whit mitigated in favour of the city of Mathura. In 1668, a local rebellion 
afforded him a fit pretext for a crusade against Hinduism. The insurgents had 
mustered at Sahora,t a village in the Maha-ban pargana, where (as we learn 
from the Maasir-i-Alamgiri) the Governor Abd-ul-Nabi advanced to meet them. 
" He was at first victorious and succeeded in killing the ringleaders ; but in 
the middle of the fight he was struck by a bullet, and died the death of a 
martyr." He was followed in office by SafF-Shikan Khan ; but as he was not 
able to suppress the revolt, which began to assume formidable dimensions, he 
was removed at the end of the year 1669, and Hasan Ali Khan appointed 
Faujdar in his place. The ringleader of the disturbances, a Jat, by name 
Kokila, who had plundered the Sa'dabad pargana, and was regarded as the 
instrument of Abd-ul-Nabi's death, fell into the hands of the new Governor's 
Deputy, Shaikh Razi-ud-din, and was sent to Agra and there executed. ^ A 
few months earlier, in February of the same year, during the fast of Ramazan, 
the time when religious bigotry would be most infliamed, Aurangzeb had des- 
cended in person on Mathura. The temple, specially marked out for destruc- 
tion, was one built so recently as the reign of Jahaugir, at a cost of 33 
lakhs, by Bir Sinh Deva, Bundela, of Urcha. Beyond all doubt this was the last 
of the famous shrines of Kesava Deva, of which further mention will be made 
hereafter. To judge from the language of the author of the Maasir, its demo- 
lition was regarded as a death-blow to Hinduism. He writes in the following 
triumphant strain: — '' In a short time, with the help of numerous workmen, 
this seat of error was utterly broken down. Glory be to God that so difficult 
an imdertaking has been successfully accomplished in the present auspicious 
reign, wherein so many dens of heathenism and idolatry have been destroyed. 

* Bernier, on whose narrative the above paragraph is founded, calls Sallm-garh by the very 
English-looking name • Slinger ;' a fine illustration of the absurdity of the phonetic system. 

f As is always the case when an attempt is made to identify the local names mentioned by 
any historian who writes in the Persian character, it is extremely uncertain whether Sahora la 
really the village intended. The word as given in the manuscript begins Avith s and ends with rt, 
and has an r in the middle ; but beyond that much it is impossible to predicate anything with 
certainty about it. 

% His son and daughter were both brought up as Muhammadans, and eventually the girl 
married Shall Kuli, and the boy, who hud received the name ol Fazil, became famous for hia skill 
in reciting the Koran, 



MATHDRA OCCUPIED BY HOLKAR 1804 A. D. 67 

Seeing the power of Islam and the efficacy of true religion, the proud Rajas 
felt their breath burning in their throats, and became as dumb as a picture on a 
wall. The idols, large and small alike, all adorned with costly jewels, were carried 
away from the heathen shrine and taken to Agra, where they were buried 
under the steps of Nawab Kudsia Begam's mosque, so that people might trample 
upon them for ever." It was from this event that Mathura was called Islamabad. 
In 1707 Aurangzeb died; and the land had rest for 50 years, till the mas- 
sacre by Ahmad Shah Durani. Another lapse of 30 years, and in 1788 it wit- 
nesses the horrible death of Grhulam Kadir ; but both these events have already 
been recorded in the general narrative of the Jat and Mahratta period (pages 
24-27), and need not here be repeated. Suffice it to note that, throughout the 
Muhammadan period, Mathura twice only claims a conspicuous place in the 
pages of history ; once at the very first appearance of the conquering race, and 
once again in the last days of the declining empire. On both occasions the 
events to be recorded are of a similar character, viz., plunder and massacre ; 
while the more domestic incidents which crop up to the surface during the 
same long period are equally characterised by baseness and barbarity. 

It was in 1803 that Mathura passed under British rule, and became a military 
station on the line of frontier, which was then definitely extended to the Jamuna. 
This was at the termination of the successful war with Daulat Rao Sindhia ; 
when the independent French State, that had been established by Perron, and 
was beginning to assume formidable dimensions, had been extinguished by the 
fall of Aligarh ; while the protectorate of the nominal sovereign of Delhi, trans- 
ferred by the submission of the capital, invested the administration of the Com- 
pany with the prestige of imperial sanction. In September of the following 
year Mathura was held for a few days by the troops of Holkar Jasavant Rao ; 
but on the arrival of reinforcements from Agra was re-occupied by the British 
finally and permanently. Meanwhile, Holkar had advanced upon Delhi, but the 
defence was so gallantly conducted by Ochterlony that the assault was a signal 
failure. His army broke up into two divisions, one of which was pursued to 
the neighbourhood of Farrukhabad, and there totally dispersed by General 
Lake ; while the other was overtaken by G-eneral Fraser between Dig and 
Gobardhan, and defeated with great slaughter. In this latter engagement the 
brilliant victory was purchased by the death of the officer in command, who 
was brought into Mathura fatally wounded, and survived only a few days. He 
was buried in the Cantonment Cemetery, where a monument* is erected to 
his memory with the following inscription : — 

" Sacred to the memory of Major-General Henry Fraser, of His Majesty's 11th Regiment of 
Foot, who commanded the British Array at the battle of Deig on the 13th of November, 1804, 

* To judge from the extreme clumsiness both of the design and execution, the irregular 
spacing of the inscription, and the quaint shape of some of the letters, this must have been che 
very first attempt of a native mason to work on European instructions. 



68 MUTINY OF 1857 A. D. 

and by his judgment and valour achieved an important and glorious victory. He died in conse- 
quence of a wound he received when leading on the troops, and was interred here on the 25th of 
November, 1804, in the 40th year of his age. The army lament his loss with the deepest sorrow ; 
•his country regards his heroic conduct with grateful admiration ; history will record his fame 
and perpetuate the glory of his illustrious deeds." 

The next half-century was a period of undisturbed peace and growing pros- 
perity; and, simply recording the fact that in 1832 the city of Mathura was 
made the capital of a new district, then formed out of parts of the old disti'icts 
of Agra and Sa'dabad, we come down to the year 1857. It was on the 14th 
of May in that eventful year that news arrived of the mutiny at Merath. Mr. 
Mark Thoruhill, who was then magistrate and collector of the district, with 
Ghulam Husain as deputy collector, sent an immediate requisition for aid to 
Bharat-pur. Captain Nixon, the political agent, accompanied by Chaudhari 
Katn Sinh, chief of the five sardars, and Gobardhan Sinh the faujdar, came 
with a small force to Kosi on the northern border of the district, and there 
stayed for a time in readiness to check the approach of the Mewatis of Gurgaon, 
and the other rebels from Delhi. Mr. Thornhill bad meanwhile removed to 
C/hhata, a small town on the high-road some eight miles short of Kosi, as being 
a place which was at once a centre of disaffection, and at the same time pos- 
sessed in its fortified sarcie a stronghold capable of long resistance against it. 
The first outbreak, however, was at Mathura itself. The sum of money then 
in the district treasury amounted to rather more than 5^ lakhs, and arrange- 
ments had been made for its despatch to Agra, with the exception of one lakh 
kept in reserve for local requirements. The escort consisted of one company 
of soldiers from the cantonments, sujiported by another company which had 
come over from Agra for the purpose* The chests were being put on the carts, 
when one of the subadars suddenly called out hoshiydr sipdhi, ' look alive, my 
man,' which was evidently a preconcerted signal ; and at once a shot was fired, 
which killed Lieut. Burl ton, commandant of the escort, dead on the spot.f The 
rebels then seized the treasure, together with the private effects of the residents 

• There were present at the time Mr. Elliot Colvin, the son of the Lieutenant-Governor, 
who had been sent from Agra to supersede Mr. Clifford, laid up by severe fever ; Lieutenant 
Graham, one of the officers of the Treasury Guard ; Mr. Joyce, the Head Clerk, and two of his 
Bubordinates, by name Hashman. As they were cut off from the civil station by the rebels, who 
occupied the intermediate ground, they made their way into the city to the Seth, by whom they 
were helped on to Mr. Thornhill's camp at Chhatd. Mr. NichoUs, the Chaplain, with his wife 
aud child, and a Native Christian nurse, took refuge in the collector's house, and waited there 
for some time in hopes of being joined by the others ; but on hearing that the jail was broken 
open, they fled to Agra. 

t The site of the old Court-house is now utterly out of the beaten track, and is all over- 
grown with dense vegetation, among which may be seen a plain but very substantial stone table 
tomb, with the following inscription : " Sacred to the memory of Lieut. P. H. C. Burlton, 67th 
N. L, who was shot by a dotachiucnt of his rcf^imciit and of the 11th N. L near this spot oa the 
aotUuf May 1867. This tomb is erected by his brother officers." 



THE IMUTINY OF 1857 A. D. 69 

in the station, which were also ready to be transported to Agra, and went off 
in a body to the magistrate's court-house, which they set on fire, destroying 
all the records, and then took the road to Delhi. But first they broke open 
the jail and carried all the prisoners with them as far as the city, where they 
got smiths to strike off their fetters. Besides Lieut. Burlton, one of the trea- 
sury officials also was killed. An attempt was made to check the rebel body 
as it marched through Ohhata, but it was quite ineffectual, and on the Slat 
of May they entered the town of Kosi. There, after burning down the customs 
bungalow and pilhiging the police station, they proceeded to plunder the tah- 
sili. But some Rs. 150 was all they could find in the treasury, and most of 
the records also escaped them. The townspeople and most of the adjoining 
villages remained well-affected to the Government ; and subsequently, as a 
reward, one year's revenue demand was remitted, and a grant of Rs. 50 made 
to each head-man. Mr. Thornhill and the other Europeans with him now 
determined to abandon their position at Chhata and return to Mathura, where 
they took refuge in the city in the house of Seth Lakhmi Chand. While there, 
a report came that the Jats had set up a Raja, one Devi Sinh, at Raya on the 
other side of the Jamuna. His i-eign was of no long continuance, for the 
Kota Contingent, which happened to be on the spot at the time, seized and 
hanged him with little ceremony. But as soon as this was accomplished, 
they themselves mutinied ; and Mr. Thornhill, who had accompanied them to 
Raya, had to make a hasty flight back to Mathura, bringing some small trea- 
sure in the buggy with him. 

On the 6th of July, the mutineers of Morar and Nimach, on their retreat 
from Agra, entered the city. In anticipation of their arrival, Mr. Thornhill, 
disguised as a native, and accompanied by a trusty jamadar, Dilawar Khan, 
started to flee to Agra. When they reached Aurangabad, only some four 
miles on the way, they found the whole county on both sides of the road in 
the possession of the rebels. The men whom the Seth had despatched as 
an escort took fright and decamped ; but the jamadar, by his adroit answers 
to all enquiries, was enabled to divert suspicion and bring Mr. Thornhill safely 
through to Agra. On the suppression of the disturbances, he received, as a 
reward for his loyalty, a small piece of land on the Brinda-ban road, just out- 
side Mathura, called after the name of a Bairagi who had once lived there, 
Dudhadhari. 

Though the rebels stayed two days in Mathura before they passed on to 
Delhi, the city was not given up to general plunder, partly in consequence of 
the prudent management of Seth Mangi Lai, who levied a contribution, accor- 
ding to their means, on all the principal inhabitants. At this time Seth Lakh- 
mi Chand was at Dig, but the greater part of his establishment remained be- 
hind, and rendered Government the most valuable assistance by the despatch 



70- SUPrRESSION OF THE MUTINY. 

of intelligence. Order in the citj was chiefly maintained by Mi'r ImdaJ 
AH Khan, thasildar of Kosi, who had been specially appointed depnty col- 
lector. 

On the 26th of September, the rebels, in their retreat from Delhi, again 
passed through Mathura. Their stay on this occasion lasted for a week, and 
great oppression was practised on the inhabitants, both here and in the neigh- 
bouring town of Brinda-ban. They were only diverted from general pillage 
by the influence of one of their own leaders, a subadar from Nimach, by name 
Hira Sinh, who prevailed upon them to spare the Holy City. For a few days 
there was a show of regular government ; some of the chief officers in the col- 
lector's court, such as the sadr kanungo, Rahmat-ullah, the sarishtadar, Mano- 
har Lai and Vazir Ali, one of the miiharrirs, were taken by force and compelled 
to issue the orders of the new administrators; while Maulvi Karamat Ali was 
proclaimed in the Jama Masjid as the Viceroy of the Delhi Emperor. It 
would seem that he also was an involuntary tool in their hands, as he was sub- 
sequently put on his trial but acquitted. He is since dead. It is said that 
during their stay in the city, the rebels found their most obhging friends 
among the Mathuriya Chaubes, who, perhaps, more than any others, have grown 
rich and fat under the tolerance of British rule. After threatening Brinda- 
ban with their cannon and levying a contribution on the inhabitants, they mov- 
ed away to Hathras, and Bareli. Mir Imdad Ali and the Seth returned from 
Bharat-pur ; and, in October, Mr. Thornhill arrived from Agra with a company 
of troops, which in the following month he marched up to Chhata. There the 
rebel zamindars had taken possession of the fortified same and one of its bas- 
tions had to be blown up before an entry could be effected : at the same timo 
the town was set on fire and partially destroyed, and twenty-two of the lead- 
ing men were shot. A few days previously, Mir Imdad Ali, with Nathu Lai, 
tahsildar of Sahar, had gone up into the Kosi pargana and restored order 
among the Gujars there, who alone of all the natives of the district had been 
active promoters of disaff"ection. While engaged in their suppression, Imdad 
Ali received a gun-shot wound in the chest ; but fortunately it had no fatal 
result, and he is now deputy collector of Kanhpur, with a special additional 
allowance of Rs. 150 per mensem. By the end of November, general tran- 
quality was restored ; but it was not till July, 1858, that the treasury was trans- 
ferred from the Seth's house in the city to the police lines in the civil sta- 
tion.* In Christmas week of the following year, 1859, the Viceroy held a 
Darbar, in which many honours were conferred upon diff'erent individuals, 
and in particular the ten villages, which the Gujars had forfeited by tlieir open 

* Here it remained till after the completion, in 1861, of the new court-house and district 
offices, which, with important results to archajological research, as will hereafter be showD, 
were rebuilt on a ucw site. 



SUPPRESSION OF THE MUTINY. 71 

rebellion Avere bestowed upon Raju Gobind Sinh of Hathras, in acknowlcdo-- 
ment of his distinguished loyalty and good services. The value of this o-rant 
has been largely diminished by the persistent lawlessness of the ejected Gii- 
jars, who have always sullenly resented the loss of their estates. A few 
months ago their ill-deeds culminated in the barbarous murder of the widow- 
ed Rani's land-agent, Jay Ram Sinh, who was rash enough to pass the nio-ht 
in Jatwari, one of the confiscated villages. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE CITY OF MATHURA : ITS ARCHEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY. 

In consequence of the chanr^es in religion and tlie long lapse of time, the 
whole of the ancient Buddhist buildings described by the Chinese pilgrims had 
been overthrown, buried, and forgotten, till quite recently, when some frag- 
ments of them have been again brought to light. The first discovery was 
made by General Cunningham in 1853, who noticed some capitals and pillars 
lying about within the enclosure of the Katra, the site of the Hindu temple of 
Kesava Deva. A subsequent search revealed the architrave of a gateway and 
other sculptures, including in particular a standing figure of Buddha, three and- 
a-half feet high, which was found at the bottom of a well, with an inscription 
at its base recording the gift of the statue to the ' Jasa Vihara,' or ' Convent of 
Glory,' which may be taken as the name of one of the Buddhist establishments 
that had existed on the spot. The date of the presentation was recorded in 
figures which could not be certainly deciphered.* 

A far more important discovery was made in 18(50, in digging the founda- 
tion of the magistrate and collector's new court-house. The site selected 
for this building was an extensive mound overhanging the Agra road at the 
entrance to the civil station. It had always been regarded as merely the re- 
mains of a series of brick-kilns, and had been further protected against explora- 
tion by the fact that it was crowned by a small mosque. This was, for military 
reasons, blown down during the mutiny; and afterwards, on clearing away the 
rubbish and excavating for the new foundations, it was found to have been 
erected, in accordance with the common usage of the Muhammadan conque- 
rors, upon the ruins of a destroyed temple. A number of Buddhist statues, pil- 
lars, and bas-reliefs, were disinterred ; and from the inscriptions, which have 
been partially deciphered, it appears that the mound was occupied by at least 
four monasteries, bearing, according to General Cunningham, the names of 
Sanghamittra-sada Vihara, Udapani Arama, Huvishka Vihara, and Kundo- 
khara,t or as it may be read, Kunda-Suka Vihara. On the pedestal of a seated 
figure was found recorded the first half of a king's name, Vasu ; the latter 
part was broken away, but the lacuna should probably be supplied with the 
Avord ' Deva,' as a group of figures inscribed with the name of King Vasudeva 
and date Sambat 87, was discovered in 1871 at a neighbouring mound called 

* This statue was one of those removed by Dr. Playfair to tlie Museum at Agra. 
t It must be admitted that Kundokhara, i. e., Kuuda-pushkara, is a very questionable com- 
pound, since the two members of which it is compuscd would bear each precisely the same meaning. 



THE GREEKS AT MATHURA. 73 

the ' Kankali tila.' Transcripts and translations of many of the inscriptions 
have been recently made by the learned Sanskrit scholar Babu Eajendra Lai 
Mitra, and published in the Journal of the Calcutta Asiatic Society for 1870. 
They are all brief votive records, giving only the name of the obscure donor, 
accompanied by some stereotyped religious formula. The dates, which it 
would be interesting to ascertain, are indicated by figures difficult to decipher, 
and which when deciphered still leave uncertain the era intended. The Babu 
concludes that they refer to the Saka era, beginning from 76 A. D. ; and if so, 
they range between 120 and 206 A. D. ; but it is quite possible that they are 
computed from some more exclusively Buddhist era, of which there were several 
in use. The most numerous remains were portions of stone railing of the parti- 
cular type used to enclose Buddhist shrines and monuments. These have been 
collected in the grounds of the Agra Museum and roughly put together in 
such a way as to indicate the original arrangement. Many of the pillars were 
marked with figures as a guide to the builder ; and thus we learn that one set, 
for they were of various sizes, consisted of at least as many as 129 pieces. 
There were also found three large seated figures of Buddha, of which two were 
full, the third a little less than life-size ; and the bases of some 30 large 
columns. It was chiefly round these bases that the inscriptions were engraved. 
One of the most noticeable fragments was a stone hand, measuring a foot across 
the palm, which must have belonged to a statue not less than from 20 to 24 feet 
in height. It would be interesting to unearth the remainder of this enormous 
colossus. Most of the sculptures were executed in common red sandstone and 
were of indifferent workmanship, in every way inferior to the specimens more 
recently discovered at other mounds in the neighbourhood. The most artistic 
was the figure of a dancing-girl rather more than half life-size, in a natural and 
graceful attitude.* Like the so-called figure of Silenus, discovered by James 
Prinsep in 1836, it was probably the work of a Greek artist : a conjecture 
which involves no historical difficulty, since in the Yuga-Purana of the (xargi- 
Sauhita, written about the year 50 B. C, it is explicitly stated that Mathura 
was reduced by the Greeks, and that their victorious armies advanced into the 
very heart of Hindustan, even as far as Patali-putra. The text is as followsf : — 

so 

* Two representations of this figure are given in Cunningham's Archajological Survey, Vol. 
I., page 240. 

t I q.iiote from Dr. Kern's Brihat Sanhita, for though several of the Mathura Pandits have 
good collections of MSS., the genuine Gargi-Sanhita is so scarce a work that it is not to be 

L 



1i HUSHKA KING OF KASHMIR. 

^' Then those hateful conquerors, the Greeks, after reducing Saketa, the 
country of Pauchala and Mathura, will take Kusuma-dhvaja (Patali-i)utra); and 
^vhen Pushpa-pura (i. e., Patali-putra) is taken, every province will assuredly 
become disordered." 

As mentioned above, one of the inscriptions gave the name of Huvishka,* 
^nd is therefore of special interest, since the Eaja-Tarangini mentions among 
the successoi-s of the great Asoka, in the latter half of the century immediately 
preceding the birth of Christ, three kings of foreign descent named Hushka 
(or Huvishka), Jushka, and Kanishka. The later Muhammadan writers repre- 
sent them as brothers ; but it is not so stated in the Sanskrit chronicle, the woi'ds 
of which are simply as follows : — 

m-^ Ti^?T^w mi RTi[: ^i^RTi^rs^ i 

" There, too, the three kings Hushka, Jushka, and Kanishka, born of 
Turushka descent, monarchs of eminent virtue. In their exalted reign a 
great part of the region of Kashmir was occupied by peripatetic Buddhist 
■ascetics." 

Their dominions are known to have included Kabul, Kashmir, and the Pan- 
jdb; and recently-discovered inscriptions, as this at Mathura, imply that their 
sway extended further over a considerable portion of Upper India. It is true 
that many of the religious buildings in holy places have been founded by 
fbreigQ princes who had no territorial connection with the neighbourhood; 
but there seems to have been some special bond of union between Mathura and 
Kashmir. Incredible as it has been deemed by most geographers, it is yet 
within the range of possibility that Ptolemy intended, by the close similarity 
of names, to indicate a connection between Kao-n-'7/3tavTOTdsToi; Yjuld cttov Kal tov 
'2avhoj3a\ Kal rod 'Poahlos -mjr-^ds—ihzi is, Kdsperia, or Kashmir, at the sources 

found in auy of tbeiii. The siege of Saketa is aBcertaiiied to have taken place early in the reign 
of Mcnander, who ascended the throne in the year 141 B. C, Pushpa-mitra being at that time 
King of Patali-putra. 

* This inscription, which, like most of the others, was round the base of a pillar (now pre- 
served in the Museum of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta), has been deciphered and translated 
by Babu Rajendra Lai Mitra, conjecturally, as follows : — 

^ iia f^ 80 iqif TTi^^ TmxH T^^ 5^2^^ ^1%^^ f%WK ^1^ 

" Presented on the 4th day of the year 60, to the Vihara of the great king, king of kings, 
the heaven-born Huvishka, by the mendicant Jivaka Udiyauaka, known by the name of the 
breath-Buspeudcd ! May it prove a blessing to all ni.ankiud. The fourteenth congregation I" 



CONNECTION BJITWEEN" MATHURA AND KASHMIR. 75 

of the Vitasta, the Chandra-bhaga aud the Ravi — and the Kashpciroei, dwelliug 
lower down on the Vindhya range, and the banks of the Jamuna, one of whose 
chief towns was Mathura. For, further, Ptolemy represents 'f/ iravlcuov Xtvpa, 
the country of Pandu, as lying in the neighbourhood of the Vitasta, 
or Jhelam ; while Arrian, quoting from Megasthenes, says it derived its 
name from Pandoea, the daughter of Hercules, the divinity specially vene- 
rated by the Suraseni on the Jamuna, Thus, as it would seem, he identifies 
Mathura, the chief town of the Suraseni, Avith Pandoea. Balarama, one of 
its two tutelary divinities, may be certainly recognized as Belus, the Indian 
Hercules ; while, if we allow for a little distortion of the original legend, Pritha, 
another name of Kunti, the mother of the Pandavas and sister of Kinshna and 
Balarama's father, Vasudeva, may be considered the native form which was 
corrupted into Pandoea. In historical illustration of the same line of argument, 
it may be remarked that Gonarda I., the king of Kashmir, contemporary 
with Krishna, is related (Raja-Tarangini, I., 59)* to have been a kinsman of 
Jarasandha and to have assisted him in the siege of Mathura. He was slain 
there on the bank of the Kalindi, i. e., the Jamuna, by Balarama. His son 
and successor, Damodara, a few years later, .thinking to avenge his father's 
death, made an attack on a party of Krishna's friends as they were returning 
from a wedding at Gandhara near the Indus, but himself met his death at that 
hero's hands. The next occupant of the throne of Mathura in succession 
to Jarasandha was Kama, the faithful ally of the Kauravas, against whom 
the great war was waged by Krishna and the Pandavas. Gonaixla II., the 
son of Damodara, was too young to take any part in the protracted struggle ; 
but the reigning houses of Mathura and Kashmir acknowledged a common 
enemy in Krishna, and the fact appears to have conduced to a friendly feeling 
between the two families, which lasted for many generations. Thus we read 
in the Raja-Tarangini (IV,, 512)t that when Jayapida, who reigned over 
Kashmir at the end of the eighth century after Christ, built his noAV capital 
of Jayapura, a stately temple Avas founded there and dedicated to Mahadeva 

9F1^IT^: ^ 37j^i: I 

" Gonarda, the king of Kashmir, having been sumnioiiecl by \\U relation, Jarasandha, to his 
assistance, besieged with a mighty army Krishna's city of Mathurfi." 

TioT^rr: Ti^T^^^ ^irrifiT T^^Tiif^: i 



76 THE KANKALI TILA. 

under the title of Achesvara, by Acha, the son-in-law of Pramoda, the king of 
Mathura.* 

In close proximity to the mound where the antiquities, which we have des- 
cribed above, were discovered, is a large walled enclosure, called the Damdama, 
for some years past occupied by the reserves of the district police, but origin- 
ally one of a series of sardes erected in the time of the Emperor Jalal-ud-din 
Akbar, along the road between the two royal residences of Agra and Delhi. 
Hence the adjoining hamlet derives its name of Jalalpur; and for the sake of 
convenience, when future reference is made to the mound, it will be by that 
title. As it is at some distance to the south-east of the katra, the traditional 
site of ancient Mathura, and so far agrees with the position assigned by Hwen 
Thsang to the stupa erected to commemorate Buddha's interview with the mon- 
key, there is plausible ground for identifying the two places. The identifica- 
tion is confirmed by the discovery of the inscription with the name Kundo 
Khara or Kundasuka ; for, whichever way the word is read, it would seem to 
contain a reference to a tank (kunda), and a tank was the characteristic fea- 
ture of Hwen Tlisang's monkey stupa. It at first appears a little strange that 
there should be, as the inscriptions lead us to infer, four separate monasteries 
on one hill, but General Cunningham states that in Banna, where Buddhism is 
still the national religion, such juxtaposition is by no means uncommon. 

Incidental allusion has already been made to the Kankali, or, as it is 
occasionally called, the Jaini Tila.f This is an extensive mound on the side 
of the road which leads from Jalalpur sarae to the katra. A fragment of a 
carved Buddhist pillar is set up in a mean little shed on its summit and does 
duty for the goddess Kankali, to whom it is dedicated. A few years ago, the 
hill was partially trenched, when two colossal statues of Buddha in his character 
of teacher were discovered. They are each seven and a half feet in height, and 
are now in the grounds of the Agra Museum. Whatever else was found was col- 
lected on the same spot as the remains from the Jalalpur mound, and it is there- 
fore possible (as no accurate note was made at the time) that some of the speci- 
mens referred to the latter locality were not really found there ; but there is no 
doubt as to the inscriptions, and this is the only point of any importance. Fur- 
ther excavations resulted in the discovery of several mutilated statues of finer 
stone and superior execution, and it was thought that many more might still 

• I have not been able to trace king Pram ida's name elsewhere. He may have been one of 
the seven Nas^as ("or, according to another MS., Mauaa) princes, whom the Vayu Purana men- 
tions as destined to reign over Mathura — 

" The seven Niigas will possess the pleasant city of Mathura." 
f By the roadside, between the Kankali Tila and Siva Tal a handsome chhatri is now being 
built in memory of Chaube Genda, Puroliit to the Rdjd of Jhalra-pattan. 



THK KANKALI TILA. 77 

remain buried; as the adjoining fields for a considerable distance were strewn 
with fragments applied to all sorts of vile purposes. A large figure of an elephant 
— unfortunately without its trunk — standing on the capital of a pillar and in all 
respects similar to the well-known example at Sankisa, but of much coarser work, 
was found in 1871 in a neighbouring garden. On the front of the abacus is 
engraved an inscription with the name of King Huvishka and date ' Sambat 
39.' Another inscription, containing the name of King Kanishka with date 
' Sambat 9/ was discovered the same day on the mound itself below a square 
pillar, carved with four nude figures, one on each face. This is of special in- 
terest, inasmuch as nude figures are always considered a distinctive mark of the 
Jain sect, which is supposed to be a late perversion of Buddhism ; an opinion 
which will have to be modified if tlie date in the present instance has been 
correctly read. 

A special grant for the purpose having been sanctioned by the Local 
Government, a supplementary exploration of the Kankali Tila was taken in hand 
August, 1873, and brought to completion while these sheets were passing 
through the press. The only objects of interest that have been found are as 
follows : — 

1st. — A life-size seated figure with an elaborately carved nimbus and lono- 
hair flowing over the shoulders and down the back. The head is lost. 

2nd. — A teacher of the law standing between two tiers of small fio-ures 
seated in the attitude of contemplation, with a Caliban-like monster sprawlino- 
over the top of the canopy above his head. The arms and feet of the principal 
figure are missing ; but with this exception the group is in good preservation 
and is well executed. 

Brd. — A spandril of a doorway carved with the representation of a tri- 
umphal column surmounted by an elephant. This would be of some value as a 
model. 

4:th. — A chaumukhi, or pillar of four (headless) Buddhas, seated back to 
back, well executed in fine white stone. 

6th. — A chaumukhi of four standing nude figures, roughly carved in coarse 
red sandstone. 

6th. — A pair of columns, 3^ feet high, characteristically carved with three 
horizontal bands of conventional fohage and festoons, which are slightly sucp- 
gestive of a classic model. 

7th. — A cross-bar of a Buddhist railing with a sculptured medallion on 
either side. 

The discoveries have been less extensive than vvas anticipated ; but even 
a purely negative result, if placed on record, would have been of value as 
affording a definite answer to future enquirers. It is worthy of remark that no 
definite line of foundation was brought to hght, nor any large remains of plain 



78 BUDDHIST RAILINGS. 

masonry superstructure ; but only a confused medley of broken statues -with- 
out even the pedestals on which they must haA-e been originally erected. This 
suggests a suspicion that possibly there never was a temple on the site, but 
that the sculptures were brought from different places in the neighbourhood 
and here thrown into a pit by the Muhammadans to be buried. They clearly 
beloncr to two very different periods. The more ancient are roughly carved 
in coarse red sandstone, and whenever there is any lettering it is in an obsolete 
character : the more modern display much higher artistic skill, are executed 
in much finer material, and from the fragments of inscription, which are all 
in the Nagari character, apparently belong to the eleventh century after Christ. 
Explorations have now been commenced at two other large mounds, which 
have never hitherto attracted the notice of the archaeologist, lying about half a 
mile from the back of the Damdama by the side of the circular road, on the 
outskirts of the village of Mirzapur and within the limits of cantonments. 
Here have been found, only partially buried in the soil, the lower extremities 
of two laro-e figures ; the one a seated Buddha with a single line of inscription 
in the Gupta character, the other a female figure with a child in her lap and 
other accessories. 

The third of the principal Buddhist sites is the vicinity of the katra. Here, 
at the back of the temple of Bhutesvar Mahadeva, is rather a high hill of very 
limited area, on the top of which stood, till removeil by the writer, a Buddhist 
pillar of unusually large dimensions. It is carved in front with a female figure, 
nearly life-size, bearing an umbrella, and above her head is a grotesque bas- 
relief representing two monkeys, a bird, and a misshapen human dwarf. Im- 
mediately opposite the temple is a large ruinous tank, called Balbhadra Kund, 
with a skirting wall, into which had been built up some perfect specimens of the 
cross-bars of a Buddhist railing. These are remarkably curious ; for though 
the uprights are often found, the smaller horizontal pieces of the ballustrade 
are very rare; so much so, that Fergusson, in his History of Architecture, speaks 
of the Sanclii railing as the only built example yet discovered ; as an architec- 
tural ornament it may be seen carved on every ancient Buddhist shrine. From 
an adjoining well was recovered a plain pillar measuring four feet seven inches in 
height by eleven inches in breadth, carved in front merely with two roses. The 
elliptical holes in the sides of the pillar were too large for the cross-bars, which 
must have belonged to a smaller range. They measure only one foot three inches 
in leno-th, and are enriched with vai'ious devices, such as a rose, a lotus, some 
winged monster, &c. These were eleven in number : four of the most perfect 
were taken away by General Cunningham, the rest are still in situ. Built into 
the verandah of a chaupdl close by were five other Buddhist pillars of elaborate 
design and almost perfect preservation. It is said that there was originally a 
sixth, which some years ago was sent down to Calcutta ; there it has now been 



BUDDHIST RELIQUARY. 79 

followed by t^A'o more ; the remaining three are in the possession of the writer. 
They are each four feet four inches in height and eleven inches broad ; the front 
is carved with a standing female figure whose feet rest upon a crouching monster. 
In an upper compartment, divided off by a band of Buddhist railing, are two 
demi-figures, male and female, in amorous attitudes, of very superior execu- 
tion. On one pillar the principal figure is represented as gathering up her 
drapery, in another as painting her face with the aid of a mirror, and in the 
third as supporting with one hand a wine-jar, and in the other, which hangs 
down by her side, holding a bunch of grapes. Each of these figures is entirely 
devoid of clothing : the drapery mentioned as belonging to one of them is 
simply being gathered up from behind. They have, however, a profusion of 
ornaments — karas on the ankles, a belt round the waist, a mohan-mdld on the 
neck, karn phids in the ears, and bdju-band, churi, and jyahunchi on the arms 
and wrists. There are also three bas-reliefs at the back of each pillar; the sub- 
ject of one is most grossly indecent; another represents Buddha's mother, Mciya 
Devi, with the Bo-tree. A fragment of a pillar from one of the smaller con- 
centric circles of this same set was at some time sent to Labor, and is now to 
be seen in the museum there. 

Close at the back of the Balbhadra Kund and the katra is a range of hills 
of considerable elevation, commonly called d/idl kot, literally ' dust-heaps,' the 
name given to the accumulation of refuse that collects outside a city, and so 
corresponding precisely to the Monte Testaccio at Rome. These are, however, 
clearly of natural formation, and probably indicate the old course of the 
Jarauna. But at the distance of about a mile and a half to the south-west is a 
group of some twelve or fourteen circular mounds, strewn with fragments of brick 
and stone, which would seem all to have been stupas. Certainly one was, for in 
the year 1868 a road, leading to the village of Sonkh, was carried through it, and 
in the centre was disclosed a masonry cell containing a small gold reliquary, the 
size and shape of a pill-box. Inside was a tooth, the safe-guard of which was 
the sole object of box, cell, and hill, but it was thrown away as of no value. The 
box was preserved on account of the material and has been given to the writer 
by Mr, Hind, the district engineer, whose workmen had discovered it. As 
these hills are to the north of the Jalalpur mound, they may with great pro])a- 
bility be identified with the group of stiipas described by Hwen Thsang as lying 
to the north of Hhe monkey tank.' 

Just outside the south, or, as it is called, the Holi Gate of the city, is a hill 
known as the Kans-ka Tila, from the summit of which the tyrant of that name 
is supposed to have been tumbled down by Krishna. General Cunningham 
suggests that this might be one of the seven great stupas mentioned by the 
Chinese pilgrims, and adds that on the north of the city there are two hills still 
bearing the names of Anaud and Yiuayaka, titles which they specify. But in 



80 SITE OF BUDDHIST MATHURA. 

this it appeal's that he was niisinformed, as no such localities can be traced. 
Of the hills to the north of Mathura, the most conspicuous are called respect- 
ively Kailas, Mahal,* Hanuman, and Ganes. An Anant tirtha, easily to be 
confounded with Anand, is noted in the Mathura Mahatmj'a; and the fact 
that Vinayaka, besides its Buddhist meaning, is also an epithet of Ganes, may 
have given rise to an error in the other name. Further, all these hills, includ- 
ing the Kans-ka Tila, appear to be of natural formation, the whole country 
being broken up into heights and hollows of indefinite number and extent. 
All the ancient Buddhist sites must be looked for at a greater distance from 
the river and outside the modern city in the open country between the Dam- 
dama, the circular road, and the back of the katra. 

It is evident that the Kankali Tila was the site of a very large religious 
establishment, most probably the Upagupta monastery mentioned by Hwen 
Thsang as lying to the east of the town. It is a little to the east of the katra, 
which may be taken as the centre of the old town, since local tradition invari- 
ably represents it to have been so. The town, no doubt, always stood on the 
water's edge ; but the tradition is confirmed by the appearance of the ground 
immediately around the katra, which has evidently been affected by fluvial 
action and also by the present habits of the river, which is persistent in endea- 
vouring to desert its present channel in favour of one still more to the east. 
The stream may have so worked its way between the natural hills and artificial 
mounds that the temples, which once stood on its east bank, found themselves 
on the west, while those that were oi'iginally on the western verge of the river 
were eventually left far inland. This was the view taken by Tavernier more 
than two centuries ago,t who was so far influenced by the popular tradition 
and the appearance of the country as to assert positively, not only that the 
course of the river had changed, but that the change had taken place quite 
recently. His words are as follows: — "At Cheki Sera (by which he must 
intend the Ab amah ad sarae, then recently built) may be seen one of the largest 
pagodas in all India. Connected with it is a hospital for monkeys, not only 
for those that ai-e ordinarily on the spot, but also for any that may come from 
the surrounding country, and Hindus are employed to feed them. This pagoda 
is called Matura, and was once held in much greater veneration by the heathen 
than it is now ; the reason being that the Jamuna (Gemene) used to flow at 
its foot, and so the Hindus, whether natives or strangers, who had come from 
a distance on a pilgrimage for purposes of devotion, had facilities for bathing 
in the river both before they entered the pagoda and also before eating when 
they went away. For they must not eat Avithout bathing, and they believe 
that their sins are best efi\iced by a dip in flowing water. But for some years 

* So called from a dwelling-house that was built there by Sawae Jay Siah. 
t The editiou from which I translate was publiehed at Paris iu 1677. 



SITE OF ANCIENT MATHUEA. 81 

past the river has takeu a turn to the north, and now flows at the distance of a 
kos or more ; whence it comes about that the shrine is less frequented by pil- 
grims than it used to be." General Cunninojham in his Archaeological Report 
has identified the Upagupta monastery with the Jasa Yihara inside the katra; 
but in all probability he would not now adhere to this theory ; for, at the time 
when he advanced it, he had never visited the Kankali Tila, and was also under 
the impression that the fort had always been, as it noAV is, the centre of the 
city. Even then, to maintain his theory, he was obliged to have recourse to a 
very violent expedient, and in the text of the Chinese pilgrim alter the word 
* east' to ' west,' because, he writes, "a mile to the east would take us to the 
low ground on the opposite bank of the Jamuna, where no ruins exist ;" forget- 
ting, apparently, Fa Hian's distinct statement that in his time there were monas- 
teries on both sides of the river. This expression, it is true, must not be pressed 
too closely, since it may refer exclusively, as it certainly refers in part, to the 
rehgious buildings in the town of Maha-ban, which stands on the opposite bank 
of the river. But, however this may be, it is certain that the topographical 
descriptions of the two pilgrims may be reconciled with existing facts without 
any tampering with the text of their narrative. Taking the katra, or the ad- 
joining shrine of Bhutesvar, as the omphalos of the ancient city, and the pro- 
bable site of the great stiipa of Sariputra, a short distance to the east will bring 
us to the Kankali Tila, i. e., the monastery of Upagupta ; while the Jalalpur 
mound has already been identified with the monkey stiipa, and the mounds on 
the Sonkh road with "the stiipas of the four earlier Buddhas and other great 
teachers of the law." 

On the decline of Buddhism, IMathura acquired that character for sanctity 
which it still retains, as the re]Aited birth-place of the deified Krishna. Or, more 
probably, the triumph of Buddhism was a mere episode, on the conclusion of 
which the city re-acquired a character which it had before enjoyed at a much 
eralier period ; for it may be inferred from the language of the Greek geographers 
that Brahmanism was in their time the religion of the country, and Hindu tradi- 
tion is uniform in maintaining its claims both to holiness and antiquity. Thus 
it is represented as the second of the capitals of the Lunar race, which were in 
succession Prayag, Mathura, Kusasthali, and Dwaraka ; and in the following 
well-known couplet it is ranked among the seven sanctuaries of Hindustan: — 

Kasi Kanti cha Mayakhya twayodhya Dwaravatyapi 
Mathuravantika chaita sapta puryo tra mokslifidah. 

"Kasi {i. e., Banaras), Kanti (probably Kanchi), Maya (i. e., Haridwar), 
with Ayodhya, Dwaravati, Mathura, and Avantika, are the seven cities of 
salvation." 

At the present day, though crowded with sacred sites, the traditionary scenes 
of Krishna's adventures, there is not, thanks to Muliammadan intolerance, a 

M 



82 TEMPLK OF EESAVA DEVA IN 1650 A. D. 

single building of any antiquity either in the city or its environs. Its most 
famous temple — that dedicated to Kesava Dera — was destroyed, as mentioned 
above, in 1669, in the eleventh year of the reign of the iconolastic Aurangzeb. 
The mo?qne erected on its ruins is a building of little architectural value, but 
the natural advantages of its lofty and isolated position render it a striking 
feature in the landscape. The so-called katra, in which it stands, a place to 
which frequent allusion has been made in the course of this sketch, is an 
oblong enclosure, like a sarde, 804 feet in length by 653 feet in breadth. Upon 
a raised terrace, 172 feet long and 86 feet broad, stands the mosque, occupying 
the entire length of the terrace, but only 60 feet of its breadth. About five feet 
lower is another terrace measuring 286 feet by 268. There may still be seen 
let into the Muhammadan pavement some votive tablets with Nagari inscrip- 
tions dated Sambat 1713 and 1720, coi-responding to 1656 and 1663 A. U. 
In the latter year the temple was seen standing by Bernier, who writes : — 
" Between Delhi and Agra, a distance of fifty or sixty leagues, there are no 
fine towns, the whole road is cheerless and uninteresting ; nothing is worthy of 
observation but Mathura, where an ancient and magnificent pagan temple is 
still to be seen." The plinth of the temple-wall was traced by General Cun- 
ningham for a distance of 163 feet, and there is reason to believe it extended 
still further.* The building is described at considerable length by Tavernier, 
who saw it about the year 1650. He writes :—" After the temples of Jagre- 
nath and Banai'ous, the most important is that of Matura, about 18 A;ost from 
Ao-ra on the road to Delhi. It is one of the most sumptuous edifices in all 
India, and the place where there used to be formerly the greatest concourse of 
pilgrims ; but now they are not so many, the Hindus having gradually lost 
their previous veneration for the temple, on account of the Jamuna, which 
used to pass close by, now having changed its bed and formed a new channel 
half a league away. For, after bathing in the river, they lose too much time in 
returning to the temple, and on the way might come across something to render 
them unclean. 

" The temple is of such a vast size that, though in a hollow, one can see it five 
or six kos off, the building being very lofty and very magnificent. The stone 
used in it is of a reddish tint, brought from a large quarry near Agra. It splits 
like our slate, and you can have slabs 15 feet long, and nine or ten broad, and only 
some six inches thick; in fact, you can split them just as you like and according 

• General Cunningham's remarks on the date of this temple are most singuhuly and un- 
accountably wide of the mark. 

f Here he states the distance correctly ; hut in another place he gives the 8taa:es from Delhi 
to Agra as follows :— " From Delhi to Badelpoura, 8 /ws ; from Badelpoura to Pelwel ki sera, 
18 ; from Pelwel ki sera to Cot ki sera (Ko.si) 15 ; from Cot ki sera to Cheki sera (Mathura) 16; 
from Cheki sera to Goodki sora, 6 ; from Goodki sera to Agra, 6." One stage must have been 
omitted at the end. 



TEMPLE OF KESAVA DEVA. 83 

to your requirements, while you can also have fine columns. The whole of the 
fort at Agra, the walls of JehanabaJ, the king's palace, and some of the 
houses of the nobles are built of this stone. To return to the temple. — It is set 
on a large octagonal platform, which is all faced with cut stone, and has round 
about it two bands of many kinds of animals, but particularly monkeys, in relief; 
the one band being only two feet off the ground level, the other, two feet from 
the top. The ascent is by two staircases of 15 or 16 steps each ; the steps be- 
ing only two feet in length, so that two people cannot mount abreast. One of 
these staircases leads to the grand entrance of the tem])le, the other to the back 
of the choir. The temple, however, occupies only half the platform, the other 
half making a grand square in front. Like other temples, it is in the form of a 
cross, and has a great dome in the middle with two rather smaller at the sides. 
Outside, the building is covered from top to bottom with figures of animals, 
such as rams, monkeys, and elephants, carved in stone ; and all round there are 
nothing but niclies occupied by different monsters. In each of the three towers 
there are at every stage from the base to the pinnacle windows five or six feet 
high, each provided with a kind of balcony, where four persons can sit. Each 
balcony is covered with a little vault, supported some by four, others by eight 
columns arranged in pairs and all touching. Hound these towers there are yet 
more niches full of figures representing demons, one has four arms, another 
four legs ; some human heads on bodies of beasts with horns and lono- tails 
twining round their thighs. There are also many figures of monkeys, and it 
is quite shocking to have before one's eyes such a host of monstrosities. 

" The pagoda has only one entrance, which is very lofty, with many columns 
and images of men and beasts on either side. The choir is enclosed by a screen 
composed of stone pillars, five or six inches in diameter, and no one is allowed 
inside but the chief Brahmans, who make use of a little secret door which I could 
not discover. When in the temple, I asked some of the Brahmans if I could 
see the great Ram Ram, meaning the great idol. They replied that if I would 
give them something, they would go and ask permission of their superior ;* 
which they did as soon as I had put in their hands a couple of rupees. After 
waiting about half an hour, the Brahmans opened a door on the inside in the 
middle of the screen — outside, the screen is entirely closed — and, at about 15 or 

* Regarding tho veneration paid to the head of the temple, Tavernier in another place relates 
the following anecdote : — " While I was at Agra in the year 1642, a very odd thing happened. A 
Hindu broker in Dutch employ, by name Voldas, some 70 or 80 years of age, received tidings of 
the death of the chief Brahman, that is to say, the high priest of the temple of Matura. He at 
once went to the head of the office, and begged him to talce his accounts and finish them off, for 
as his high priest was dead he wished to die too, that he might seree the holy man in the other 
world. Directly his accounts had been inspected, he got into his carriage together with some 
relations who followed him, and, as he had taken nothing either to eat or drink since the news had 
reached him, he died on the road, without ever expressing a wish for any food." 



84 IMAGE OF KESAVA DEVA. 

16 feet from the door, I saw, as it were, a square altar, covered witli old gold and 
silver brocade, and on it the great idol that they call Ham Ram. The head 
only is visible, and is of very black marble, with what seemed to be two rubies 
for eyes. The whole body from the neck to the feet was covered with an 
embroidered robe of red velvet, and no arms could be seen. There were two 
other idols, one on either side, two feet high, or thereabouts, and got up in the 
same style, only with white faces ; these they called Becchor. I also noticed ni 
the temjde a structure 15 or 16 feet square, and from 12 to 15 feet high, 
covered with coloured cloths representing all sorts of demons. This structure 
was raised on four little wheels, and they told me it was the movable altar, 
on which they set the great god on high feast days, when he goes to visit the 
other gods, and when they take him to the river with all the people on their 
chief holiday." 

From the above description, the temple would seem to have been crowded 
with coarse figure-sculptures, and not in such pure taste as the somewhat older 
temple of Govind Deva at Brinda-ban and Hari Deva at Gobardhan ; but it 
must still have been a most sumptuous and imposing edifice, and we cannot but 
detest the bigotry of the barbarian who destroyed it. At the time of its demo- 
lition it had been in existc^ice only some fifty years, but it is certain that an 
earlier shrine, or series of shrines, on the same site and under the same dedica- 
tion, had been famous for many ages. Thus it is said in the Varaha Puraua — 
Na Kesava samo deva na Mathura gamo cTvija, 
" No god like Kesava, and no Brahman like a Mathuriya Chaube." 

In still earlier times the site had been appropriated by another religion, as 
is attested by the Buddhist remains which we have already described as found 
there. 

In anticipation of Aurangzeb's raid, the ancient image of the god was 
removed by liana, Kaj Sinh of Mewar, and was set up on the spot where, as they 
journeyed, the wheels of the chariot sank in the deep sand and refused to be 
extricated. It happened to be an obscure little village, then called Siarh, on 
the Banas, 22 miles nortli-east of Udaypur. But the old name is now lost in 
the celebrity of the temp] 3 of Nath ji, 'the Lord,' which gives its designation 
to the town of Nath-dwara, which has grown up round it. This is the most 
highly venerated of all the statues of Krishna. There are seven other of great 
repute, which also deserve mention here, as a large proportion of them came 
from the neighbourhood of Mathura, viz , Nava-nita at Nathdwara ; Mathura- 
nath at Kota ; Dwaraka-nath at Kankarauli, brought from Kanauj ; Jadu- 
nath at Surat from Maha-ban ; Bitthal-nath or Pandu-rang at Kota from Ba- 
naras ; Madan Mohan from Brinda-ban ; and Gokul-nath, or Gokul-chandraraa, 
from Gokul ; which two last were at Jaypur till a few years ago, when, in con- 
sequence of the Maharaja's disUkc to all the votaries of Vishnu, they were 



THE POTARA-KUND. 85 

removed to Kara-ban ia Bharat-pur territory. In all probability before very 
long they will be brought back to their original homes. 

At the back of the katra is the modern temple of Kesava Deva, a cloistered 
quadrangle of no particular architectural merit, and, except on special occasions, 
little frequented in consequence of its distance from the main town. It is sup- 
ported by an annual endowment of Rs. 1,027, the rents of the village of Undi 
in the Chhata pargana. Close by is a very large quadrangular tank of solid 
masonry, called the Potara-kund, in which, as the name denotes, Krishna's 
' baby-Hnen ' was washed. There is little or no architectural decoration, but 
the great size and massiveness of the work render it imposing, while the effect 
is greatly enhanced by the venerable trees which overhang the enclosing wall. 
Unfortunately the soil is so porous that the sup])ly of water is rapidly absorbed, 
and in every season but the rains the long flights of steps are diy to their very 
base. Its last restoration was made at considerable cost in 1850 by the Kam- 
dar of the G-waliar Raj. A small cell on the margin of the tank, called in- 
differently Kara-grah, ' the prison-house,' or Janra-bhiimi, ' the birth-place,' 
marks the spot where Vasudeva and Devaki were kei)t in confinement, and 
where their son Krishna was born. The adjoining suburb, in its name Mall- 
pura, commemorates, it is said, Kansa's two famous mallas, i. e., 'wrestlers,' 
Chanura and Mushtika. 

In connection with the discovery of Buddhist antiquities, allusion has 
already been made to the temple of Bhutesvar Mahadeva, which overlooks the 
old and ruinous Balbhadra-kund. In its present form it is a quadrangle of 
ordinary character with pyramidal tower and cloister built by the Mahrattas 
towards the end of last century. The site has probably been occupied bv suc- 
cessive religious buildings from most remote antiquity, and was at one time 
the centre of the town of Mathura, Avhich has now moved away from it more 
than a mile to the east. In the earlier days of Brahmanism, before the develop- 
ment of the Krishna cultus, it may be surmised that Bhutesvar M^as the special 
local divinity. There are in Braj three other shrines of Mahadeva of high tradi- 
tional repute, in spite of the meanness of their modern accessories, viz., Kamesvar 
at Kama, Chakresvar at Gobardhan, and Gopesvar at Brinda-ban. 

Of the many little shrines that cluster about the Balbhadra-kund,* one is 
dedicated to Balarama under his title of Dau-ji, ' the elder brother ;' another to 
Ganes, and a third to Nar-Sinha, ' the man-lion,' the fourth incai-nation of 
Vishnu. According to the legend, there was an impious king, by name Hiranya- 
Kasipu, who claimed universal sovereignty over all powers on earth, in heaven, 



* A mela is held by the Balbhadra-kund on tlie full moon of Srawan, the feast of the Saliiuo. 
A branch of the canal will soon be brought into the immediate neighbourhood, and it may bo 
hoped that some wealthy and devout Hindu may then be moved to undertake the restoration of 
what is certainly one of the most aucient of all the holy places in Mathura. 



06 THE SARASVATI-KUND. 

and hell. No one had the hardihood to oppose him, save his own son, the pious 
prince Prahhid, who was for ever singing the praises of the great god Vishnu, 
" If," said the king, " your god is everywhere present, let him now show himself in 
this pillar which I strike." At the word the pillar parted in twain and revealed 
the god in terrible form, half lion half man, who seized the boastful monarch 
and tore him in pieces and devoured him. 

In an adjoining orchard called the Kazi's Bagh, is a small modern mosque, 
and in connection with it a curious square building of red sandstone. It now 
encloses a Muhammadan tomb, and, if originally constructed for that purpose, 
is a striking illustration of theinfluence of the genius loci; for it has nothing 
Saracenic about it, and is a good specimen of the pure Hindu style of architec- 
ture with characteristic columns and quasi arches. 

After lea\dng the great entrance to the katra, the Delhi road passes a 
masonry well* called ' Kubja's,' in commemoration of the miracle which Krishna 
wrought in straightening the hump-backed maiden who met him there. A little 
further on, a handsome bridge, built by Seth Lakhmi Chand in 1849, crosses a 
natural Avatercourse known as the Sarasvati Sangam, or ' confluence of the 
Saras vati,' to the right of which is a hill called Kailas, with the temple of Go- 
karuesvar Mahadeva, and to the left an open plain, where the sports of the Ram 
Lila are celebrated on the festival of the Dasahara. Close by is a tank called 
the Sarasvati-kund, measuring 125 feet square. Owing to some fault in the 
construction, it is almost always dry, and the adjoining buildings have also rather 
a ruinous and deserted appearance. We learn, however, from the following in- 
scription which is on a tablet over the entrance to the temple, that the last 
restoration was completed so recently as the year 1846 : — 

^T ^ ^\nr{ ^^^m ^^^^ \nw\ ^\vh^ ^o <{^ ^o <i£o^ 

The above, which exliibits several peculiarities, both in style and phraseology, 
may be rendered as follows : — " Baladeva Oosain, resident of the Dasavatar 
Gali of Mathura, the devoted servant of the venerable contemplative ascetic the 
right reverend Swami Paramhans, thoroughly restored from ruin the Sarasvati- 
kund, and built this new temple and in due form set up a god in it. His agents 
were Chhote Lai and Mannii Lai, Sanadhs ; the head of the works Chunni ; the 
cost Rs. 2,735. Kartik sudi 13th, Sambat 1903." Tlie Swami's actual name 

* Imraediattly oppcsite the well a fragment of a sculptured Buddhist pillar has been set up, 
and receives religious honours as reprcseutiug the Hindu goddess Devi. 



THE SIVA TAL. 87 

was Narajcan, and liig disciple Baladeva was a foundling whom he picked up 
in the street. Both were Pandits of high local repute. At no great distance 
is the temple of Maha-Vidya Devi. The original image with that dedication is 
said to have been set up by the Pandavas; the present shrine, a Sikhara of 
ordinary character in a small quadrangle, was built by the Peshwa towards the 
end of last century. The hill u2:)on which it stands is ascended by flights of 
masonry steps between 30 and 40 in number. At the foot is a small dry tank, 
completely overgrown with a dense jungle of ber, pilu, and hins. In the court- 
yard, which occupies the entire plateau, is a karil tree said to be of enormous 
age, under which may be seen, among other fragments, a Buddhist pillar carved 
with the figure of Maya Devi under a Bo-tree, and a square stone box with a 
seated Buddha on each of its four sides. Two melas are held here on the 8th 
of the light fortnight of Chait and Kuwar. 

At several of the holy places, as we have had occasion to remark, a large tank 
forms one of the principal features ; but the only one that can be called a success 
is the Siva Tal, not far from the Kankali Tila. This is a spacious quadrangular 
basin of "great depth, and always well supplied with water. It is enclosed in a 
high boundary wall with corner kiosques and a small arched doorway in the 
centre of three of its sides. On the fourth side is the slope for watering cattle 
or ' Go-ghat,' with two memorial inscriptions facing each other, the one in 
Sanskrit, the other in Persian ; from which we learn that the tank was con- 
structed by order of Raja Patni Mall (of Banaras) in the year 1807 A.D. : — 

"In the holy circuit of Mathura, reverenced by the gods, pure home of the 
votaries of Siva, is a sacred place, whose virtues ai-e told in the Varaha Punina, 
inaccessible by men save through the efficacy of virtuous deeds performed in a 
previous state of existence ; chief of all sacred places, giver of special graces ; 
a pellucid lake, whose praises no length of time would suffice fully to tell. After 
a careful survey and employing the best of architects, who adorned it with 
tracery of varied design, the ceremony of its donation was performed by Raja 
Patni Mall through the Brahmans, causing gladness like that which arises from 



88 RAJA PATNI MALL. 

the touch of the foot of Yishnu, rejoicing even the gods. In the year of the 
(4) oceans, the (6) members, the (8) elephants, and the (solitary) moon, (that is, 
Samhat 1864) on Friday, the 10th of the light fortnight of the month Jeth." 

cijUo ^JU ^A.x^ jii'^ J^^iX^<!;:i.lj*j.li:|jU-^|j:i.^^l»)U Ja| ^ia^^xj 
UijU_5l^ ^(^oIj ^\y» jji^***' JU* y-..^;0 1^^)505 Li^*«J 5 ^-051^5 ^l>^Ci 

i__y vs^ I f y r -si.-/ 

" He is the one who is asked for help and who is constantly worshipped. The 
famous remains of this ancient shrine in the neighbourhood of Mathura, the 
place of pilgrimage from all six quarters, have now been renewed. When the 
old buildings of the Siva Tal were restored by that generous and benevolent 
founder, the goal of good deeds, the bestower of benefits on all the people of the 
world, the centre of public gratitude, Raja Patni Mall, Bahadur, fountain of ex- 
cellent virtue ; then the year of its construction — for the remembrance of all 
the world — was found to be 1222. Thought (or the poet Zaka) suggested the 
following tdrikli according to the abjad reckoning [illegible] water of life." 
The design and execution are both of singular excellence, and reflect the high- 
est credit on the architect whom he employed ; the sculptured arcades, which pro- 
ject far into the centre of the basin, and break up the long flights of steps into 
three compartments on each side, being especially graceful. The place is visited 
by a large number of bathers from the neighbourhood every morning, and is 
the scene of an annual mela held on the 11th of the dark fortnight of the month 
Bhadon. Outside the enclosure is a small temple in the same style of architec- 
ture dedicated to Mahudeva under the title of Achalesvar. In the Manoharjiur 
quarter of the city is a large temple of the Raja's foundation bearing the title 
of Dirgha Vishnu. The name is unusual and refers to the 'gigantic' stature 
which the boy Krishna assumed when he entered the arena to fight with Kansa's 
champions, Chanura and Mushtika. The Raja's dwelling-house is still stand- 
ing on the Nakarchi Tila, and was recently occupied for a time as a normal 
school for the training of female teachers. He is further commemorated by 
another small shrine near the Holi gate of the city, which he re-built in honour 
of Vira-bhadra, the terrible being ci'eated by Siva and Devi in their wrath to 
disturb the sacrifice of Daksha, a ceremony to which they had not been invited. 
His great ambition was to rebuild the ancient temple of Kesava Dcva, and 
with this view he had gradually acquired a considerable part of the site. But 
as some of the Muhammadans, who had occupied the ground for nearly two 
centuries, refused to bo bought out, and the law upheld them in their refusal, 



MA170HAR-PUR MOSQUE. 89 

he was at last, and after great expense had been incurred, reluctantly obliged 
to abandon the idea. Should a stranger visit the tank early in the morning, 
and enquire of any Hindu he meets there by whom it was constructed, he will 
find considerable difficulty in eliciting a straightforward answer. The Eajd, 
it is said, was a man of such delicate constitution that he never could take at 
one time more than a very few morsels even of the simplest food : hence arises 
a belief that anyone who mentions him by name the first thing in the morning, 
wiU, like him, have to pass the day fasting. 

From the katra, the centre of all the localities which we have hitherto been 
describing, a fine broad road has been carried through the rising grounds along 
the outskirts of the city, down to the edge of the river. On the right hand side 
is the stone-cuttei-'s quarter with the small old temple of Bankandi Mahadeva, 
and on the left the suburb of Manoharpur, with a mosque which, as we learn 
from the following inscription over the centre arch, was erected in the year 1158 
Hijri, L e.j 1745 A.D., during the reign of Muhammad Shah — 

1. In the reign of Shah Muhammad Shah, Abdurrashid built this mosque. 

2. Thought suggested the tdnhh, ' He built a beautiful mosque.' [A. H. 
1158; or A.D. 1745]. 

In the streets are many broken Buddhist pillars and other sculptures. The road 
was constructed in the collectorate of Mr. Best, and in the progress of the work 
a column was found bearing an inscription in some ancient character : to reduce 
the size of the stone, the inscribed face was ruthlessly cut away, and it was then 
converted into a buttress for a bridge. As it approaches the river, the road 
opens out into a fine square, Avith graceful arcades of carved stone. These are 
the property of the Maharaja of Bharat-pur and Gosain Purushottam Lai, and 
though ordinarily they have rather a deserted appearance, on the occasion of 
any great local festival they let for as much as Rs. 2 or 3 each a day. On the 
other side of the square opposite the road is a pontoon bi'idge, which was opened 
for traffic in 1870. The tolls are farmed at the large sum of Rs. 40,500 for the 
year : whence it is obvious that any reasonable outlay incurred in its construc- 
tion would soon have been repaid. But unfortunately in the revision of esti- 
mate, everything was sacrificed to a false economy; it was too narrow to al- 
low of two carts passing, and too weak to bear even a single cart if heavily 
laden. Thus it was no sooner opened than it broke down ; and repairs were in 
constant progress, till the night of the 13th of August, 1871, — when it was com- 
pletely swept away by a heavy flood. It has since been re-constructed ; but 
it is impossible that it should ever present a satisfactory appearance, while at 
the same time its cost has been excessive. 

N 



90 THE FORT or MATHUflA. 

The citj stretclioa for about a mile and a half along the right hank of tlie 
Jamuna, and from the opposite side has a very striking and picturesque appear- 
ance, which is owing not a little to the broken cliaracter of the ground on which 
it is built. Were it not for this peculiarity of site, the almost total absence of 
towers and spires would be felt as a great drawback ; as all the large modern 
temples have no sikfuvas, as are usually seen in similar edifices, but are siiuj^lo 
cloistered quadrangles of uniform height. The only exceptions are the lofty 
minarets of the Jama Masjid on the one si<le, and the campanile of the English 
church seen through the trees in the distance below. 

Looking up the stream, the most prominent object is the old Fort, or rather 
its massive substructure, for that is all that now remains, called by the people 
Kans-ka Kila. Whatever its legendary antiquity, it was rebuilt in historical 
times by Raja Man Sinh of Jaypur, the chief of ihe Hindu princes at Akbar's 
"Court ; and was the occasional residence of Man Slab's still more famous suc- 
cessor on the throne of Amber, the great astronomer Sawai Jay Sinh. He 
commenced his long reign of 44 years in 1GD9 A.D., and till the day of his death 
was engaged in almost constant warfare. Still he is less known to posterity by 
his military successes, brilliant though thoy wore, than by his enlightened civil 
administration and still more exceptional literary achievements. At the outset 
he made a false move ; for in the war of succession, that eusued upon the death 
of Aurangzeb, he attached himself to prince Bedar Bakht, and fought by his 
side in the fatal battle of Dhol-pur. One of the first acts of Shah Ahim on his 
consequent elevation to the throne was to sequester the principality of Amber. 
An Imperial Governor was sent to take possession, but Jay Sinh drove hiin out, 
sword in hand, and then formed a league with Ajit Sinh of Marwdr for mutual 
protection. From that day forward he was prominently concerned in all the 
troubles and warfare of that anarchic period, but never again on the losing side. 
In 1721, he was appointed Governor of the Province of Agra and later of Malwa ; 
but he o-radually loosened his connection with the Court at Delhi, from a con- 
viction that the dissolution of the Muhammadan empire was inevitable, and con- 
cluded terms with the Mahrattas. At his accession, Amber consisted only of the 
three parganas of Amber, Deosa, and Barsao, as the Shaikhawats had made 
themselves independent, and the western tracts had been attached to Ajmer. 
He not only recovered all that had been lost, but further extended his frontiers 
by the reduction of the Bargujars of Deoti and Rajaur, and made his State 
■worthy to be called the dominions of a Raja — a title which he was the first of 
his line to assume. The new capital, which he founded, ho called after his own 
name Jaypur, and it is still to the present day the most striking native city in 
India, and the only one built upon a regular plan. He is said to have been 
assisted both in the design and the execution by an architect from Bengal. In 
consequence of his profountl knowledge of astronomy, ho was eutrusttxl by Mu- 



SETH LAKIlMI CHAND. 01 

hammad Shall witli tbe reformation of the calendar. To ensure that amount of 
accuracy which he considered the small instruments in ordinary vise must always 
fail to command, he constructed observatories with instruments of his own 
invention on a gigantic scale. One of these was on the top of the Mathura Fort, 
the others at Delhi, Jaypur, Ujjaiyin, and Banaras. His success was so signal 
that he was able to detect errors in the tables of De la Hire, which had been 
communicated to hixn. by the King of Portugal. His own tables were com- 
pleted in 1728, and are those still used by native astronomers. He died in 
1743. His voluminous correspondence is said by Tod* still to exist, and his 
acts to be recorded in a miscellaneous diary entitled Kalpadruma, and a collec- 
tion of anecdotes called the Eksau nau gun Jay Sink kd. The whole of the 
Mathura observatory has now disappeared. A little before the mutiny the 
buildings were sold to the great Government contractor, Joti Prasad, who 
destroyed them for the sake of the materials. Certainly, they had ceased 
to be of any practical use ; but they were of interest, both in the history of 
science and as a memorial of one of the most remarkable men in the long 
line of Indian sovereigns, and their inconsiderate demolition is a matter for 
regret. 

From the Fort a continuous succession of ghiUs, all simple flights of stone 
steps with occasional shrines and kiosques, lines the water's edge down to a large 
walled garden below the city, called the Jamuna B.igh. This was the property 
of Seth Lakhmi Chaud, and contains two handsome chhattris or cenotaphs, in 
memory of his two predecessors, Mani Ram and Parikh Ji. 

The latter was a Gujarati Brahman of the Vallabhacharya persuasion, and 
held the lucrative appointment of Treasurer to the Gwaliar State. Being child- 
less and on bad terms with his only brother, he bequeathed the whole of his 
mimense Avealth to Mani Ram, one of his office subordinates, for whom he had 
conceived a great affection ; notwithstanding that the latter was a Jaini, and 
thus the difference of religion between them so great that it was impossible to 
adopt him formally as a son. As was to be expected, the will was fiercely dis- 
puted by the surviving brother ; but after a litigation, which extended over 
several years, its validity was finally declared by the highest court of appeal, and 
the property confirmed in Mani Ram's possession. On his death, it dev-olved 
in great part upon the eldest of his three sons, the millionaire Seth Lakhmi 
Chand, who has left an only son, by name Raghunath Das, who seems scarcely 
to have inherited his father's talent for business. His two uncles, Radha Kri- 
shan and Gobind Das, became converts to Vaishnavism, under the influence of 
the learned scholar Swami Rangacharya, and founded the great temple of 
Rang Ji at Briuda-ban, the only establishment (it is believed) in all Upper India 
that is owned by the followers of Ramanuja. The survivor, Gobind Das, has 
* From whom all the facts in the above narrative of Jay Sinh'a life are borrowed. 



92 THE VISRANT GHAT. 

no issue, but stands in the liglit of a fother to his nephew, Lachhman Dds, the 
onlj son of his deceased brother, Radha Krishan. 

About the centre of the river front is the most sacred of all the ghats, mark- 
ing the spot Avhere Krishna sat down to take ' rest ' after he had slain the tyrant 
Kansa, and hence called the Visrant Ghat. Tlie small open court has a marble 
arch facing the Avater, which distinguishes it from all the other landing-places : 
and on the other three sides are various buildings erected at intervals during the 
last century and a half by several pi-incely families, but none of them possesses 
any architectural beauty. Close by is a natural watercourse, said to have been 
caused by the passage of Kansa's giant body, as it was dragged down to the 
river to be burnt, and hence called the ' Kansa Khar.' The following lines 
in the Vishnu Purana are alleged in support of the tradition : — 

" By the trailing body of Kansa, with its prodigious weight, a channel was 
made as by the rush of a mighty stream." 

It is now arched over like the Fleet river in London, and forms one of the 
main sewers of the town, a circumstance which possibl}^ does not affect the 
sanctity, but certainly detracts somewhat from the material purity of this favour- 
ite bathing-place. It swarms with turtles of an enormous size, which are consi- 
dered in a way sacred, and generally receive a handful or two of grain from 
every visitor. 

Reference has already been made more than once to the Mathura Mahdtmya, 
or Religious Chronicle of Mathura. It is an interpolation on the Yaraha Purana, 
and of sufficient extent to be itself divided into 29 sections. After expatiating 
in the most extravagant terms on the learning, piety, and other virtues of the 
Mathuriya Chaubes, and the incomparable sanctity of the city in which they 
dwell, it briefly enumerates the twelve Vanas or woods, that are included in the 
perambulation of the land of Braj, and then at greater length describes the 
principal shrines which the pilgrim is bound to visit in the capital itself. As a 
rule, no attempt is made to explain either the names borne by the different holy 
places, or the origin of their reputed sanctity; but their virtue is attested by the 
recital of some of the miracles which have been worked through their super- 
natural influence. Take for example the following legend in connection with 
the Visrant Ghat : — 

" Once upon a time there, was a Brahman living at Ujjaiyin, who neglected 
all his religious duties, never bathed, never said a prayer, never went near a 
temple. One night, when out with a gang of thieves, he was surprised by the 
city watchmen, and in running away from them fell down a diy well and broke 
his neck. His ghost was doomed to haunt the place, and was so fierce that it 



THE MATHURA MAHATMYA. 93 

would tear to pieces and devour everyone who came near it. This went on for 
many years, till at last one day a band of travellers happened to pitch their 
tents by the well, and among their number was a very holy and learnel Brah- 
man. So soon as he knew how the neighbourhood was afflicted, he had recourse 
to his spells and compelled the evil spirit to appear before him. Discovering, 
in the course of his examination, that the wretched creature had in his lifetime 
been a Brahman, he was moved with pity for him and promised to do all in his 
power to alleviate his sentence. Whereupon the ghost begged him to go straight 
to Mathura, and bathe on his behalf at the Visrant Ghat, ' for,' said he, ' I once 
in my life went into a temple of Vishnu, and heard the priest repeat this holy 
name and tell its wondrous saving power.' The Brahman had often bathed 
there and readily agreed to transfer the merit of one such ablution. The words 
of consent had no sooner passed his lips than the guilty soul was absolved from 
all further suffering. "* 

On either side of this sacred spot, a number of minor ghats stretch up and 
down the river, those to the north being called the uttar kot, and those to the 
south the dakshin kot. They are invariably represented as twenty-four in all, 
twelve in either set ; but there is a considerable discrepancy as to the particular 
names- The following list has been supplied by a Pandit of high local repute, 
Makhan Misr, a Gaur Brahman, from whose extensive hbrary of manuscripts 
I have been able to procure almost every Sanskrit work that 1 have had occa- 
sion to consult. 

To the north : Ganes Ghat ; Manasa Ghat ; Dasasvamedha Ghat, under the 
hill of Ambarisha ; Chakra tirtha Ghat ; Krishna-Ganga Gh4t, with the shrine 
of Kalinjaresvar Mahadeva; Som-tirtha Ghat, more commonly called Vasudeva 
Ghat or Shaikh Ghat ; Brahmalok Ghat ; Ghantabharan Ghat ; Dhara-patan 



• To a devout Hindu, who believes that Krishna was an incarnation of the Deity, and that he 
hallowed with his presence the place now called the Visrant Ghat, there is no intrinsic absurdity 
in the legend as above quoted. It can be paralleled in all its particulars by many that have been 
recorded for the edification of the faithful by canonized saints of the Church. That the merit of 
good deeds can be transferred— the point upon which the story mainly turns — is a cardinal 
Catholic doctrine ; and as to the dying in sin and yet being saved through the efficacy of a formal 
act of devotion, take the following example from the pages of S. Alphonsus Liguori : - " A cer- 
tain Canon was reciting some pra^-ers in honour of the Divine Mother, and, whilst duino- so fell 
into the river Seine and was drowned. Being in mortal sin, the devils came to take him to hell. 
In the same moment Mary appeared and said, ' How do you dare to take possession of one who 
died in the act of praising me ?' Then addressing herself to the sinner, she siid, 'Now change 
thy life and nourish devotion to my Conception.' He returned to life and became a Heligious." 
Here the concluding words correspond precisely with the finale of the story of the barber Tinduk, 
as told on the next page. In short, the Hindu idea of divine worship, of the religious life, of the 
efficacy of faith and good works, of the earnest sympathy of the Divine Being with human dis- 
tress, and his occasional miraculous intervention for its relief, falls little, if at all, short of Catho- 
lie truth; but unhappily, with regard to the God, the proper object of this right devotion, their 
eyes are so blinded that they cannot see. 



94 THE TWENTY-FOUR GHATS. 

Gliiit ; Saugaman-tirtha Gliiit, otherwise called Yaikunth Gb4t ; Nava-tirtha 
Gbat; and Asikunda Ghat. 

To the south : Avimukta Ghat ; Yisrduti Ghat ; Prag Ghat ; Kankhal Gh:it ; 
Tinduk Ghat ; Surya Ghiit ; Chinta-maui Ghat ; Dhruva Ghat ; Ri^hi Ghat ; 
Moksha Ghat ; Koti Ghat ; and Buddh Ghat. 

The more common division is to include the Avimukta Ghat in the first set, 
from which the Manasa is then omitted, to except the Visrant Ghat altogether 
from the number of the twenty-four, and to begin the second series with the 
Balabhadra and the Jog Ghat. By the former of these two are the Satghara 
or ' seven chapels,' commemorating Krishna's seven favourite titles, and the 
shrine of Gata Sram or ' ended toil.' The latter is supposed to mark the spot 
where Joga-Nidra, the infant daughter of Nanda and Jasoda, whom Vasudeva 
had substituted for his own child Krishna, was dashed to the ground by Kansa, 
and thence in new form ascendeil to heaven as the goddess Durga. Botweeu it 
and the Priig Ghat is one more modern called Sringar Ghat with two temples 
dedicated respectively to Pipalesvar Mahadeva and Batuk-nath, and by Prag- 
Ghat the slirine of Ramesvar Mahadeva. The list further omits two ghats 
which occupy far more conspicuous sites than any of the others, but arc devoid 
of any legendary reputation. The first bears the name of Sanii Ghat, not, as 
niio-ht be supposed, a corruption of Sicduil^ but of Sdinhne, ' opposite,' as it fiices 
the main street of the city, where is a mansion of carved stone built hy the 
famous Hup Earn, Katara, of Barsana. The second is the Bengali Ghat, at the 
foot of the pontoon bridge, and close to a large house, the property of the Baja 
of Jhalra-pattan. 

Most of the titles refer to well-known legends, and there is no occasion to 
dwell at length upon them all. A little beyond the Ganes Ghat, which appro- 
priately heads the list, in the direction of Jay-Sinli-pura, is a shrine bearing the 
singular name of Gargi Sarofi, or, as it is sometimes called, the Great and Little 
Pathawari. They are said to have been the two wives of Gokarn, who was 
translated to heaven as an equal of Mahadeva. The mantra to be repeated iu 
honour of the younger lady runs as follows : — 

W^ ^T^ ^TR ^i^T raf^^TRJ^T II 
"Honor to thee, divine Pargi ! the Ilishi's beautiful wife, happy mother, 
beneficent incarnation of Gauri, over l)ostowing success." 

The word Ghantabharan (wliich avouUI be derived from ghanfd, 'a bell,' and 
Iharan, ' bearing,') is in the Vraj-bhakti-vilas perhaps more correctly written 
Gliantabhan, bhan meaning ' sound.' The allusion is to the bell, by the ringing 
of which Vishnu is roused from his four months' slumber on the 11th of the 
month Ktirtik. 



THE TWENTY-FOUR GHATS. 95 

The name Dharapatan (from dhdrci, 'a stream,' and. patan, 'falling,') pro- 
bably referred primarily to the position of the ghat, which is on a projecting 
point where it bears the full force of the 'fall of the stream.' Bnt in the Mahat- 
mya it is explained by the following legend : — "Once upon a time, a woman, 
whose home was on the bank of the Ganges, came on a pilgrimage to Mathura, 
and arrived there on the 12th of Kartik. As she was stepping into a boat near 
the place where now is the Dhara-patau Ghat, she fell over and was drowned. 
By virtue of this immersion in the sacred flood, she w^as born again in an exalted 
position as the daughter of the king of Banaras, and, under the name of the Rani 
Pivari, was married to Kshatra-dhanu, the king of Surashtra, by whom she had 
seven sons and five daughters. Upon one occasion when the royal pair were 
comparing notes, it came to light that he too had undergone a very similar ex- 
perience : for, originally he had been a wild savage, who had come over to 
Mathura from the Naimisha forest, and was crossing the Jamuna with his shoes 
balanced on the top of his head, when they fell off into the water. He dipped 
down to recover them, and was swept away by the torrent and drowned. Every 
stain of sin being thus washed out of his body, when he again took birth it was 
no longer as a barbarous Nishadha, or wild man of the w^oods, but as a noble 
Kshatriya king. 

Ambarisha, who gives a name to the hill by the Dasasvamedh Ghat, was a 
devout -worshipper of Vishnu, and thereby excited the hostility of the sage 
Durvasas, the most intolerant apostle of the supremacy of Siva. A terrific 
encounter took place between the two champions of the rival gods, but no 
weapons could avail against the magic discus of Vishnu ; Durvasas barely 
escaped with life, and Ambarisha has ever since been one of the most favoui'ite 
themes for Vaishnava laudation. 

Dhruva was the son of King Uttana-pada, and indignant at the slights put 
upon him by his stepmother, he left his father's palace to make a name for him- 
self in the world. By the advice of the seven great Rishis, Marichi, Atri, 
Angiras, Pulastya, Kratu, Pulaha, and Vasishta, he repaired to Madhu-ban near 
Mathura, and there, absorbed in the contemplation of Vishnu, continued for 
seven years a course of the severest penance. At last the god appeared to him 
in person, and promised to grant him any boon he might desire. His request 
was for a station exalted above every station, and which should endure for ever, 
whereupon he was translated to heaven as the polar star with his mother ISuniti. 

On the Dhruva Hla, or hill, is a small temple, built Sambat lb94, in place of 
an older shrine of which the ruins remain close by, dedicated to Dhruva Ji. 
The Pujdris, or priests in charge, by name Damodar Das and Chhote Lai, be- 
long to the ISanakadi or Nimbarak Sampradaya of Vaishnavas, and produce a 
manuscript pedigree in Sanskrit in proof of their direct ecclesiastical descent 
from Kesava Bhatt, Nimbdrak's successor, who is regarded as the head of the 



96 THE NIMDARAK SAMPRADAYA. 

secular, or Gnhastha, subdivision of the sect, as his brother-in-law Hari Vyasa 
was of the celibate, or Virakla, order. In the temple are figures of Hadhd 
Krishan, whom the Nimbaraks have adopted as their special j^atrons. The List 
of Superiors, or Guru-Parampara, as it is called, runs as follows : — 

I. — 1 Hansavatar; 2 Sanakadi; 3 Narada; 4 Nimbarak Swaiui: all deified 
characters. 

II. — 1 Nivasaeharya ; 2 Biswacharya; 3 Purushottam ; 4 Bilusa ; 5 Saruj)a ; 
6 Madhava; 7 Balbhadra; 8 Padina ; 9 Syama ; 10 Gopala ; 11 Kripala ; 12 
Deva : all distinguished by the title of Acharya. 

III. — 1 Sundar Bhatt ; 2 Padma-nabha ; 3 Sri Pama-chaudra; 4 Bamau ; 5 
Sri Krishna ; (J Padmakara ; 7 Sravan; 8 Bhiiri; 9 JMadhava ; 10 Syama; 11 
Gopala ; 12 Sri-bal, or Balbhadra; 13 Gopinath; 14 Kesava; 15 Gangal; 16 Ke- 
sava Kashmiri ; 17 Sri Bhatt ; 18 Kesava Biaiani : all bearing the title of Bhatt. 

IV.— 1 Giridhar Gosain; 2 Ballabh Lai; 3 Mukund Lai; 4 Nand Ldl; 
5 Mohan Lai ; 6 Earn Ji Lai ; 7 Mauu Lai ; 8 Padhii Lai ; 9 Kanhaiya Lai ; 
and 10 Damodar Das : all bearing the title of Gosain. 

The Nimbaraks have also a temple at Brinda-bau, dedicated to Rasak Bihari. 
Their distinguishing sectarial mark consists of two white perpendicular streaks 
on the forehead with a black spot in the centre. The natural parents of their 
founder are said to have been named Aruna Rishi and Jayanti. 

Tinduk, who gives his name to a ghat, was, according to the Mahatmya, a 
barber, lived at Kampilya, the capital of Panchala, in the reign of King De^-ad- 
atta. After losing all his family, he came to live at Mathura, and there practised 
such rigorous austerities, and balhed so constantly in the sanctifying stream of 
the Jam ana, that after death he took birth once more as a high-caste Brahman. 
The legend of the Asikunda Ghat is told on this wise: — " There was a virtu- 
ous king, Sumati, who started on a pilgrimage, but died before he was able to 
complete it. His son, Vimati, on succeeding to the throne, was visited by the 
sage Narad, who, at the time of taking his departure, uttered this oracular sen- 
tence : 'A pious son settles his father's debts.' After consulting with his 
ministers, the prince concluded that the debt was a debt of vengeance, which 
he was bound to exact from the places of [)ilgrimage, which had tempted his 
father to undertake the fatal journey. Accordingly, having ascertained that 
every holy place paid an annual visit in the season of the rains to the city of 
Mathura, he assembled an army and marched thither with full intent to destroy 
them all. They fled in terror to Kalpa-grama to implore the aid of Vishnu, 
who at last yielded to their entreaties, and assuming the form of a boar joined 
in combat with King Vimati on the bank of the Jamuna and slew him. In the 
fray, the point of the divine sword, ' asi,' snapped ofl^' and fell to the ground ; 
hence the ghat to this day is called Asi-kuuda Ghat, and the plain adjoining it 
Varaha Kshetra, or ' the field of the boar.' 



THE SATI BURJ. 97 

Tlius much for the twenty-four ghats and their legends ; but, before leaving 
the river side, one other building claims a few words, vt., ' the Sati Burj.' This 
is a slender quadrangular tower of red sandstone commemorating the self-sacri- 
fice of some faithful wife. According to the best authenticated tradition, she is 
said to have been the Queen of Raja Bhar Mai of Jaypur, and the mother of the 
famous Raja Bhagavan Da^, by whom the monument was erected in the year 
1570 A.D. It has a total height of 55 feet and is in four stories, surmounted 
by a low and ugly modern dome. The lowest story forms a solid basement ; 
the second and third are lighted by square windows, and are supplied with an 
internal staircase by which access is gained to the top. The exterior is orna- 
mented with rude bas-reliefs of elephants and other devices. It is of no great 
architectural value, but forms a picturesque feature in the river front. 

On a rising ground in the very heart of the city stands the Jama Masjid, 
erected in the year 1661 A.D., by Abd-un-Nabi Khan, the Local Governor. 
The following inscription seems very clearly to indicate that it was erected on 
the ruins of a Hindu temple : — 

)J>.^Jy iJl^^t ^y.J SS ^jS).^\fl:^ ^kx^ ^M&J m ^j[j £.U].::^x^ (_^j| O;}) O^S^M-^O Ijijl-V 

" 1. Li the reign of Shah 'Alamgi'r Muhiuddi'n walmiUah, the kino* of the 
world, Aurangzib, who is adorned with justice, 

" 2. Tlie lustre of Islam shone forth to the glory of God ; for 'Abdunnabi 
Khan built this beautiful mosque. 

" 3. This second 'Holy Temple' caused the idols to bow down in worship. 
You will now see the true meaning of the text, ' Truth came and error vanished.' 
[' Kordn, XVII., 83.'] 

" 4. Whilst I searched for a tdriJJi, a voice came from blissful Truth, order- 
ing me to say ' Abdunnabi Khan is the builder of this beautiful mosque.' A.H. 
1071, or 1600-61." 

ijtii^ y<j ij>y£ ,:i. li^'j ^33.-^ * ui,Uj /y^ iS^^Si »2>. oJj ,-^b 

" 1. May this Jama Masjid of majestic structure shine forth for ever like 
the hearts of the pious I 

" 2. Its roof is high like aspirations of love ; its courtyard is wide like tlie- 
arena of thought."* 

The founder is first mentioned by the Muhammadan historians as iio-hfcin"- 
on the side of Dara Shikoh at the battle of Samogarh in 1658. About a week 

♦ For this and other translations from the Persian, I am indebted to the kindness of m7. 
Blochmann, the learned Secretary of the Asiatic Society in Calcutta. 

O 



98 ABD-UN-NABI'S MOSQUE. 

after the defeat, he joined Aurangzeb, and was immediately appointed Faujdar 
of Itawa. This office he retained only till the following year, when he was 
transferred to Sirhind, and thence, after a few months, to Mathura. Here he 
remained from August, 1660, to May, 1668, when, as we have already men- 
tioned, he met his death at Sahora, a village in the Maha-ban Pargana on the 
opposite side of the Jamuna, while engaged in quelling a popular emeute. The 
author of the Maasir-i-Alanigi'ri says of him : — " He was an excellent and 
pious man, and as courageous in war as successful in his administration. He 
has left a mosque in Mathura as a monument, which, for a long time to come, 
will remind people of him. Muhammad Anwar, his nephew, received from His 
Majesty a mourning dress of honour ; but the property of the deceased lapsed 
(according to custom) to the State, and the Imperial Mutasaddis reported it to 
be 93,000 gold muhrs, 13,00,000 rupees, and 14,50,000 rupees' worth of pro- 
perty." The architecture of his mosque is not of particularly graceful character, 
but there are four lofty minarets, and as these and other parts of the building were 
originally veneered with bright-coloured plaster mosaics, of which a few panels 
still remain, it must at one time have presented a brilliant appearance. It is 
now little used, and is rapidly falling into decay.* 

From this central point diverge the main thoroughfares, leading respectively 
towards Brinda-ban, Dig, Bharat-pur,t and the civil station. They are some- 
what broader than is usual in Indian cities, having an average breadth of 24 
feet, and were first opened out at the instance of Mr. E. F. Taylor, in 1843. A 
number of houses wei'e demolished for the purpose, but, in every instance, all 
claim to compensation was waived. Seth Lakhmi Chand's loss, thus voluntarily 
sustained for the public good, was estimated at a lakh of rupees, as he had re- 
cently completed some handsome premises, which had to be taken down and re- 
built. 

Those streets have now, throughout their entire length and breadth, been 
paved at the cost of the municipality with substantial stone flags brought from 

• Father Tieffenthallcr, who visited Mathura in 1745, after mentioning the two mosques, 
Bays that Abd-nu-nabi was a convert froQi Hinduism, a statement for which there seems to be no 
authority. He describes the mosaics as " un ouvrage plombc en divcrses couleurs et incruste a la 
tnanieredont sent vernis les poeles in Allemagne." "Lavillc," lie says, "est entour^ d'une levee de 
terre, ct obeit aujourdhui au Djat. Auparavant elle etait sous les ordres du Kaja de Djcpour a 
qui I'empcrcur Mogol en avait coufie le gouvernement" : i. e.,Raja Jay Sinh, who died 1743. He 
goes on to describe the streets as narrow and dirty, and most of the buildings as in ruins ; the fort 
very large and massive, like a mountain of hewn stone, with an observatory which was only a 
feeble imitation of the one at Jaypur, but with the advantage of being much better raised. The 
only other spot that he particularises is the Visrant Ghat. 

t Close to the mosque on the left hand side of the Bharat-pur gate bazar, is a high hill 
■with very steep ascent, all built over. On the summit, which is called Sitala Ghat, may be 
seen many fragments of Cuddhist pilhus and bas-reliefs, aud an armless seated figure, the size 
of life. 



THE seth's temple OF dwarakadh/s. 99 

the Bharat-pur quarries.* Though, as is the custom in the East, many mean 
tumble-down hovelsf are allowed to obtrude themselves upon the view, the 
majority of the buildings that face the principal thoroughfares, are of hand- 
some and imposing character, all erected during the seventy years of British 
rule. Whether secular or ecclesiastical, the design is in either case very similar. 
The front is of carved stone with a grand central archway and arcades on both 
sides let out as shops on the ground floor. Story upon story above are project- 
ing balconies supported on quaint corbels, the arches being filled in with the 
most minute reticulated tracery of an infinite variety of pattern, and protected 
from the weather by broad eaves, the under-surface of which is brightly painted. 
One of the most noticeable buildings in point of size, though the decorations 
perhaps are scarcely so elegant as in some of the later examples, is the temple 
of Dwarakadhi's, founded by the Grwaliar Treasurer, Parikh Ji, and visited in 
1825 by Bishop Heber, who in his journal describes it as follows: — "In the 
centre, or nearly so, of the town, Colonel Penny took us into the court of a beautiful 
temple or dwelling-house, for it seemed to be designed for both in one, lately 
built, and not yet quite finished, by Gokul Pattie Binh, Sindhia's Treasurer, and 
who has also a principal share in a great native banking-house, one branch of 
which is fixed at Mathura. The building is enclosed by a small but richly carved 
gateway with a flight of steps, which leads from the street to a square court, 
cloistered round, and containing in the centre a building, also square, supported 
by a triple row of pillars, all which, as well as the ceiling, are richly carved, 
painted, and gilt. The effect internally is much like that of the Egyptian tomb, 
of which the model was exhibited in London by Belzoni ; externally, the carv- 
ing is very beautiful. The cloisters round were represented to me as the intended 
habitations of the Brahmans attached to the fane ; and in front, towards the 
street, were to be apartments for the founder on his occasional visits to Mathura." 
To show how differently the same building sometimes impresses different people, 
it may be mentioned that Jacquemont, only four years later, describes thetemj^le 
as like nothing but a barrack or cotton factory : but possibly he may have seen 
it soon after the festival of the Diwali, when, according to barbarous Hindu 
custom, the whole of the stone front is beautified with a thick coat of white- 
wash. 

This temple has always been in the hands of the Yallabhacharyas, the sect 
to which the founder belonged. It is now administered by Gosain Giridhar 
Lai, who is the hereditary lord of the much older and yet wealthier shrine \Aath 

* This important work was commenced in November, 1867. 

f As an indication that many of the houses are not of the most substantial construction, it 
may be observed that, after three days of exceptionally heavy rain in the month of August this 
year (18T3), as many as 6,000 were officially reported to have come down ; 14 persons, chiefly 
children, having been crushed to death under the ruins. 



100 CITY ARCHITECTURE. 

the same name at Kankarauli iu Udaypiiv (see page 84). Hitherto the expenses 
©f the Mathuni estabhshments have been defrayed by annual grants from the 
Setli's estate ; but this year the firm has made an absohite transfer to the 
Gosain of landed property yieldiug an income of lis. 25,000 ; thus religiously 
carrying out the intention of their ancestor, though in so doing they further the 
interests of a sect not a little antagonistic to the one of which they themselves 
are members. 

On the opposite side of the street is the palace of the Princes of Bharat- 
pur, with a lofty and highly enriched entrance gateway added by Raja Balavant 
Sinh ; and close by is the mansion of Seth Lakhmi Chand, built at a cost of 
Es. 1,00,000. The latest of the architectural works with which the city is deco- 
rated, and one of the most admirable for elegance and elaboration is a temple 
near the Chhata Bazar built by Deva Chand Bohra, and completed only at the 
end of the year 1871. Whatever other buildings there are of any note will be 
found enumerated in the list at the end of this chapter. In most cases the 
greatest amount of finish has been bestowed upon the street front, while the 
interior court is small and confined; and the practice of having only a single 
gate both for entrance and exit occasions great, and sometimes dangerous, 
crowding on high feast days. It is, as before remarked, a peculiainty of the 
Mathura temple architecture to have no tower over the seat of the god. 

If the city was ever surrounded by walls, not a vestige of them now remains, 
though the foiir principal entrances are still called the Brinda-ban, Dig, Bharat- 
pur, and Holi Gates. The last-named is the approach from the civil station, 
and here a lofty and elaborately sculptured stone arch has been erected over 
the roadway,* in accordance with a tasteful design in the local style su])plied 
by a native artist. As the work was commenced at the instance of the late Mr. 
Bradford Hardingo, who was for several years collector of the district, and 
took a most lively interest in all the city improvements, it is to be named in 
his honour 'the Hardingo arch.' The clock-case by which the centre of the 
portal is at })rescnt surmounted is too small to present a satisfactory appear- 
ance ; but over this it is intended to erect a high and richly-decorated cupola 
at a further cost of lis. 2,000. It will then be further necessary, in order to 
complete the design, to build up double-storied shops against the ax'ch on either 
side, which will serve to receive and conceal the ponderous staged buttresses, 
which, as now seen, are most obtrusive deformities. 

As may be inferred from the above remarks, stone-carving, the only indi- 
genous art of which Mathura can boast, is carried to great perfection. All the 
temples afford specimens of elegant design in panels of reticulated tracery (jdli) 
as also do the chluUvis of the Seth's fiimily in the Jamuiui Bagh, and those of 
the Bharat-i)ur Hajas at Gobardhan. But the most refined and delicate work of 
* At a cost of sumething over Ks. 9,000, 



MR. THORNHILl's REST-HOUSE, 101 

tlie kind ever executed is to bo seen in a building erected by public subscription 
at the suggestion of Mr. Mark Thornbill, Collector of the district in 1856. lb 
was intended as a rest-house for the reception of native gentlemen of rank when- 
ever they had occasion to visit the sadr station ; but the work was interrupted 
by the mutiny after an expenditure of Rs. 30,000, and has never been complet- 
ed. The following inscription is worked into the cornice of the central hall : — 



y^Aj >,^i 6.. 



^a iS" ^C^l ijx^J ^a. |^al:aj * ^C^j ^Vl;'! ^^^^ J-.^j'-^^ "f ^^ 



" The State having thought good to promote the ease of its subjects, gave 
intimation to the Magistrate and Collector ; who then, by the co-operation of the 
chief men of Mathura, had this house for travellers built, with the choicest 
carved work.* Its doors and walls are polished like a mirror; in its sculpture 
every kind of flower-bed appears in view ; its width and height were assigned in 
harmonious proportion ; from top to bottom it is well shaped and well balanced. 
It may very properly be compared to the dome of Afrasztib, or it may justly be 
styled the palace of an emperor. One who saw its magnificence {or the poet 
Shaukat on seeing it) composed this tcirikh : so elegant a rest-house makes even 
the flower garden envious." 

Unfortunately, the site selected was so remote from the bazar as to render 
the building unsuitable for the purpose intended, nor has it ever yet been applied 
to any other. At a slight expense it might be converted into a local museum, an 
institution which might reasonably expect to flourish in such a centre of wealth, 
learning, and archaeological interest. 

In addition to its stone carving, Mathura has two other minor specialities, 
the one being the manufacture of little brass images, which, though of exceed- 
ingly coarse execution, command a large sale among pilgrims and visitors, espe- 
cially the rehgious toy called Vasiideva Katora, (described at page 33) : the 
other the manufacture of paper. This is made in three sizes ; the smallest, 
which is chiefly in demand, is called Miin-sinhi, and varies in price according to 
quality from Rs. 1-8 to Rs. 2-6 a gadclL The medium size, called Bichanda, 

* Upon the word munabbat, which is used here to denote arabesque carving, but in Agra the 
inlaid marble work such as we see at the Taj, Mr. Blochniann has communicated the following 
note : — " The Arabic nabata, means ' to plant,' and the intensive form of the verb has either the 
same signification or that of 'causing to appear like plants :' hence munabbat cimes to mean 
'traced with flowers,' and may be compared with mushajjar, 'caused to appear like trees,' wliich 
is the word applied to silk with tret-patterns on it," like the more common ' buta-dir.' 



102 PROPOSED RAILWAY. 

sells for Es. 4 a gadcli ; and the larger size, called Syalkoti, for Rs. 10. The 
factories are some 100 in number, and can turn out in the course of the day- 
ISO gaddis, every gaddi containing 10 dastas of 24 takhtas, or sheets, each. 

A light railway on the metre-gauge system, which shall eventually extend 
from Hatliras to Bharat-pur, has been definitely sanctioned by the Govern- 
ment, and the first section from the Hathi'as Road Station to the city of 
Mathura will probably be commenced in the course of the present year. The 
cost of the undertaking is estimated at 15 lakhs, of which the Government 
hopes to receive five as a loan from native capitalists resident in the districts 
which the line would specially benefit, on a guarantee of 4 per cent, per 
annum ; the remainder being supplied from the provincial balances. It is fur- 
ther proposed that the managing board should consi&t of five non-official mem- 
bers elected by the native shareholders, who should be assisted by a European 
consulting engineer, and perhaps one or more official but non-professional 
members. It is impossible to doubt that the new line will be a financial success 
and will much increase the prosperity of the city of Mathura : for at the 
one extremity, Hathras is so large a mart that it will find no difficulty in 
filling a new channel ; while at the other, Mathura, though at present a place 
of no mercantile importance, will become a depot for the vast supplies of 
cotton from up-country which now pass through it to take the train at Agra. 
The daily influx of pilgrims alone would suffice to render the passenger traffic 
exceptionally large from the very beginning. 

The municipality has an annual income of a little under Rs. 50,000 ; derived, 
in the absence of any special trade, almost exclusively from an octroi tax on 
articles of food, the consumption of which is naturally very large and out of all 
proportion to the resident population, in consequence of the frequent influx of 
huge troops of pilgrims. The celebrity among natives of the Mathura perd, 
a particular kind of sweetmeat, also contributes to the same result. Besides 
the permanent maintenance of a large police and conservancy establishment, 
the entire cost of paving the city streets has been defrayed out of municipal 
funds, and a fixed proportion is annually allotted for the support of diff'erent 
educational establishments. 

The High School, a handsome building though in a very un-Oriental style of 
architecture, was opened by His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor on the 21st of 
January, 1870, and is now attended by 250 pupils, all learning English. It was 
erected at a cost of Rs. 13,000 ; of which sum Rs. 2,000 were collected by volun- 
tary subscription, Rs. 3,000 were voted by the municipality, and the balance of 
Rs. 8,000 granted by Government. The City Dispensary immediately opposite 
the Kans ka tila, and adjoining the Munsif's Court, has accommodation for 20 
in-door patients ; thei'c is an ordinary attendance per diem of 50 applicants for 
out-door relief, and it is in every respect a well managed and useful institution. 



CANTONMENTS AND CIVIL LINES. 103 

The cantonments, which are of considerable extent, occupy some broken and 
undulating ground along the river-side between the city and the civil lines. 
In consequence of the facilities for obtaining an abundant supply of grass in 
the neighbourhood, they are always occupied by an English cavalry regiment, 
the present one being the 10th Royal Hussars. The barracks are very widely- 
scattered, an arrangement which doubtless is attended with some inconveni- 
ences, but is apparently conducive to the health of the troops, for there is no 
station in India where there is less sickness* — a happy result, which is also 
due in part to the dryness of the climate during the greater part of the year 
and the excellence of the natural drainage in the rains. The English church, 
consecrated by Bishop Dealtry in December, 1856, is in a nondescript style of 
architecture, but has an elegant Italian campanile, which is visible from a long 
distance, and even the body of the building from some points of view has in it 
an element of the picturesque. Adjoining it is a miserably mean and dilapi- 
dated shed, which hitherto has served as a Catholic chapel, and is not inappro- 
priately dedicated to S, Francis, the apostle of poverty. An attempt is now 
being made to replace it with something more sightly, and a plan has beea 
prepared at an estimated cost of Rs. G,10Q, of whioh oum Ro. 3;,87o have bacH , 
j giood . by anbaofiptiono on tho cpo t . y^^^^"*^- 

In the civil station most of the houses are large and commodious, and 
being the property of the Seth, the most liberal of landlords, are never allowed 
to offend the eye by falling out of repair. One built immediately after the mu- 
tiny for the use of the Collector of the district is an exceptionally handsome 
and substantial edifice. The Court-house, as already mentioned on page 70, was 
completed in the year 1861, and has a long and imposing facade ; but, though it 
stands at a distance of not more than 100 yards from the high road, the ground 
in front of it has been so carelessly laid out, that a pei'son who had no profes- 
sional business to take him there might live within a stone's throw for years 
and never see it. In immediate proximity are the offices of the Tahsilclar, a 
singularly mean and contracted range of buildings, as if intended to be a foil to 
the elegance of Mr. Thornhill's rest-house which stands in the same enclosure. 
Opposite is the public garden, Avhich contains a large variety of choice trees 
and shrubs, but unfortunately has not been laid ovit with much taste and is too 
extensive to be kept in good order out of the funds that are allowed for its 
maintenance. A little further on is the jail, constructed on the approved 
radiating principle, and sufficiently strong under ordinary circumstances to 
ensure the safe-guard of native prisoners, though a European would probably 
find its walls not very difficult either to scale or break through. This exhausts 
the list of public institutions and objects of interest; whence it may be rightly 

* Occasionally it has so happeued that every single ward iu the hospital has beea 
empty. 



104 SITE OF ANCIENT MATHURA. 

inferred that the English quarter of Mathura, is as dull and common-place as 
most other Indian stations. Still, in the rains it has a pleasant park-like ap- 
pearance ; when the wide expanse of green- sward reserved for military uses from 
the enoi'oachments of the plough, the well-kept roads with substantial bridges 
to span the frequent ravines, and the long avenues of trees that half conceal the 
thatched and verandahcd bungalows that lie behind, each in its own enclosure 
of garden and pasture land, while in the distant back ground an occasional 
glimpse is caught of the broad stream of the Jamuna, all combine to form a 
landscape that is far from unattractive. 

SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER YI. 

The excavations which have been in progress while this chapter was pass- 
inn- throufh the press, and the more minute knowledge of the neighbourhood, 
which has been acquired in their superintendence, enable me now to speak in 
more positive terms as to the site of Buddhist Mathura. All the villages that 
lie between Satoha to the north, Maholi to the soutli, and Mathura to the east, 
are distinctly of modern foundation. The ancient Madhu-puri, where the ab- 
original king Madhu held his court what time he ruled the province of Ma- 
thura, must have extended its suburbs the whole distance from the modern 
village of Maholi down to the bank of the Jamuna. Subsequently to his defeat, 
the Aryan city was built on the lands nearer the river, in the neighbourhood of 
the present Katra and the temple of Bhiitcsvar ; and, being the seat of the new 
Government, it appropriated in a special way the name which formerly had 
denoted, not the capital, but the whole extent of territory. This A'iew is con- 
firmed by observing that, philologically, ' Mathura ' appears a more fitting name 
for a country than for a city, and one that could be applied to the latter only 
inferentially. The present city is the third in order, and has for its centre the 
fort, as the second had the temple of Bhutesvar, and the first the grove of 
Madhu-ban. Thus, speaking generally, the further we move back from the city 
in the direction of MahoH, the older will probably be the date of any antiquities 
that may be discovered. 

With regard to the change in the course of the stream, all engineers whom 
I have consulted are unanimous in declaring that the main channel of the 
Jamuna can never in historic times have been at the foot of the temple of Kesava 
Deva, as Tavernier imagined. The traces of fluvial action wliich he observed 
are unmistakeable, but they date from the most remote antiquity. This, how- 
ever, need not occasion any difficulty: for, as Madhu-puri, the first capital, Avas 
estabUshed at a point which clearly the Jamuna could never have reached, there 
is no improbability in supposing that the second capital also, though much 
nearer the stream, was not actually on its bank. The temples, which Fa Hian 



BUDDHIST STUPAS. 105 

mentions as being on the opposite side, must, as I liad previously surmised, bs 
those at Malia-bau.* 

Though the discovery of no lines of foundation at the Kankali tila seems a 
little suspicious, it may be explained by the fact that the mound has long served 
as a quarry, and that bricks and small blocks of stone, beiug more useful for 
ordinary building purposes, would all be removed Avhen cumbrous, and at the 
same time broken statues might be left undisturbed. I see, therefore, no suffi- 
cient reason for distrusting the probability of my original theory, stated at page 
81, which places the Upagupta Monastery at the Kankali tila. It may further 
be noticed that there is no trace of any large tank in its immediate proximity, 
and, on this account also, it was more probably the site of a monastery than of 
a stupa. For a tank was almost a necessary concomitant of the latter ; its ex- 
cavation supplying the earth for the construction of the mound in the centre of 
which the relics were deposited. Hence, a different procedure has to be adopted 
jin exploring a mound believed to have been a stiipa from what would be fol- 
lowed in other cases. Unless the object be to discover the relics, it is ordinarily 
a waste of labour to cut deep into its centre, for the images which surmounted 
it must have fallen down outside its base, where they have been gradually 
buried by the crumbling away of the stupa over them, and will be found at no 
great depth below the surface. But, in the case of a temple or monastery, the 
mound is itself the ruined building, and, if Muhammadans were the destroyers, 
was generally utilized as the substructure of a mosque. 

Between the Kankali tila and the Sonkh Road, the fields are dotted with a 
great number of mounds, so close together and so much worn by time that many 
of them can scarcely be distinguished from the natural level of the ground. At 
the point where the village-track to Naugama branches off froui the Sonkh 
Road, and occupying the angle between the two, is the mound where the gold 
reliquary Avas discovered. A few hundred yards further on and to the right of 
the Naugama cart-track, is a cluster of mounds, one of which is now beiug 
trenched (marked d in sketch-map, page 72.) It has yielded the head of a colossal 
figure of very Egyptian cast of features with a round hole in its forehead in 
which was once set a ruby or other precious stone.f The lower part of a large 
seated Buddha has also been unearthed with an inscription in the Asoka 
character on the ledge beneath, of which the first three words read Mahw'djdsf/a 
Devaputrasi/a Huvishkasya, i.e., ' of the gi*eat king, the heaven-born Huvishka.' 

* A tributary stream, the bed of which is now partly occupied by the Delhi Road, flowed past 
the katra, and being joined at the point still called the Saugam, or ' confluence,' by another con- 
siderable stream from the opposite direction, fell into the channel now crossed by the Seth's 
bridge, and so reached the Jamuna. 

t When the Muhammadan historians speak of idols with rubies for eyes, tliis is probably an 
error on their part, as it seems that the stoae was set, not in, but between, the eyes, as a tilak, or 
frontal mark. 

P 



106 MUSAMMADAN GOVERNORS. 

This mound immediately adjoins the boundary pillar which marks the limits of 
the township of Mathuni. A little further on within the borders of Giridhar- 
pur, may be traced a very extensive tank, now converted into ploughed fields, 
with a series of mounds all round its margin. These are unquestionably Bud- 
dhist stiipas, and will be examined. Tlicy are covered with small fragments 
of carved stone, indicating that here destruction was more than usually com- 
plete, and that the images were not only thrown down but deliberately broken 
to pieces. It is, therefore, improbable that any large statue will be recovered, 
but inscriptions may have escaped, and these will be of equal, if not greater, 
interest. 



NOTES ON CHAPTER VI. 

I. — List of Governors of Mathura in the 17th Century. 

1629. Mirza Isa Tarkhan ; who gave his name to the suburb of Isa-pur 
(now more commonly called Hans-ganj), on the opposite bank of the river. 

1636. Murshid Kuli Khan, promoted, at the time of his appointment, to 
be commander of 2,000 horse, as an incentive to be zealous in stamping out 
idolatry and rebellion. From him the suburb of Murshid-pur derives its name. 

1639. Allah Virdi Khan. After holding office for three years, some dis- 
loyal expressions to which he had given utterance were reported to the Emperor, 
who thereupon confiscated his estates and removed him to Delhi. 

1642. Azam Khan Mir Muhammad Bakir, also called Inxdat Khan. He 
is commemorated by the Azam-abad Sarae, which he founded (see page 18), 
and by the two villages of Azam-pur, and Bakir-pur. He came of a noble family 
seated at Sawa in Persia, and having attached himself to the service of Asaf 
Khan Mirza Jafar, the distinguished poet and courtier, soon after became his 
son-in-law and was introduced to the notice of the Emperor Jahangir. He thus 
gained his first appointment under the Crown; but his subsequent promotion 
was due to the influence of Yamin-ud-daula, Asaf Khan IV., the father of 
Mumtaz Mahall, the favourite wife of Shah-jahan. On the accession of that 
monarch he was appointed commander of 5,000, and served with distinction in 
the Dakhin in the war against the rebel Khan Jahan Lodi and in the opera- 
tions against the Nizam Sbahi's troops. In the fifth year of the reign, he was 
made Governor of Bengal in succession to Kasim Khan Juwaini. Three 
years later he was transferred to Allahabad, but did not remain there long, 
being moved in the very next year to Gujarat, as fcjubadar. In the twelfth year 
of Shah-jahan his daughter Avas married to Prince Shuja, Avho had by her a son 
named Zain-ul-abidin. From 1642 to 1645 he was Governor of Mathura, but 
in the latter year, as he did not act with sufficient vigour against the Hindu 
malcontents, his advanced ago was made the pretext for transferring him to 



CITY QUARTERS. 



107 



Bihar. Thi'ee years later he received orders for Kashmir ; but as he objected 
to the cold climate of that country he was allowed to exchange it for Jaun-pur, 
where he died in 1648, at the age of 76. He is described in the Maasir-ul- 
Umara as a man of most estimable character, but very harsh in his mode of 
collecting the State revenue. Azamgarh, the capital of the district of that name 
in the Banaras Division, was also founded by him. 

1645. Makramat Khi'm, formerly Governor of Delhi. 

1658. Jafar, son of Allah Virdi Khan. 

1659. Kasim Khan, transferred from Murddabad, but murdered on his 
way down. 

1660. Abd-un-Nabi, founder of the Jama Masjid (see page 98). 

1668. SafF-Shikan Khan. Fails in quelling the rebellion. 

1669. Hasan Ali Khan. During his incmnbency the great temple of Ke- 
sava Deva was destroyed. 

1676. Sultan KuU Khdn. 



II. — Names of the City Quarters or Mahallas. 



1 Mandavi Rani. 


30 Zer masjid. 


59 Dharmsald Raja 


2 Bairag-pura. 


31 


Kushk. 


Awa (built by Raja 


3 Khirki Bisati. 


32 


Sami Ghat. 


Pitambar Sinh). 


4 Naya-bas. 


33 


Makbdum Shah. 


60 Dln-uva Ghat. 


5 Arjun-pura. 


34 


Asi-kunda Ghat. 


61 Dhruva tila. 


6 Tek-narnaul. 


35 Visrant Ghat. 


62 Bal tila. 


7 Gali Seru Kasera. 


36 


Kans-khar. 


63 Bdrd Jay Ram Das. 


8 Gali Ravaliva. 


37 


Gali Dasavatar. 


64 General-ganj. 


9 Gali Ram-pal. 


38 


Gor-para. 


65 Anta-pard. 


10 Tek Rand Khati,, 


39 


Gosdin Ghat. 


66 Gobind ganj. 


11 Gali Mathura Me- 


40 


Kil-math. 


67 Cbhagan-pura. 


gha. 


41 


Sydm Ghat. 


68 Santokh-pura. 


12 Bazar Chauk. 


42 


Kam Ghat. 


69 Cbhdb kathauti. 


13 Gaii Bhairon. 


43 


Ramjl-dwdra. 


70 Kotwali. 


14 Gali Thathera. 


44 


Bihari-pura. 


71 Bharatpur Darwaza. 


15 Lai Darwaza. 


45 


Ballabh Ghat. 


72 Laid ganj. 


16 Gali Lohiya. 


46 


Maru Gali. 


73 Sitala Paesa. 


17 Gali Nanda. 


47 


Bengdli Ghdt. 


74 Maholi Pol. 


18 Teli-para. 


48 


Kald Mahal 


75 Nagara Paesa. 


19 Tila Chaube 


49 


Chiina kankar. 


76 Gujarhdna. 


20 Brindaban Darwaza. 


50 


Chamarhaud. 


77 Rosban-ganj. 


21 Gher Gobiudi. 


51 


Gopdl-pura. 


78 Bhar-ki gali. 


22 Gab Gopa Shah. 


52 


Sardi Rajd Bhadau- 


79 Khirki Dalpat Rae. 


23 Shah-ganj Darwaza. 




ria. 


80 Tdj-pura. 


24 Halan-ganj. 


53 


Scngal-pnra. 


81 Chaubachcha. 


25 Chakra Tirath. 


54 


Chhonkar-para 


82 Sat Ghard. 


26 Krishan Ganga. 


55 


Mir-ganj. 


83 Chbald Bazar. 


27 Go-gbat. 


56 


Holi Darwaza. 


84 Gali Pdthakdn. 


28 Kans ka kila. 


57 


Sitala Gali. 


85 Mandar Pdrikh Ji. 


29 Hanuman tila. 


58 


Kampu Ghat, 


86 Kazi-pdra. 



108 



BIATIIURA TEMrLES. 



87 Naya Bazar (from 
Mr. Thornton's time). 

88 Gliciti cLikno pat 
baron ki, 

89 Gall Gotawala. 

90 Gata sram. 

91 Ratn kiind. 

92 Chlionka-para. 

93 Miuiik chauk. 



94 Gaja Taesa. 


103 Mandavi Ghi'ya. 


9') Gluiti Bitthal Rae. 


104 Gali Dbusaron ki. 


90 Sitala Gbiiti. 


105 ]\[anohar-pura. 


97 Naktirchi tila. 


10() Kasai-paia. 


98 Gujar Gliati. 


107 Keso-]mra. 


99 Gali Kalal. 


108 Mandavi Ram Diis. 


100 Kaserat. 


109 Mativa Darwiiza. 


101 Gali Durga Chanel. 


110 Di<T barwaza. 


102 Bazazii. 


Ill Maballa kbakrobau 



III.— Principal Buildings in the City of Mathura. 



1. Hardinge Arch, or Holi Darwaza, forming the Agra gate of the city, 
erected by the municipabty, at a cost of Rs. 9,200, in the year 1872. 

2. Temple of Radhii Kishan, founded by Deva Chand, bohra, of Tenda- 
Khera near Jabalpur, in 1870-71. Cost Rs. 40,000. In the Chhata Bazar. 

3. Temple of Bijay Gobind, in the Satghara Mahal la, built in ]867 by 
Bijay Ram, bohra, of Dattia, at a cost of Rs. 65,000. 

4. Temple of Bala Deva, in the Khans-khar Bazar, built in 1865 by Kush- 
ali Rdm, bohra, of Sher-garh, at a cost of Rs. 25,000. 

5. Temple of Bhairav Nath, in the Lobars' quarter, built by Bishan Lai, 
Khattri, at a cost of Rs. 10,000. It is better known by the name of Sarvar 
Sultan, as it contains a chapel dedicated in honour of that famous Muhammadaii 
saint ; regarding whom it may be of interest to subjoin a few particulars. Tho 
parent shrine, situate in desert country at the mouth of a pass leading into 
Kandahar, is served by a company of some 1,650 priests besides women and chil- 
dren ; who, with the exception of a small grant from Government yielding au 
amuial income of only Rs. 350, are entirely dependent for subsistence on the 
charity of pilgrims. The shrine is equally reverenced by Hindus, Sikhs, and 
Muhammadans, and it is said to be visited in the course of a year by as many as 
200,000 people of all castes and denominations, who come chiefly from the 
Panjab and Sindh. The saint in his lifetime was so eminent for his universal 
benevolence and libei'ality (whence his title of sakhi) that he is believed still 
to retain after death the power and will to grant every petition that is presented 
to him. At the large fair held in February, March, and April, the shrine is 
crowded with applicants, many of whom beg for aid in money. As the shrino 
is poor and supported by charity, this cannot be given on the spot ; but the 
petitioner is told to name some liberal-minded j^erson, upon whom an order is 
then written and sealed with the great seal of the temple and handed to the 
applicant. "When presented by him to the person on whom it was drawn it is 
not unfrcquently honored. Such a parwana, drawn on one Muhammad Khan 
Afo^han was found on the fakir Nawab Shah, who in 1871 made a murderous 



MATHURA TEMPLES. 109 

attack on the Secretary of the Lahor Municipality. A report on the peculiar 
circumstances of the case was submitted to Gorernment, and it is from it that 
the above sketch has been extracted in explanation of the singular fact that a 
Muhammadan saint has been enthroned as a deity in a Hindu temple in the 
most exclusive of all Hindu cities. 

6. Temple of Gata-sram, near the Visrant Ghat, built by Pran-nath 
Sastri, at a cost of Rs. 25,000, about the year 1800. 

7. Temple of Dwarakadhis, commonly called the Seth's temple, in the 
Asikunda Bazar, built by Parikh Ji, in 1815, at a cost of Rs. 20,000. 

8. House of the Bharat-pur Rajas with gateway added by the late Raja 
Balavant Sinh. 

9. House of Seth Lakhmi Chand, built in 1845 at a cost of Rs. 1,00,000. 

10. Temple of Madan Mohan, by the Sami Ghat, built by Seth Anant 
Ram of Churi by Ram-garh, in 1859, at a cost of Rs. 20,000. 

11. Temple of Gobardhan Nath, built by Seth Kushal, commonly called 
Seth Babii, kamdar of the Barodara Raja, in 1830. 

12. Temple of Bibari Ji, built by Kanhaiya Liil, banker, in 1850, at a 
cost of Rs. 25,000, in Dhiisar-para. 

] 3. Temple of Gobind Deva, near the Nakarchi tila, built by Gaur Sahay 
Mai and Ghan-Syam Das, his son, Seths of Churi, in 1848, with their resi- 
dences and that of Ghan-Svam's uncle, Ramehandra, adjoining. 

14. Temple of Gopi-nath, by the Sami Ghat, built by Gulriij and Jagan- 
nath, Seths of Churi, in 1866, at a cost of Rs. 30,000. 

15. Temple of Baladeva, near the Hardiuge Arch, built by Bala, Ahir, a 
servant of Seth Lakhmi Chand, as a dwelling-house about the year 1820, at a 
cost of Rs. 50,000, and sold to Rae Biii, a baniya's wife, who converted it 
into a temple. 

16. Temple of Mohan Ji, in the Satghara Mahalla, built about 70 years 
ago by Kripa Ram, Bohra ; more conmonly known as Daukala Kunj, after 
the Chaube who was the founder's purohoit. 

17. Temple of Madan Mohan, in the Asikunda Mahalla, built by Dhan- 
raj, Bohra, of Aligarh. 

18. Temple of Gobardhan Kath, in the Kans-kliar, built by Devi Das, 
Bohra, of Urai. 

19. Temple of Dirgha Yishnu, by the street leading to the Bharat-pur 
Gate, bnilt by Raja Patni Mai of Banaras, 

20. The Sati Burj, or ' faithful widow's tower,' built by Raja Bhagavan 
Das in 1570. 

21. The mosque of Abd-uu-Nabi Khan, built 1662. 

22. The mosque of Auraugzeb, built 1669 on the site of the temple of 
Kesava Deva. 



110 MATHURA CALENDAR. 

IT. — Calendar of Festivals observed in the City of Mathura. 
Chait Siidi (April 1-15^. 

1. Chait Siidi 8. — Dnrga Aslitami. Held at the temple of Maliavidya Devi. 

2. Chait Sudi 9. — Earn Navami. Held at the Earn Ji Dwara. 

Baisdkh (Api'il — May). 

3. Baisdhh Sudi 14. — Nar Sinh ka mela. Held at Gor-para, Mauik Chauk, 
and the temple of Dwarakadhis. 

4. Baisahlt fall moon. — Perambulation of Mathura, called Ban-bihar, start- 
ing from the Visrant Ghat. 

5. Jeth Sudi 10. — The Jeth Dasahara. la the middle of the day, bathing 
at the Dasasvaraedh Ghat, in the evening kite-flying from the Gokarnesvar hill. 

6. Jethfidl moon. — Jal-jatra. All the principal people bring the water for 
the ablution of the god into the temples on their own shoulders in little silver urns. 

Asdrh (June — July). 

7. Asdrh Sudi 2. — Eath-jatra. 

8. Asdrh Sudi 11. — Principal perambulation of the city. From this day 
the god is supposed to go to sleep for four months. 

9. Asdrh full moon.— By is-^inja. In the morning the Guru is formally 
reverenced ; in the evening there are wrestling matches, and the Pandits 
assemble on the hills or house-tops for the ' pavan pariksha,' or watching of the 
wind ; from which they predict when the rains will commence and what sort of 
a season there will be. 

10. Srdvan Sudi 3. — Mela at the temple of Bhutesvar Mahadeva. 

Srdoan (July — August). 

11. Srdvan Sudi 5. — The Panch Tirath mela begins. A pilgrimage starts 
from the Visrant Ghat for Madhu-ban, and proceeds on the next day to San- 
tana kund at Satoha and the Gyan-bauli near the Katra, on the third day to 
Gokarnesvar, on the fourth to the shrine of Garur Gobind at Chhatikra and 
on the fifth to the Brahm kund at Brinda-ban. 

12. Srdoan Sudi U.— Perambulation of Mathura and Pavitra-dharan, or 
offering of Brahmanical threads to the Thakur. 

13 Srdvan full moon. — The Saluno. At the temple of Bhutesvar. 
Bhddon (August — September). 

14. Bhddon Badi 8. — Janm Ashtami ; Krishna's birthday. A fast till 
midnight. 

15. Bhddon Sudi 11.— A special pilgrimage to Madhu-ban, Tal-ban, and 
Kumud-ban. The general Ban-jatra also commences and lasts for 15 days. 

Kuvdr (September — October). 

16. Kuvdr Badi 8.— Perambulation of the city followed by five days' festi- 
vities, with offerings in the different temples of the little figures called sdnjhi, 



MATHUKA CALENDAR. Ill 

and performances all through the night of the Ras dance, in which the actora 
are dressed to represent Krishna and the Gopis. 

17. Kuvdr Sudi 8. — Meghnath Lila. Commencement of the Ram Lila 
by a representation of the death of Ravan's son Megh-nath. Held near tho 
temple of Mahavidya. 

18. Kuvdr Sudi 9. — Kumbhakaran Lila, with representation of the death 
of Ravan's brother, Kumbhakaran. 

19. Kuvdr Sudi 10. — Great day of the Dasahara, with representation of 
Rama's final victory over Ravan. Though this fete attracts a large concourse 
of people, the show is a very poor one, and the display of fireworks much in- 
ferior to what may be seen in many second-rate Hindu cities. 

20. Kuwar Sud{\l. — Bharat Milap. A platform is erected in the street 
under the Jama Masjid, on which is enacted a representation of the meeting at 
Ajudhya between Prince Bharat and Rama, Sita and Lakshman on their re- 
turn from their wanderings. For the whole distance from that central spot to 
the Holi Gate not only the thoroughfare itself, but all the balconies and tops 
of the houses are crowded with people in gay holiday attire ; and as the 
fronts of all the principal buildings are also draped with party-colored hang- 
ings, and the shops dressed up to look their best, the result is a very picturesque 
spectacle, which is more pleasing to the European eye than any other feast 
in the Hindu calendar ; the throng, however, is so dense that it is rather a 
hazardous matter to drive a carriage through it. 

21. Kuvdr full moon. — Sarad-purno. Throughout the night visits are paid 
to the different temples. 

Kdriik ( October — Novem her) . 

22. Kdrtik, new moon. — Diwali, or Dip-dan — feast of lamps. 

23. Kdrtik Sudi 1. — Anna-kiit. The same observances as at Gobardhan, 
but on a smaller scale. 

24. Kdrtik Sudi 7. — Dhobi-maran Lila. Held near the Brindaban Gate 
to commemorate Krishna's spoliation of Kansa's washermen. 

25. Kdrtik Sudi 8. — Gocharan, or pasturing the cattle. Held in the even- 
ing at the Gopal Bagh on the Agra Road. 

26. Kdrtik Sudi 9.— Akhay Navami. The second great perambulation of 
the city, beginning immediately after midnight. 

27. Kdrtik Sudi 10. — Kans badh ka mela, at the Rangesvar Mahadeva. 
Towards evening, a large wicker figure of Kans is brought out on to the road 
near the Katra, when two boys, dressed to represent Krishna and Baladeva, and 
mounted either on horses or an elephant, give the signal, with the staves all 
wreathed with flowers that they have in their hands, for an assault upon the 
monster. In a few minutes it is torn to shreds and tatters by the crowd, and a 
procession is then made to the Visrant Ghat. 



112 



WEALTHY RESIDENTS. 



28. Kdrtik Sudi 11. — Deottbun. The awakening of the god from his four 
months' shmiber. 

Mugh (.Jamiary — February). 

29. Mdgli Sudi 5. — Basant Pauchanii. The return of spring ; correspond- 
ing to the Enghsh Maj-day. 

Phdlgun (Fehruary — March). 

30. Phdlgun, fullmoon. — The HoH, or Indian saturnalia. 

Chait badi (March 15— 30^. 

31. Chait Dadi 1. — Gathering at the temple of Kesava Deva. 

32. Chait Badi 5. — Phul-dol. Processions with flowers and music and 
dancing. 



V. — List of the Wealthiest Residents in the City. 







Estimated net 


No. 


Name, 


annual in- 
come. 






Rs. 


1 


Seths Gobind Das, Raghunath Dils, and Lachhman Das ... 


2,25,000 


2 


Swaini Rangachai'ya, head of the Seth's temple at Briiidabaa ... 


93,000 


3 


Gosain Purushottam Lai 


64,000 


4 


Devi Das and Ganga Bishan, of Dig, trading also at Ghazipur, Mirza- 
pur, and Ilathras. 


30,000 


6 


Sahs Kundan Lai and Madhuri Saran ... ... „. 


29,000 


6 


Chunni Lai, Sahukar 


28,120 


7 


Durga Prasad, son of Jwala Nath, Khattri ... ... ,.. 


25,000 


8 


Seth Roshan Lai, Khattri 


17,400 


9 


Chaudhari Radha Krishan, son of Sr{ Gopal 


15,200 


10 


Radha Lai and Nand Warn of Roshan-ganj ... 


1 1 ,000 


11 


Joshi Ainar Lai, Mnafldar ... ... ... 


10 COO 


12 


Seth Gobardhan Das, son of Rupchand ... 


10,300 



In England, the publication of such a list as the above, based on the in- 
come-tax returns, would be considered a breach of confidence. But I do not 
anticipate that it will be so regarded here in India, where every one, as a rule, 
knows his neighbour's income as accurately as his own ; and where a well-to-do 
native, calling on a stranger, will j;)rubably mention, among his other claims to 
consideration, the exact amount at which he was rated in the last assessment. 



CHAPTER VII. 

BRINDA-BAN. 

Some six miles above Matliura is a point where the right bank of the Jamu- 
nii assumes the appearance of a peninsula, owing to the eccentricity of the 
stream, which first makes an abrupt turn to the north and then as sudden a 
return upon its accustomed southern course. Here, washed on three of its 
sides by the sacred flood, stands the town of Brinda-ban, at the present day a 
rich and increasing municipality, and for many centuries past one of the most 
holy places of the Hindus. A little higher up the stream a similar promontory 
occurs, and in both cases the curious formation is traditionally ascribed to the 
resentment of Baladeva. He, it is said, foi'getful one day of his habitual 
reserve, and emulous of his younger brother's popular graces, led out the 
Gopis for a dance upon the sands. But he performed his part so badly, that 
the Jamuna could not forbear from taiinting him with his failure and recom- 
mending him never again to exhibit so clumsy an imitation of Krishna's agile 
movements. The stalwart god w^as much vexed at this criticism, and, taking 
up the heavy plough which he had but that moment laid aside, he drew with 
it so deep a furrow from the shore that the unfortunate river, perforce, fell into 
it, was drawn helplessly away, and has never since been able to recover its 
original channel. 

Such is the local rendering of the legend ; but in the Puranas and other 
early Sanskrit authorities, the story is differently told, in this wise ; that as 
Balarama was roa^niug through the woods of Brinda-ban, he found concealed 
in the cleft of a kadamb tree some spirituous liquor, which he at once con- 
sumed with his usual avidity. Heated by intoxication he longed, above all 
things, for a bathe in the river, and seeing the Jamuna at some little distance, 
he shouted for it to come near. The stream, however, remained deaf to his 
summons ; whereupon tlie infuriated god took up his })loughshare and breaking 
clown the bank drew the water into a new channel, and forced it to follow 
wherever he led. In the Bhagavata it is added that the Jamuna is still to be 
seen fallowing the course along which she was thus dragged. Professor Wilson 
in his edition of the Vishnu Purana says, " The legend probably alludes to 
the construction of canals from the Jamuna for the purpose of irrigation ; and 
the works of the Muhammadans in this way, which are well known, were no 
doubt preceded by similar canals dug by order of Hindu princes." Upon this 
suggestion it may be remarked, first, that in Upper Lidia no irrigation works 

Q 



114 EOADS TO BP.IKDA-BAN. 

of any extent are known ever to have been executed either hy Hindus or 
Muhammadans ; certainly, there are no traces of any such operations in the 
neighbourhood of Brindii-ban ; and secondly, both legends represent the 
Jamuna itself as diverted from its straight course into a single winding channel, 
not as divided into a multiplicity of streams. Hence it may more reasonably 
be inferred that the still existing involution of the river is the sole foundation 
for the myth. 

The high road from Mathura to Brindii-ban passes through two villages, 
Jay-sinh-pur and Ahalya-ganj ; but with these exceptions, the country on either 
side has rather a waste and desolate appearance, mth fewer gardens and houses 
than Avould be expected on a thoroughfare connecting two places of such 
popular resort. An explanation is afforded by the fact that the present road 
is of quite recent construction ; its predecessor kept much closer to the Jamuna, 
lying just along the h^dar lands — which in the rains form part of the river-bed — 
and then among the ravines, where it was periodically destroyed by the rush 
of water from the land. This is now almost entirely disused ; but for the 
first two miles out of Brinda-ban its course is marked by lines of trees and 
several works of considerable magnitude. The first is a large garden more 
than 40 bighas in extent, surrounded by a masonry wall and supplied with 
■water from a distance by long aqueducts. In its centre is a stone temple of 
some size, and among the trees, with which the grounds are over-crowded, some 
venerable specimens of the hhimi form an imposing avenue. The garden 
bears the name of Kushal, a wealthy Seth from Gujarat, at whose expense 
it was constructed, and who also founded one of the largest temples in the 
city of Mathura. A little beyond, on the opposite side of the way, in a piece 
of waste ground, which Avas once an orchard, is a large and handsome bdnli 
of red sandstone, Avith a flight of 57 steps leading down to the level of the 
water. This was the gift of Ahalya Bai, the celebrated Mahratta Queen of 
Indor, who died in 1795. It is still in perfect preservation, but quite unused. 
Further on, in the hamlet of Akrur, on the verge of a cliff overlooking a wide 
expanse of alluvial land, is the temple of Bhat-rond, a solitary toAver containing 
an image of Bihari Ji. In front of it is a forlorn little court-yard Avith walls 
and entrance gateway all crumbling into ruin. Opposite is a large garden of 
the Seth's, and on the roadAvay that runs between, a fair, called the Bhat-mela, 
is held on the full moon of Kartik; Avhen sweetmeats are scrambled among 
the crowd by the visitors of higher rank, seated on the top of the gate. The 
word Bhat-rond is ahvays popularly connected with the incident in Krishna's 
life Avhich the moOa commemorates— how that he and his brother Balardm one 
day, having forgotten to supply themselves with provisions before leaA-ing 
home, had to borroAV a meal of rice (hhdt) from some Brahmans' Avives — but 
the true etymology (though an orthodox Hindu Avould regard the suggestion 



ETYMOLOGY OF BRINDA-BAN. 115 

as heretical) refers, like most of the local names in the neighbourhood, merely 
to physical phenomena, and Bhat-rond may be translated ' tide-wall, ' or 
* breakwater.' 

Similarh-, tho word Brinda-ban is derived from an obvious physical feature, 
and when first attached to the spot signified no more than the ' tulsi grove ;' 
hrindd and tnlsi being synonymous terms, used indifferently to denote the sacred 
aromatic herb known to botanists as Ocymum sanctum. But this explanation 
is far too simple to find favour with the more modern and extravagant school 
of Vaishnava sectaries ; and in the Brahma Vaivarta Puraiia, a mythical per- 
sonage has been invented bearing the name of Vrindii. According to that 
spurious composition (Brah. Vai., v. iv. 2) the deified Rudha, though inhabit- 
ing the Paradise of Goloka, was not exempt from human passions, and in a fit 
of jealousy condemned a Gopa by name Sridama to descend upon earth in the 
form of the demon Sankhachura. He, in retaliation, sentenced her to become 
a nymph of Brinda-ban ; and there accordingly she was born, being, as was 
supposed, the daughter of Kedara, but in reality the divine mistress of Krishna ; 
and it was simply his love for her which induced the god to leave his solitary 
throne in heaven and become incarnate. Hence iu the following exhaustive 
list of Radha's titles, as given by the same authority (Brah. Vai., v. iv. 17j, 
there are three which refer to her predilection for Brinda-ban : — 

Bddha, Rdsesvari, Rdsavdsini, Rdsikesvari, 

Krlshna-prdnddldkd, Krishna-priija, Rrishna-sivarupinif 

Krishna, Vrinddvani, Vrindd, Vrinddvana-mnodinij 

Chanddvati, Chdndra-kdntd, Sata-chandra-nibhdnand, 

Krishna-vdmdnga-samhhutd, Paramdnanda-Tiipini* 
There is no reason to suppose that Brinda-ban was ever the seat of any 
large Buddhist establishment; and though from the very earliest period of Brah- 
manical history it has enjoyed high repute as a sacred place of pilgrimage, it 
is probable that for many centuries it was merely a wild uninhabited jungle, a 
description still applicable to Bhandir-ban, on the opposite side of the river, a 
spot of equal celebrity in Sanskrit literature. Its most ancient temples, four 
in number, take us back only to the reign of our own Queen Elizabeth ; the 
stately courts that adorn the river bank and attest the wealth and magnificence 
of the Bharat-pur Eajas, date only from the middle of last century ; while the 
space no<v occupied by a series of the largest and most magnificent shrines ever 
erected in Upper India was, fifty years ago, an unclaimed belt of jungle and 
pasture -ground for cattle. Now that communication has been established with 

♦•'Kadha, queen of the dance, constant at the dance, queen of the dancer; dearer than 
Krishna's life, Krishna's delight, Krishna's counter-part ; Krishna, Brinda, Brinda-ban-born, 
sporting at Brinda-ban ; moon-like spouse of the moon-like god, with face bricrht as a hundred 
moons ; created as at the left half of Krishna's body, incarnation of heavenlj bliss. " 



116 ENDOWMENTS AND CHARITIES OF BRINDA-EAN, 

the remotest parts of India, every year sees some splendid addition made to 
the artistic treasures of the town ; as -wealthy devotees recognize in the stability 
of British rule an assm'ance that their pious donations will be completed in peace 
and remain undisturbed in perpetuity. 

When Father Tieffenthaler visited Brinda-ban in 1 754, ho noticed only ons 
long street, but states that this was adorned with handsome, not to say magnifi- 
cent buildings of beautifully carved stone, which had been erected by difiterent 
Hindu Rajas and nobles, either for mere display, or as occasional I'esidences, or 
as eml)ellishmonts that would be acceptable to the local divinity. The absurdity 
of people coming from long distances merely for the sake of dying on holy 
ground, all among the monkeys— which he describes as a most intolerable nui- 
sance — 'together with the frantic idolatry that he saw rampant all around, and 
the grotesque resemblance of the Bainigis to the hermits and ascetics of the 
earlier ages of Christianity, seem to have given the worthy missionary such a shock 
that his remarks on the buildings are singulaidy vague and indiscx'iminating. 

At the present time there arc within the limits of the municipality about a 
thousand temples, including, of course, many which, strictly speaking, are mere- 
ly private chapels, and thirty-two ghats constructed by different princely bene- 
factors. The tanks of reputed sanctity are only two in number. The first is the 
Brahm Kund at the back of the Seth's temple, which is now in a very ruinous 
condition. The other, called Gobind Kund, is in an out-of-the-way spot near the 
Mathura Road. Hitherto it has been little more than a natural pond, but has 
lately been enclosed on all four sides with masonry walls and flights of steps 
at a cost of Rs. 30,000 by Chaudharani Kali Sundari from Rajshahi in 
Bengal. The peacocks and monkeys, with which the place abounds, enjoy the 
benefit of special endowments, bequeathed by deceased Rajas of Kota and 
Bharat-pur. There are some fifty chhattras, or dole houses, for the distribu- 
tion of alms, and extraordinary donations are not unfrequently made by royal 
and distinguished visitors. Thus the Raja of Datia, a few years ago, made an 
offering to every single shrine and every single Brahman that was found in tho 
city. The whole population amounts to 21,000, of which the Brahmans^ 
Bairagis, and Vaishnavas together make up about one-half. In the time of 
the emperors, the Muhammadans made a futile attempt to abolish tho ancient 
name, Brinda-ban, and in its stead substitute that of Miiminabad ; but now, 
more wisely, they leave the place to its own Hindu name and devices, and 
keep themselves as clear of it as possible. Thus, besides an occasional official, 
there are in Brinda-ban no followers of the prophet beyond only some fifty 
families who live close together in its outskirts, and are all of the humblest 
order, such as oilmen, lime-burners, and the like. 

It is still customary to consider the religion of the Hindus as a compact 
system, which has existed continuously and without any material change 



THE HINDU KEFORMERS. 117 

ever since the remote and almost pre-historic period when it finally abandoned 
the comparatively simple form of worship incvilcated by the ritual of the 
Vedas. The real facts, however, are far different. So far as it is possible to 
compare things sacred with profane, the com-se of Hinduism and Christianity 
has been identical in character ; both were subjected to a violent disruption 
which occurred in the two quarters of the globe nearly simultaneously, and 
which is still attested by the multitude of uncouth fragments into which the 
ancient edifice was disintegrated as it fell. In the west, the revival of ancient 
literature and the study of forgotten systems of philosophy stimulated enquiry 
into the validity of those theological conclusions which previously had been 
unhesitatingly accepted — from ignorance that any counter-theory could be 
honestly maintained by thinking men. Similarly in the east, the Muham- 
madan invasion and the consequent contact with new races and new modes of 
thought brought home to the Indian moralist that his old basis of faith was 
too narrow; that the division of the human species into the four Manava castes, 
and an outer world of barbarians was too much at variance with facts to be 
accepted as satisfactory, and that the ancient inspired oracles, if riglitly inter- 
preted, must disclose some means of salvation applicable to all men alike, with- 
out respect to colour or nationality. The professed object of the Reformers was 
the same in Asia as in Europe — to discover the real purpose for which the 
second Person of the Trinity became incarnate ; to disencumber the truth, as Ho 
had revealed it, from the accretions of later superstition ; to abolish the extrava- 
gant pretensions of a dominant class and to restore a simpler and more 
severely intellectual form of public worship.* In Upper India the tyrannv of 
the Muhammadans was too tangible a fact to allow of the hope or even the 
wish that the conquerors and conquered could ever coalesce in one common 
faith ; but in the Dakhin and the remote regions of Eastern Beno-al, to which 
the sword of Islam had scarcely extended, and where no inveterate antipathy had 
been created, the contingency appeared less improbable. Accordingly, it was 
in those parts of India that the great teachers of the reformed Vaishuava creed 
first meditated and reduced to system those doctrines which it was the one ob- 
ject of all their later life to promulgate throughout Hindustan, It was their 
ambition to elaborate a scheme so bi'oad and yet so orthodox that it mio-ht 
satisfy the requirements of the Hindu and yet not exclude the Muhammadan 
who was to be admitted on equal terms into the new fraternity : all mankind be- 
coming one great family and every caste distinction being utterly abolished. 

Thus Kablr, a contemporary of the Emperor Sikandar Lodi (1488-1517 
A. D.), is acknowledged as one of the greatest leaders among the Reformers, 

* Thus, as it may be interesting to note, the Brahma Samaj of the present day is no isolated 
movement, but only the most modern of a long series of similar reactions against corrupt super- 
stition. 



118 THE KABIR-PANTHIS AND PRAN NATIIIS. 

and was tlie founder of a sect called the Kabfr-Pantliis. Though a foundling, 
and therefore of uncertain parentage, he was certainly brought up in a family 
of juldhas, Muhamniadan weavers ; and after his death a A'iolent dispute arose as 
to the disposal of his body — the Hindus claiming it for cremation, the Muhara- 
niadans for burial. Neither party succeeded in establishing an absolute right 
to the sacred remains ; for, on lifting up the cloth with which they had been 
reverently covered, their miraculous assumption iuto heaven was attested by the 
heap of divine flowers which alone marked the spot where they had reposed. 
Of these flowers, half were taken to Banaras and there burnt, the other half were 
buried at Magar near Gorakhpur, where he had died. This latter shrine has 
been richly endowed and is visited specially by Muhammadans, as the Kabir 
Chaura at Banaras is by Hindus. 

Similarly, the fundamental doctrine of the Pran Nathis, or Dhamis (Dhau 
beino- a name of the Supreme Being or Paramatma), is the absolute equality 
before God, not only of Hindus and Muhammadans, but also of Christians. 
Their founder, Pran Nath, was a Kshatriya by caste and a native of Bundel- 
khand, who lived towards the end of the reign of the Emperor Aurangzeb. 
His polemical treatises, fourteen in number, are written in Hindi verse with 
a laro-e admixture of the Arabic phraseology of the Koran.* He is repre- 
sented in Mathura by a solitary ascetic named Karak Das, who has a small 
shrine near the Seth's garden on the Jamuna, The only object exposed fur 
adoration on the altar is a set of Pran Nath's works, the whole of which he 
knows by heart. It is said to be an essential part of the ceremony of initia- 
tion that Hindus and Muhammadans should eat together ; bub iu the presence 
of his Hindu countrymen whose prejudices on the point are so strong, he was 
very reluctant to admit the fact, and maintained, what no doubt is the case, 
that the practice at all events was never repeated after once the initiation had 
been eff"ected. 

Hence it is by no means correct to assert of modern Hinduism that it is 
essentially a non-proselytizing religion ; accidentally it has become so, but only 
from concession to the prejudices of the outside world and in direct opposition 
to the tenets of its founders. Their initial success was necessarily due to their 
intense zeal in proselytizing, and was marvellously rapid. At the present day 
their followers constitute the more influential, and it may be even numerically 
the larger half of the Hindu population : but precisely as in Europe so in 
India, no two men of the reformed sects, however immaterial their doctrinal 

• The fourteen books are named as follows : the titles alone being sufficient to indicate the 
curious mixed dialect in which they are composed : 1 the book of Kas ; 2 of Prakiis ; 3 of Shat- 
rit ; 4 of Kalas ; 5 of Sanandh ; 6 of Kirantan ; 7 of Khulasa ; 8 of Khclvat ; 9 of Prakratna 
Illahi Dulhan, an allegory in which the Church, or ' Bride of God,' is represented as a holy 
city ; 10 of Sagar Siugar ; 11 of Bare Singar ; 12 of Siodhi Bhasa ; 13 of Marafat Sagar ; 14 of 
Kyamat-nama. 



VAISHNAVA DIVISIONS. 119 

differences, can be induced to amalgamate ; each forms a new caste moro 
bigoted and exclusive than any of those which it was intended to supersede, 
while the founder has become a deified character, for whom it is necessary to 
erect a new niche in the very Pantheon he had laboured to destroy. 

The four main divisions, or Sampradayas, as they are called, of the reformed 
Vaishnavas are the Sri Yaishnava, the Nimbaratk Yaishnava, the Madhva 
Vaishnava, and the Vishnu Swami. The last sect is now virtually extinct ; for 
though the name is occasionally retained, their doctrines were entirely remo- 
delled in the sixteenth century by the famous Gokul Gosain V"allabhdcharya, 
after whom his adherents are ordinarily styled either Vallabhacharyas or 
Gokulastha Gosains. Their history and tenets will find more appropriate place 
in connection with the town of Gokul, which is still their head-quarters : suffice 
it here to say that, both in the lateness of their origin and the scandalous 
nature of their peculiar doctrines, they correspond most closely witli the Mor- 
mons of the west, and are as little to be regarded as exponents of ordinary 
Hindu belief and practice as the followers of Joseph Smith and Brighara 
Young are of conventional Christianity. 

In addition to the four Sampradayas, there are two schools of somewhat 
more modern origin, called respectively Bengali or Gauriya Vaishnavas and 
Radha Vallabhfs. The former are the disciples of Chaitanya, the latter of Ha- 
rivansa, a far less celebrated character. Both are very largely ro]}resented at 
Brinda-ban, where the latter originated, and the former established their prin- 
cipal propaganda. 

The Sri Sampradaya was altogether unknown at Brinda-ban till quite re- 
cently, when the two brothers of Seth Lakhmi Cliand, after abjuring the Jaini 
faith, were enlisted in its ranks, and by the advice of the Guru, who had re- 
ceived their submission, founded at enormous cost the gi'eat temple of Hmg Ji. 
It is the most ancient and the most respectable of the four reformed Vaishnava 
communities, and is based on the teaching of Raraanuja, who flourished in the 
11th or 12th century of the Christian era. The whole of his life was spent in 
the Dakhin, where he is said to have established no less than 700 monastei'ies, 
of which the chief were at Kanchi and Sri Ranga. The standard authorities 
for his theological system are certain Sanskrit treatises of his own composition 
entitled the Sri Bhashya, Gita Bhashya, Vediirtha Sangraha, Vedanta Pradipa 
and Vedanta Siira. All the naoro popular works are composed in the dialects of 
the south, and the establishment at Brinda-ban is attended exclusively by for- 
eigners, the rites and ceremonies there observed exciting little interest among 
the Hindus of the neighbourhood, who are quite ignorant of their meanino-. 
The sectarial mark by which the Sri Vaishnavas may be distinguished consists 
of two white perpendicular streaks down the forehead joined by a cross line 
at the root of the nose with a streak of red between. Their chief dogma called 



120 NIMBARAK VAISnNAVAS. 

Visishthadwaita, is the assertion that Vishnu, the one Supreme God, though 
invisible as cause, is, as eti'ect, visible in a secondary form in material creation. 
Thej diifer in one marked respect from the mass of the people at Brinda- 
ban, in that they refuse to recognise RaJh'i as an object of religious adoration. 
In this they are in complete accord with all the older authorities, which regard 
her simply as Krishna's mistress and Rukmini as his wife. Their mantra or 
formula of initiatiozi, corresponding to the In nomine Pains, &c., of Christian 
Baptism, is said to be Om Rwndya namah, that is, ' Om, reverence to Rama.' 

The Nimbarak Vaishnavas, as mentioned in the preceding chaptci', have 
one of their oldest shines on the Dhruva hill at Mathura. Literally interpre- 
ted, the word Nimbarak means 'the sun in a vim tree;' a curious designation, 
which is explained as follows. The founder of the sect, an ascetic, by name 
Bhaskaracharya, had invited a Bainigi to dine with him, and had prepared every- 
thing for his reception, but unfortunately delayed to go and fetch his guest 
till after sunset. Now, the holy man was forbidden by the rules of his order to 
eat except in the day-time, and was greatly afraid that he would be compelled 
to practise an unwilling abstinence : but at the solicitation of his host, the sun- 
god, Suraj Narayan, descended upon the niia tree under which the repast was 
spread and continued beaming upon them till the claims of hunger were fully 
satisfied. Thenceforth the saint was known by the name of Nimbarka or Nim- 
baditya. His special tenets are little known ; for, unlike the other Sampra- 
dayas, his followers have no special literature of their own either in Sanskrit or 
Hindi ; a fact which they explain by saying that all their books were burnt by 
Aurangzeb, the conventional bete noire of Indian history, who is made respon- 
sible for every act of destruction. Though they form a numerous class at 
Brinda-ban, they have no temple there of any note. 

The same may be said of the Madhva Vaishnavas whose founder, Madliva- 
chi'iry a was a native of Southern India, born in the year 1199 A. D. The temple 
where he ordinarily resided is gtill in existence at a place called Udipi. Here 
lie had set up a miraculous image of Krishna, made with the hero Arjun's own 
hands, which had been casually thrown as ballast into a ship from Dwaraka, 
which was wrecked on the Malabar coast. He is said to have been only nine years 
of age when he composed the Bhasha or commentary on the Gita, which 
bis disciples accept as of divine authority. Their distinctive doctrine is the 
assertion of an essential Duality (Dwaita) between the Jivatma, or principle 
of Hfe, and the Paramatma, or Supreme Being. Their sectarial mark consists 
of two perpendicular white lines down the forehead, joined at the root of the noso 
and with a straight black streak between, terminating in a round mark made 
with turmeric. 

The Radha Vallabhis have a tenqde at Brinda-ban dedicated to Krishna 
under his title Sri Iladhu Vallabha, >Yhich is said to havo been built in the 



BENGALI VAISHNAVAS. 121 

year 1585, by Hari Vansa, the founder of the sect, a native of Deva-ban in the 
Saharanpur District. There are several inscriptions rudely scrawled on the 
walls, but the oldest at present visible bears the date of Sanibat 1 684 (1G27A.D.) 
Most of their works are written ia Hindi, and apparently agree in doctrine with 
the teaching of Chaitanya, the father of the Bengali Vaishnavas. 

This last-named community has had a moi-e marked influence on Brinda- 
b:in than any of the rival schools, as the foundation of all the material pros- 
perity and religious exclusiveness, by which the place is now pre-eminently 
characterized, was laid by Chaitanya's immediate disciples. He was born at 
Nadiya in Bengal in 1485 A.D., and in his youth is said to have married a 
daughter of Vallabhacharya. However that may be, when he had arrived at 
tlie age of 24 he formally resigned all connection with secular aud domestic 
affairs and commenced his career as a religious teacher. After spending six years 
in pilgrimages between Mathura and Jagannath, he finally settled down at 
the latter place, where in 1527 A.D., being then only 42 years old, he disap- 
peared from the world. There is reason to believe that he was drowned in the 
sea, into which he had walked in an ecstasy, mistaking it for the shallow waters 
of the Jamuna, where he saw, in a vision, Krishna sporting with the Gropis. 
His life and doctrines are recoi'ded in a most voluminous Bengali Avork entitled 
Chaitanya Charitararita, composed in 1590 by one of his disciples, Krishna Das. 
Two of his colleagues, Adwaitanand and Nityanand who, like himself, are 
styled Maha Prabhus, presided over his establishments in Bengal ; while other 
six Grosains settled at Brinda-ban. Apart from metaphysical subtleties, which 
naturally have but little hold on the minds of the populace, the special tenet of the 
BengaU Vaishnavas is the all sufficiency of faith in the divine Krishna ; such 
faiih being adequately expressed by the mere repetition of his name without 
a 113^ added prayer or concomitant feeling of genuine devotion. Thus roughly 
stated, the doctrine appears absurd; and possibly its true bearing is as little 
regarded by many of the more ignorant among the Vaishnavas themselves, 
as it is by the majority of superficial outside observers. It is, however, a legiti- 
mate deduction from sound principles : for it may be presumed that the formal act 
of devotion would never have been commenced, had it not been prompted at 
the outset by a devotional intention, which intention is virtually continued so 
long as the act is in performance. And to quote from a manual of a purer faith, 
*' it is not necessary that the intention should be actual throughout; it is 
sufficient if we pray in a human manner ; and for this only a virtual intentioa 
is required ; that is to say, an intention which has beeu actual and is supposed to 
continue although through inadvertence or distraction we may have lost sight of 
it." The sectarial mark consists of two white perpendicular sti'eaks down the fore- 
head, united at the root of the nose, and crmtinued to near the tip. Another 
characteristic is the use of a rosary of 108 beads made of the wood of the iuUi. 



122 THE BTHNPA-BAN GOSAINS. 

The recognized leaders of the BrinJii-ban commuQity were by name Riipa 
and Sanataua, the authors of several doctrinal commentaries, and also, as is said, 
of the Mathura, Mahatmja. Witli them were associated a nephew, named Jiva, 
who founded the temple of Radha Damodar ; Gopal Bhatt, founder of the tem- 
ple of Kadha Raman ; Raghunath Das, a Kayath from Radha Kund ; and, om- 
pleting the six, Raghunatli Bhatt. Of the last nothing special has been recorded, 
and in some lists another name is substituted in his place.* One of the eaidiest 
converts, Swami Hari Das, a native of the adjoining village of Raj pur, has 
acquired a celebrity equal to that of any of his masters, and in some parts of 
Bengal is said to receive divine honours in the same way as Chaitanya. Tradi- 
tion goes that he established his reputation for sanctity by spending several 
years in solitude in the woods and everyday repeating Krishna's name 300,000 
times. In the Bhakta Mala, Riipa and Sanatana and their companions are 
mentioned as follows : — 



f^^lol^ 5 3^TH ^^ =^T^^ ^3^1^T I 



^TI^^T^^ ^T TTT^T ^TH iflTM ^1^I3[^ l^^T II 

^R^fi ^TT^i^ ^M^m T^imFi T^^ ^KTi I 



T^^i^H cfi nrafi ^i^ wi^ ^i^T^^ f^^T II !? II I 

* The Tuzuk mentions another famous Gosain of somewhat later date, 1619 A. D., by 
name Jadu-Rup, who came from Ujjaiyin to Mathura, and who had been visited both by Akbar 
and Jahiingir. 

t In the above passage the words underlined are proper names. 



TEMPLE OF GOBIND DEYA. 123 

On tlieir arrival at Brinda-ban, the first shrine which the Gosains erected 
was in honour of the local divinity, Brinda Devi. Of this no traces now 
remain, if (as some say) it stood in the Seva Kunj, which is now a large 
walled garden with a masonry tank near the Ras Mandal. Their fame spread 
so rapidly that iti 1570 the Emperor Akbar was induced to pay them a visit, 
and was taken blindfold into the sacred enclosure of the Nidhban,* where 
such a marvellous vision was revealed to him, that he was fain to acknowledo-e 
the place as indeed holy ground. Hence the cordial support which he gave 
to the attendant Rajas, when they declared their intention of erecting a series 
of buildings more worthy of the local divinity. 

The four temples commenced in honour of this event still remain, though 
in a ruinous and hitherto sadly neglected condition. They bear the titles of 
Gobind Deva, Gopi-nath, Jugal-Kishor, and Madan Mohan. The first named 
is not only the finest of this particular series, but is the most impressive reli- 
gious edifice that Hindu art has ever produced, at least in Upper India. The 
body of the building is in the form of a Greek cross, the nave being a hundred 
feet in length and the breadth across the transepts the same. The central 
compartment is surmounted by a dome of singularly graceful proportions ; and 
the four arms of the cross are roofed by a wagon vault of pointed form, not, 
as is usual in Hindu architecture, composed of overlapping brackets, but 
constructed of true radiating arches as in our Gothic cathedrals. The walls 
have an average thickness of ten feet, and are pierced in two stages, the upper 
stage being a regular triforium, to which access is obtained by an internal 
staircase. At the east entrance of the nave, a small narthex projects fifteen 
feet; and at the west end, between two niches and incased in a rich canopy of 
sculpture, a square-headed doorway leads into the choir, a chamber some 
twenty feet deep. Beyond this was the sacrarium,t flanked on either side by a 
lateral chapel; each of these three cells being of the same dimensions as the 
choir, and like it vaulted by a lofty dome. The general effect of the interior 
is not unlike that produced by St. Paul's Cathedral in London. The latter 
building has greatly the advantage in size, but in the other, the central dome 
is more elegant, while the richer decoration of the wall surfiice and the 
natural glow of the red sandstone supply that relief and warmth of colouring 
which are so lamentably deficient in its western rival. 

* The derivation of this word is a little questiouable. It is the local name of tlie actual Brinda 
grove to which the town owes its origin. The spot so designated is now of very limited area, 
hemmed in on all sides bj streets, but protected from further encroachmont by a high masonry 
wall. 

t The Sanskrit terms for the component parts of a temple are — the nave, mandapa ; the choir, 
antardla, and the sacrarium garbha griha. The more ordinary Hindi substitutes are— fur the nave, 
sabhd, and for the choir, jag-mohan ; while mandir, the temple, specially denotes the sacrarium, 
aud ar:y aide chapel is styled a mahall. 



124 TEJITLE OF GOBIND DEVA. 

The groimd-plan is so similar to that of many European churches as to 
suggest the idea that the architect was assisted by the Jesuit missionaries, who 
were people of considerable influence at Akbar's court: were this really the case, 
the temple would be one of the most eclectic buildings in the world, havnng a 
Christian ground-plan, a Hindu elevation, and a roof of modified Saracenic 
character. But the surmise, though a curious one, must not be too closely 
pressed ; for some of the temples at Khajurao, by Mahoba, are of similar design 
and of much earlier date. 

It would seem that there were originally B earoa towers ; one over the central 
dome, one nt - the end of each tranjopt , and the other four covering respectively 
the choir, sacrarium, aud two chapels.* Tlie sacrarium has been uttterly razod to 
the ground,t and the other e« towers levelled with the roof of the nave. Their 
loss has terribly marred the effect of the exterior, which must have been ex- 
tremely majestic when the west front with its lofty triplet was supported on 
either side by the p^Tamid tt l mass if t i ho transepts and backed by the still more 
towering height that crowned the central dome. The choir tower was of slighter 
elevation, occupying the same relative position as the spirelet over the sanc- 
tus bell in western eeclesiology The ponderous walls, albeit none too massive 
to resist the enormus thrust once brought to bear upon them, now, however 
much relieved by exuberant decoration, appear out of all proportion to the com- 
paratively low superstructure. As a further disfigurement, a plain masonry 
wall had been run along the top of the centre dome. It is generally believed 
that this was built by Aurangzeb for the purpose of desecrating the temple; 
though it is also said to have been put up by the Hindus themselves to assist 
in some grand illumination. In either case it was an ugly modern excrescence, 
and its removal was the very first step taken at the commencement of the re[)airs 
now in progress. t 

Under one of the niches at the west end of the nave is a tablet with a long 
Sanskrit inscription. This has unfortunately been much mutilated, but enough 
remains as record of the fact that the temple was built in Samhat 1647, ^. e., 



* The soutli-west chapel encluscs a subterraiieau cell, called Fatal Devi, whicli is said by 
Bome to be the Gosains' original shrine in honour of the goddess Brinda. 

t The sacrarium has been roughly rebuilt in brick, and contains an image of Krishna in his 
character of Giridhari (the mountain-supporter), with two subordinate figures representing, the 
one Maha Prabhu, i. e., Chaitanya, the other Nityanand. 

J One section of this work originally appeared in the " Calcutta Review," and a cor- 
respondent who saw it there has favomvd me with the following note of a tradition ar. lo the 
cau'icof the wall being bnilt. lie writes, — "Aurangzeb hiid often of an evening remarked a very 
bright light shining in the far distant south-east horizon, and in reply to his enquiries regarding 
it, was told that it was a light burning in a temple of great wealth and magnificence at Uriiida-ban. 
He accordingly resolved that it should be effectually put out, and soon after sent some troops to the 
place, who plundered and threw down as munh of the temple as they could, and then erccled on 
the top of the ruins a mosque wall, where, in order to complete the desecration, the Emperor is 
said to have offered up his prayers." 




TEMPLE OF G08IND-D£:VA \ 



BRINDA-BAN. 







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TEMPLE OF GfBIND DEVA. 125 

A. D. 1590, undsr the direction of -the two Grtirus, Rupa and Sanatana. The 
founder, Eaja Man Siuli, was a Kachliwaha Thakur, son of Raja Bhao-awaa 
Das of Amber, founder of the temple at Gobardhan, and an ancestor of the 
present Raja of Jaypur. He was appointed by Akbar successively Governor 
of the districts along the Indus, of Kabul, and of Bihar. By his exertions, the 
whole of Orisa and Eastern Bengal were re-annexed ; and so highly were his 
merits appreciated at court, that though a Hindu, he was raised to a higher 
rank than any other officer in the realm. He married a sister of Lakshmi Nara- 
yan. Raja of Koch Bihar, and at the time of his decease, which was in the ninth 
year of the reign of Jahatigir, he had living one son, Bhao Sinh, who succeeded 
him upon the throne of Amber, and died in 1621, A. D.* There is a tradition 
to the effect that Akbar at the last, jealous of his powerful vassal, and desirous 
to rid himself of him, had a confection prepared, part of which contained poison, 
but, caught in his own snare, he presented the innoxious portion to the Raja and 
ate that drugged with death himself^ The unworthy deed is explained by Mhn 
Sinh's design, which apparently had reached the Emperor's ears, to alter tha 
succession in fiivour of Khusrau, his nephew, instead of Salim.f 

In anticipation of a visit from Aurangzeb, the image of the god was trans- 
ferred to Jaypui', and the Gosain of the temple there has ever since been reo-ard- 
ed as the head of the endowment. The name of the present incumbent is S\a:n 
Sundar, who has two agents, resident at Brinda-ban. ^ There is said to be still in 
existence at Jaypur the original plan of the temple, showing its seven towers, but 
there is a difficulty in obtaining any definite information on the subject. How- 
ever, local tradition is fully agreed as to their number and position ; while tlioir 
architectural character can be determined beyond a doubt by comparison Avith 
the smaller temples of the same age and style, the ruins of which still remain. 
It is therefore not a little strange that of all the architects who have described 
this famous building, not one has noticed this, its most characteristic feature: the 
harmonious combination of dome and spire is still quoted as the great crux of 
modern art, though nearly 300 years ago the difficulty was solved by the Hin- 
dus with characteristic grace and ingenuity. 

From the reign of Aurangzeb to the present time not a single step had ever 
been taken to ensure the preservation from further decay of this most interestinof 
architectural monument. Large trees had been allowed to grow up in the 
fissures of the walls, and in the course of a few more summers their spreading 
roots would have caused irreparable damage. Accordingly, after an ineffectual 
attempt to enlist the sympathies of the Archseological Department, the writer took 

* Vide Professor Blochmanu's Aini Akbari, p. 341. 

•f The above traJitionis quoted from Tod's l.'ajasthdn. De Laet, as translated by Mr. Leth- 
bridge, (or Man Sinh substitutes the name of ^Mirza Gliazi B' ^. 
X They are by name Babus Kailds Chandra and Bhola-Xath. 



126 REPAIRS OF THE TEMPLE OF GOBIND DEVA. 

the opportimity of Sir William Muir's presence in the district, on tour, to solicit 
the adoption on the part of the Government of some means for averting a 
catastrophe that every student of architecture throughout the world would have 
regarded as a national disgrace. With the ready appreciation that was to be 
expected in such a quarter, the proposals submitted were at once endorsed and 
forwarded for the consideration of the Government of India, who communicated 
them to the Maharaja of Jaj'^pur, the temple's hereditaiy guardian. His 
Highness, without the slightest hesitation, expressed his entire approval, and 
undertook to supply a sum of Rs. 5,000, which had been estimated as sufficient 
to defray the cost of all absolutely essential repairs.* The work was taken in 
hand at the beginning of this month (August, 1873), and some progress has 
been already made. The obtrusive wall erected by the Muhammadans on the 
top of the dome has been demolished ; the interior has been cleared of several 
unsightly party-walls and other modern excrescences, and the debris, which had 
accumulated round the base of the building to the astonishing height of eight 
feet, and in some places even more, entirely concealing the handsomely moulded 
plinth, has been removed ; by which means a considerable addition is made to 
the height of the building — the one point in which, since the loss of the original 
towers, the design had appeared defective. Many of the houses which had 
been allowed to crowd the court-yard close up to the very walls of the temple 
have been taken down, and two broad approaches are being opened out from 
the great eastern portal and the south transept. Hitherto, the only access was 
by a narrow winding lane ; and there was not a single point from which it 
w^as possible to obtain a complete view of the fabric. 

The next thing to be imdertaken is the removal of a huge masonry pillar 
that has been inserted under the north bay of the nave to support a broken 
lintel. It is proposed to effect this by pinning up the fractured stone with 
three strong iron bolts ; a simple and economical contrivance, suggested by 
Mr. Inglis, Executive Engineer on the Agra Canal, in lieu of the costly and 
tedious process of inserting a new lintel, and meanwhile supporting the wall 
by a masonry arch, which, though temporary, would have to be most carefully 
and substantially constructed. 

On the south side of the choir stood a large domed and pillared chhattri of 
later date than the temple, as is evident from the fact that it must have 
been erected after the accumulation of soil had taken place, but still of hand- 
some and harmoniou3 design. t As this was before very insecure, and had been 

♦ A revised estimate has now been prepared by the District Engineer, who puts it at 
Bs. 75,000 for the exterior, and Ri9. 57,857 for the inti'rior, making a total of Rs. 1,32,857 I 

f Whtn the above was written, I had not noticed an inscription rudely cut on one of tho 
pillars, recording the erection of the chhullri in the reign of the Emperor Sliabj'ihan, Sambat 
1693, i. e., 1636 A. D., or 4G years after the tcuiplc was built. A copy of the iuscriptioa will be 
found at the end of this chapter. 



TEMPLE OF MADAN MOHAN 



BH! N DA- BAN. 



NL.'V TEMP! £. 






Sfre/:t 



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so ifj< -- i t-/7.cA>. 



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TEMPLK OF MAD AN MOHAN. 127 

rcudered still more so by reducing the level of the ground round its founda- 
tions, it has been taken down and re-erected on the platform that marks the 
site of the old sacrarium, where it will serve to conceal the bare rubble wall 
that rises behind it. The roof of the entire building will also be submitted to 
a careful examination, with a view to preventing the settlement of rain and 
consequent leakage ; and in all places, so far as funds allow, wherever the 
stone facing of the walls has been destroyed, it will be renewed. The re-build- 
ing of any such part as has utterly perished — for example, any one of the towers — 
is out of the question, and not perhaps desirable in the absence of the original 
design. The fabric must at one time have been subjected to some stupendous 
shock, more like an earthquake than any act of mere human violence ; and 
possibly the works were thus interrupted before the towers had been actually 
completed. Otherwise, it is difficult to explain how every trace of them has 
so totally disappeared ; for, in clearing the basements, comparatively few frag- 
ments of carved stone have been discovered imbedded in the soil. There are 
more built up into the adjoining houses, but these are mostly corbels and shafts 
taken from the lower stories of the temple which are still standing. 

A modern temple, under the old dedication, has been erected within the 
precincts and absorbs the whole of the endowment. The ordinary annual income 
amounts to Es. 17,500 ; but by far the greater part of this, viz., Rs. 13,000, 
is made up by votive offerings. The fixed estate includes one village in Alwar 
and another in Jaypur, but consists principally of house property in the town 
of Brinda-ban, where is also a large orchard, called Radha Bagh. This has 
been greatly diminished in area by a long series of encroachments. About a 
hundred years ago it must have been very extensive and densely wooded, as 
Father Tieffenthaller, in his notice of Brinda-ban, describes it in the followincr 
terms : — " L'endroit est convert de beaucoup d'arbres et ressemble a un bois 
sacre des anciens ; il est triste par le morne silence qui y regno, quoiqu' ao-re- 
able par 1' ombre epaisse des arbres, desquels on n'ose arracher un rameau, ni 
meme une feuille ; ce serait un grand delit." The site of the Seth's temple was 
also purchased from the Gobind Deva estate, and a further subsidy of Rs. 102 
a year is still paid on its account. 

The next temple to be described, viz., that of Madan Mohan, one of Krishna's 
innumerable titles, stands at the upper end of the town on the river bank near 
the Kali-mardan Ghat, where the god trampled on the head of the great serpent 
Kali. It consists of a nave 57 feet long, with a choir of 20 feet square at the 
west end, and a sanctuary of the same dimensions beyond. The total heio-ht of 
the nave would seem to have been only about 22 feet, but its vaulted roof has 
entirely disappeared : the upper part of the choir tower has also been destroyed. 
That surmounting the sacrarium is a lofty octagon of curvilinear outline taper- 
ing towards the summit ; and attached to its south side is a tower-crowned 



128 TEMPLE OF MADAN MOHAN. 

chapel of precisely similar elevation, and differing only in tlie one respect tliat 
its exterior surface is enriched with sculptured panels, while the other is quite 
plain. Over its single door, which is at the east end, is a Sanskrit inscription, 
given first io Bengali and then in Nagari characters, which runs as follows :— 

" Of Guru descent, a compeer of Mahadeva, whose fiither was Rarachandra, 
whose son was Radha Vasant, a jewel of good men; that mass of virtue, by 
name Sri Gunanand, dedicated in approved fashion this temple to the son of 
Nanda (Nandkishor, i. e., Krishna.)" 

The above, it is believed, has never been copied before. As the letters 
were raised, instead of incised, and also much worn, a transcript was a matter 
of some little difficulty ; and the Brahman in charge of the shrine declared the 
inscription to be absolutely illegible, or at least if the letters could be decypherod, 
quite unintelligible. The information it gives is certainly not veiy perspicuous, 
and there is no indication of a date. The main building, which may possibly 
be a little older, is popularly ascribed to one Ram Das, a Kshatriya of Multtiu. 
The court-yai'd is entered, after the ascent of a flight of steps, through a mas- 
sive square gateway with a pyramidal tower, which gi'oups very effectively with 
the two towei's of the temple. As the buildings are not only in ruins, but also 
from pecularities of style ill-adapted to modern requirements, they are seldom, 
if ever, used for religious service, which is ordinarily performed in an elegant 
and substantial edifice erected on the other side of the street under the shadow 
of the older fane. The annual income is estimated at Rs. 10,100, of which 
sum, Rs. 8,000 are the voluntary ofi"erings of the faithful, while only Rs. 2,100 
arc derived from permanent endowment.* A branch establishment at Radha 
Kund with the same dedication is also supported from the funds of the parent 
house. 

With reference to this temple, or it may be some other shrine bearing the 
same title, for the narrative is not very explicit, a curious anecdote is told in the 
Bhakta Mala of a devout Vaishnava, by name Siir Das. He was Governor 
(Amin) of Sandila in Akbar's reign, and on one occasion consumed all the 
revenues of his district in entertaining the priests and pilgrims at the temple. 
The treasure chests were duly despatched to Delhi, but when opened were found 
to contain nothing but stones. Such exaggerated devotion failed to com- 

* On the road from Brinda-ban to Jait, within the bouiul:iric8 of the villaije of Siiirakli, 
is a walled garden with a tank, called Kjiiu Till, part of the property of the temple of Madaa 
Mohua. 



SPECIMENT OF THE BHAKTA-MALA. 129' 

mend itself even to the Hindu minister, Todar Mai, who threw the enthusiast 
into prison ; but the grateful god could not forget his faithful servant and speedily 
moved the indulgent emperor to order his release. As the Bhakta Mala, or 
Lives of the Vaishnava Saints, is a scarce and curious work, the original text 
of the above narrative is subjoined. The reputed author is Nabhi'i Ji, a famous 
commentator of the school of Ramanand ; but only the opening stanzas are his 
composition ; the subsequent paraphrases having been added by one Priya Das. 

■^■^TM T^Wl rtmX f%f%l^ WIFTR ^K TTi^T I 
^nr^R ^T ^^?a ^W ^i ^l^^T ^IrTT ^TT^ I 

^JSim ^m "^^ ^oT '5gTlq?:iTT 

^^ ^^ i^m^ -^^ ^tS ^tt ^ni^ % II 
ftf?r 5T ^M -^-m ^m 3^ ^t^ w 11 

5Flt xr^T XTit ^N T73[V[THT1^ ^1^ 
HT ^^ ^m]^ o?TTi3[ ^5ITTT ^3l^ W II 

'^l^T f^RI W ^i JT f%5l ^MT %TTT ^S 
^^WT ^ni^T ^T^ ^ITT f^ m^ W II 
U3[^ ^^T^T *Tf?fi^^ ^T^l^T gft 

^1^ ^K ?7T2[T % %T|^ ^#t '^l^ If II 

5RRT TO =^W TO Rf€f3[^ TTi^ If I) 
Wrl?: g^i^ ^miit ^R ^IIT ^K 
%^1 ^iifT ^R ^#1 ^^ XfTT ^<3Ti^ If II 



130 SP. CIMEN OF THE BHAKTA-MALA. 

^mi ^I Xsf oTl%i ^*^ TIRT VW ^rf ^fl 

m^T ^ *^T ^]^ ^^tTi THf% *TT^ w II 

^^T T^l% ^IT ^m ^3 ^ ^ ^^ ^ 
^iS ITT ^3^ W ^^ ^^ ^I^ W U 

j^vi Ti ^ ^^1^ f^l ^^ rTR ^R^T i li 

3i^T f^TTR ^^1 ^H ^T \^l^^^ t^St 

TOT flWlf T ^Tf^ ^5 ^g ^R^T t 1 1 
^TIT MI^^l^l ^5Rg(T ^i% fi]«r ^T^T 
^itl ^IWT §TT ^m ^-^ ^^ ^IT^T i II 
'55nil T^^R^ T{^ W^^T TT ^Tf^ T^T 
cRlJT %t| ^3■ §^T ^.^ T^ TIRI t II 

^1 ft^ yn^ ^9t ^9t ^r? ^i^^ ^ 
^T ^^ 3r^ FT^ m^ ^w 31^ ml 

NO 

^T%T^ ^WT ^m fell ^^iira 1 II 

As will be seen from tlie above specimen, the poem is singularly abrupt and 
incolierent in style, and abounds in brief enigmatical allusions to obscure inci- 
dents and traditions, which almost defy literal translation. The following is a 
tolerably faithful version of the opening stanza; the remainder is rendered 
sufficiently intelligible by the abstract of the narrative already given. 

" Joined together like two links in a chain are the god Madan Mohan 
and Sur Das, that paragon of excellence in verse and song, incarnation of 
the good and beneficent, votary of li:i<lhii Krishan, master of mystic delights. 
Manifold his songs of love; the muse of love, (luceii of the nine, came dancing 



TEMPLE or GOPINATTT. 131 

on foot* to the melodies that he uttered ; his persuasiveness as unbounded as 
that of the fabled twin brothers f. Joined together like two links in a chain are 
the god Madan Mohan and Siir Das." 

The temple of Gopinath, which may be slightly the earliest of the series, 
is said to have been built by Raesil Ji, a progenitor of the Shaikhtu^at branch 
of the Kachhwaha Thakurs. This great Rajput family claim ultimate descent 
from Baloji, the third son of Raja Uday Karan, who succeeded to the throne 
of Amber in 1389 A. D. To Baloji fell by inheritance the district of Amritsar, 
and after him to his son Mokal. This latter was long childless, till, through the 
blessing of the Muhammadan saint Shaikh Burhan, he became the father of a 
son, called after his spiritual progenitor Shaikh Ji. He is accounted the patriarch 
of all the Shaikhavvat race, who for more than four ct;nturies have continued 
to observe the obligations criginally contracted with him. At the birth of 
every male infant, a goat is sacrificed, and while the Kalima is recited, the 
child is sprinkled with the blood. He is invested with the baddhiya, or cross- 
strings, usually worn by little Muhammadans; and when he laid them aside, 
he was bound to suspend them at the saint's dargah, still existing six miles 
from Achrol. For two years he wears a blue tunic and cap, and for life 
abstains from hog's flesh and all meat in which the blood remains. Shaikh Ji, 
by conquest from his neighbours, consolidated under his own sway 3(30 villages, 
in complete independence of the parent State of Amber : and they so continued 
till the time of Sawai Jay Sinh, the founder of Jaypur. Shaikh Ji's heir, 
Haemal, had three sons, Nou-karan, Riiesil, and Gopal. By the advice of Devi 
Das, a shrewd minister, who had been dismissed by Non-Karan, Raesil proceeded 
to Dihli with a following of 20 horsemen, and so distinguished himself in the 
repulse of an Afghan invasion, that Akbar bestowed upon him the title of 
Darbari, with a grant of land and the important command of 1,250 horse. 
Khandela and Udaypur, then called Kasumbi, which he conquered from the 
Narbhans, a branch of the Chauhaus, after contracting a marriage with the 
daughter of the prince of that race, became the principal cities of the Shaikha- 
wat confederation. He accompanied his liege lord. Raja Man Sinh of Amber, 
against the Mewar Rana Pratap, and further distinguished himself in the ex- 
pedition to Kabul. The date of his death is not known. J The temple, of which 
he is the reputed founder, corresponds very closely both in style and dimensions 
with that of Madan Mohan already described ; and has a similar chapel attached 

* Each Has (tho Hindu equivalent for the European Muse) has a special vehicle of its own, 
and the meaning appears to be that the Has Sringar, or Erotic Muse, alighted on foot tho better 
to catch the sound of his voice. 

f The fabled twin brothers are probably the two Gandharvas (heavenly musicians), who 
were metamorphosed into arjun trees till restored by Krishna to their proper form. 

J The above particulars are extracted from Tod's Kajasthdu and Professor Blochmann'g 
Ain-i-Akbari. 



132 TEMPLE OF JUGAL KISHOR. 

to the south side of the sacrarium. It is, however, in a far more ruinous con- 
dition : the nave has entirely disappeared ; the three towers hare been levelled 
with the roof ; and the entrance gateway of the court-yard is tottering to its fall. 
The special feature of the building is a curious arcade of three bracket arches, 
serving apparently no constructural purpose, but merely added as an orna- 
mental screen to the bare south wall. The choir arch is also of handsome design, 
elaborately decorated with arabesque sculptures; but it is partly concealed from 
view by mean sheds which have been built up against it, while the interior is 
Used as a stable and the north side is blocked by the modeni temple. Tlie votive 
offerings here made are estimated at Rs. 3,000 a year, in addition to which 
there is an endowment yielding an annual income of Rs. 1,200.* 

The temple of Jugal Kishor, the last of the old series, stands at the lower 
end of the town near tlie Kesi Ghat. Its constnic.tion is refei-red to th(! year 
Sambat 1684, i. e., 1627 A. D., in the reign of Jahangir, and the founder's 
name is preserved as Non-Karan. He is said to have been a Chauhan Thakur ; 
but it is not improbable that he was the elder brother of Raesil, who built the 
temple of Gopinath. The choir, which is slightly larger than in the other ex- 
amples, being 25 feet square, has the principal entrance as usual at the east 
end, but is peculiar in having also, both north and south, a small doorway 
under a hood supported on eight closely-set brackets carved into the form of 
elephants. The nave has been completely destroyed. 

Some of the smaller temples have already been casually mentioned in con- 
nection with their founders. Though of ancient date, they have been often 
renewed, and possess no special architectural merit. The same may be said of 
the Bengali temple of Sringar Bat, near the Madan Mohan, which, however, 
enjoys an annual income of Rs. 13,500, divided among three shareholders, who 
each take the religious services for four months at a time. The village of Ja- 
hangirpui', on the opposite bank of the river, including the sacred grove of Bel- 
ban, forms part of the endowment. 

Of the modern temples, five claim special notice. The first in time of 
erection is the temple of Krishna Chandrama, built about the year 1810, 
at a cost of 25 lakhs, by the wealthy Bengali Kayath, Krishan Chandra 
Sinh, better known as the LaUi Babu. It stands in a large court-yard, 
which is laid out not very tastefully as a garden, and enclosed by a lofty 
wall of solid masonry, with an arched gateway at either end. The building 
is of quadrangular form, 160 feet in length, with a front central compartment 
of three arches and a lateral colonnade of five bays reaching back on either 
side towards the cella. The workmanship throughout is of excellent character, 
and the stone has been carefully selected. The two towers, or sikharas, arc 

• Tlie Seth's Garden, where stands the Brahmotsava Pavilion, was purchased from tlie 
temple of Gopinath, and ia still liable to an annual charge of Rs, 18. 



THE LALA BABtT. 133 

singularly plain, but have been wisely so designed, that tbeir smooth polished 
surface may remain unsullied by rain and dust. 

The founder's ancestor, Babu Murli Mohan Sinh, son of one Har Krislma 
Sinh, was a wealthy merchant and landed proprietor at Kandi in Murshid- 
abad. His heir, Bihari Lai Sinh, had three sons, Eadha Gobind, Ganga 
Gobind, and Radha Charan : of these, the last-named, on inheriting his share 
of the paternal estate, broke off connection with the rest of the family and has 
dropped out of sight. Eadha Gobind took service under Allah Virdi Khan and 
Sinij-ud-daula, Nawabs of Murshidabad, and was by them promoted to posts 
of high honour. A rest-house for travellers and a temple of Radha-ballabh 
which he founded, are still in existence. He died without issue, leaving his 
property to his brother, Ganga Gobind, who took a prominent part in the 
revision of the Bengal settlement under Lord William Bentinck, in 1828. He 
built a number of dharmsaJas for the reception of pilgrims and four temples 
at Ramchaudrapur in Nadiya. These latter have all been washed away by 
the river, but the images of the gods were transferred to Kandi. He also 
maintained several Sanskrit schools in Nadiya ; and distinguished himself 
by the extraordinary pomp with which he celebrated his father's obsequies, 
spending, moreover, every year on the anniversary of his death a lakh of 
rupees in religious observances. Ganga Gobind's son, Pran Krishan Sinh, si ill 
further augmented his magnificent patrimony before it passed in succession 
to his son, Krishan Chandra iSinh, better known under the soubriquet of ' the 
Lala Babu.' He held office first in Bardwan and then in Orisa, and when 
about thirty years of age, came to settle in the holy land of Braj. In con- 
nexion with his temple at Brinda-ban he founded also a rest-houFC, whore a 
large number of pilgrims are still daily fed ; the annual cost of the whole 
establishment being, as is stated, Es. 22,000. He also enclosed the sacred 
tanks at Radha-kund with handsome gbats and terraces of stone at the cost 
of a lakh. When some forty years of age, he renounced the world, and in 
the character of a Bairagi continued for two years to wander about the woods 
and plains of Braj, begging his bread from day to day till the time of his 
death, which was accidentally caused by the kick of a horse at Gobardhan. 
He was frequently accompanied in his rambles by Mani Ram, father of the 
famous Seth Lakhmi Chand, who also had adopted the life of an ascetic. 
In the course of the ten years which the Lala Babu spent as a worldling in 
the Mathura District, he contrived to buy up all the villages most noted as 
places of pilgrimage in a manner Avhich strikingly illustrates his hereditary 
capacity for business. The zamindars were assured that he had no pecuniary 
object in view, but only the strict preservation of the hallowed spots. Again, 
as in the days of Krishna, they would become the secluded haunts of the 
monkey and the peacock, while the former proprietors would remain undis- 



134 THE LALA BABU. 

turbed, the liappy guardians of so many new Arcadias. Tims tTie wise man 
from the East picked up one estate after another at a price in every case far 
below the real value, and in some instances for a purely nominal sum. How- 
ever binding his fair promises may have been on the conscience of the pious 
Babu, they were never recorded on paper, and therefore are naturally ignored 
by his absentee descendants and their agents, from whom any appeal ad 
misericordiam on the part of the impoverished representatives of the ol I 
owners of the soil meets with very scant consideration. The villages which 
he acquired in the Mathura District are fifteen in number, viz., in the Kosi 
Pargana, Jjiu ; in Chhata, Nandgunw, Barsana, Sanket, Karhela, Garhi, and 
Hathiya ; and in the home pargana, Mathura, Jait, Maholi, and Nabi-pur ; all 
these, except the last, being more or less places of pilgrimage. To these must 
be added the four Gujar villages of Pirpur, Gulalpur, Chamar-garhi, and 
Dhimri. For Nand-ganw he gave Rs. 900 ; for Barsana, Rs. 600 ; for Sanket, 
Rs. 800 ; and for Karhela, Rs. 500 ; the annual revenue derived from these 
places being now as follows ; from JS'andganw, Rs. 6,712 ; from Barsana, 
Rs. 3,109 ; from Sanket, Rs. 1,642 ; and from Karhela, Rs. 1,900. It may 
also be noted that payment was invariably made in Brinda-ban rupees, which 
are worth only thirteen or fourteen annas each. The Babu further purchased 
seventy-two villages in 'Aligarh and Bulandshahr from Raja Bir Sinh, 
Chauhan ; but twelve of these were sold at auction in the time of his heir, 
Babu Sri Narayan Sinh. This latter, being a minor at his father's death, 
remained for a time under the tutelage of his mother, the Rani Kaitani, 
who ao-ain, on his decease when only thirty years old, managed the estate 
till the coming of age of the two sons whom his widows had been specially 
authorized to adopt. The elder of the two, Pratap Chandra, founded an English 
school at Kandi and dispensary at Calcutta. He was for some time a Member 
of the Legislative Council of Bengal, received from Government the title of 
Bahadur, and was enrolled as a Companion of the Star of India. He died in 
1867 ; his brother Isvarchandra in 1863. The latter left one son, Indrachand, 
who with his three cousins, Puran-chandra, Kari-chandra, and Sarad-chandra, 
the sons of Pratap-chandra, are the present owners of the estate, which during 
their minority is under the control of the Court of Wards ; the General Mana- 
ger being Mr. Robert Harvey of Calcutta in subordination to the Collector of 
the 24 Parganas. 

The great temple, founded by Scths Gobind Das and Radha Krishan, bro- 
thers of the famous millionaire Lakhmi Chaud, is dedicated to Rang Ji, or Sri 
Eanga Nath, that being the special name of Vishnu most affected by Ramanu- 
ja, the founder of the Sri Sampradaya. It is built in the Madras style, in 
accordance with plans supplied by their guru, the great Sanskrit scholar, Swa- 
mi Rangacharya, a native of that part of India, who still presides over the 



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135 

magnificent establishment.* The Avorks were commenceJ in IS-iS and comple- 
ted in 1851, at a cost of 45 lakhs of rupees. The outer walls measure 773 feet 
in length, by 440 in breadth, and enclose a fine tank and garden in addition to 
the actual temple-court. This latter has lofty gate-towers, or c/opuras, covered 
with a profusion of coarse sculpture. In front of the god is erected a pillar, or 
dhicajaslha stamhha, of copper gilt, sixty feet in height and also sunk some 
twenty-four feet more below the surface of the ground. This alone cost 
Es. 10,000. The principal or western entrance of the outer court is surmounted 
by a pavilion, ninety-three feet high, constructed in the Mathura style after the 
design of a native artist. In its graceful outlines and the elegance of its 
reticulated tracery, it presents a striking contrast to the heavy and misshapen 
masses of the Madras Gopura, which rises immediately in front of it. A little to 
one side of the entrance is a detached shed, in which the god's rath, or carriage, 
is kept. It is an enormous wooden tower in several stages, with monstrous 
effigies at the corners, and is brought out only once a year in the month of 
Chait during the festival of the Brahmotsav. The mela lasts for ten days, on 
each of which the god is taken in state from the temple along the road, a dis- 
tance of 690 yards, to a garden where a pavilion has been erected for his recep- 
tion. The procession is always attended with torches, music, and incense, and 
some military display contributed by the Raja of Bharat-pur ; and on the clos- 
ing day, when only the rath is used, there is a grand show of fireworks, which 
people of all classes congregate from long distances to see. The image, com- 
posed of the eight metals, is seated in the centre of the car, with attendant 
Brahmans standing beside to fan it with chauries. Each of the Seths, with 
the rest of the throng, gives an occasional hand to the ropes by which the 
ponderous machine is drawn ; and by dint of much exertion, the distance is 
ordinarily accomplished in the space of about two and a half hours. On the 
other days of the mela the god has a wide choice of vehicles, being borne now 
on a palki, a richly gilt tabernacle (pumja-kotJd), a throne (sinhdsanj, or a tree, 
either the kadamb, or the tree of Paradise (kalpavriksha) ; now on some demi- 
god, as the sun or the moon, Gariira, Hanuman, or Sesha ; now again on some 
animal, as a horse, an elephant, a lion, a swan, or the fabulous eight-footed 
Sarabha. The ordinary cost of one of these celebrations is about Rs. 5,000, 
while the annual expenses of the whole establishment amount to no less than 

* He ha3 translated some of Ramanuja's works from the language of Southern India into 
Sanskrit, and is the author of two polemical treatises in defence of the orthodoxy of Vaishnavism, 
The first is a pamphlet entitled Durjana-kari-panchanana, which was written as an answer to 
eight questions propounded for solution by the Saivite Pandits of Jaypur. The Maharaja not 
being convinced liad a rejoinder published under the name of Sajjana-mano-nuranjana, which 
elicited a more elaborate work from the Swami, called Vyamoha-vidnivanani, in which he has 
brought together a great number of texts from the canonical Scriptures of the Hiudus in sup- 
port of bis owu views and iu refutation of those of his oppoaeuts. 



136 THE seth's temple. 

Es. 57,000, the largest Item iu that total being Rs. 30,000 for the hhog or food, 
which after being presented to the god is then consumed by the priests or 
given away in chai'ity. Every day 500 of the Sri Vaishnava sect are fed at the 
temple, and every morning up to ten o'clock a dole of ata is given to anyone 
of any denomination who chooses to apply for it. 

The endowment consists of thirty-three villages, yielding a gross income of 
Rs. 1,17,000, on which the Government demand amounts to Rs. 64,000. Of 
the thirty -three villages, seventeen, including one quarter of Brinda-ban, are 
in the Mathura, and sixteen in the Agra District. The votive offerings amount 
on an averag to Rs. 2,000 a year, and there is further a sum invested in the 
funds which yields in annual interest as much as Rs. 11,800. In 1868, the 
whole estate was transferred by the Swami — the deed of transfer bearing a stamp 
of Rs. 2,000 — to a committee of management, who on his death are bound 
to appoint a successor. This arrangement was necessitated by the bad conduct 
of liis son Nivasacharya — named ac(!ording to family custom after the grand- 
father — who resides at present at Gobardhan in the precincts of the temple 
of Lakshmi ISarayan, rebuilt by Seth Radha Krishan. Though the terms 
of tlie deed are clear, there is cause for apprehension that the property will 
at some no very distant date become the subject of ruinous litigation, un- 
less a successor is definitely appointed during the life of the present incumbent 
or other similar precaution taken. The young Swami shows no intention 
of reforming his evil practices : so far from being a scholar like his father^ 
he is barely educated up to the ordinary level of his countrymen; while his 
profligacy is open and notorious. Immorality and priestly dignity, it is true, 
are not universally accounted as incompatible qualities ; but the scandal in 
his case is augmented by the ceremonial pollution he incurs from his habit 
of familiar intercourse with the lowest classes of the people and his fondness 
for bears and dogs and other unclean animals which he allowed to roam at 
large though the precincts of the Gobardhan temple. Not long ago a fixed 
allowance of Rs. 250 a month was assigned for his maintenance and a fur- 
ther donation made of Rs. 7,000 for the settlement of all his debts ; but he 
is now again deeply involved, and has borrowed large sums on the security 
of post-obits. On the event of the contemplated contingency, the holders of 
these documents are evidently prepared to make a desperate struggle in pro- 
portion to the magnitude of the interest at stake. But it is scarcely jiossible 
that they should ultimately succeed : for their client has no more legal claim to 
the succession than the son of an Anglican Bishop is entitled, on his fiither's 
death, to usurp the vacant episcopal thi-ono; the existence of a son at all being 
an anomaly in both cases not contemj)latcd in the days of more rigid ortho- 
doxy. To simplify the matter, there is no personal ))roperty of any kind what- 
ever. When Swami Rangucharya first came into this part of the country, his 



THE SAH'S temple OF RADHA EAMAN. 137 

only possession was his learning. All the wealth that he now has proceeds 
from the munificence of the Seths, who bestowed it upon him after they had 
installed him as head of their new temple, and distinctly in virtue of such in- 
stallation. Finding that his son is incorrigible, his wisest course would be for- 
mally to disow7i him, or at once I'esign the teinporalities of his office into the 
hands of the trustees. Naturally enough, he is reluctant to take this extreme 
stop ; like Heli of old, who on seeing the enormities committed by his two sons 
Ophni and Phinees was provoked to sore grief and indignation, but would, not 
give up the wealth and plenty which through them flowed into his house, till 
death and irreparable disaster overtook both them and him and all that was 
most dear to him. 

Of the villages that form the endowment, five of those in the Mathura 
District, viz., three in Mahaban and two in Jalesar, were conferred on the 
temple by Eaja Man Sinh of Jay pur. Though the lawful heir to the throne, 
he never took his seat upon it. He was the posthumous son of Eaja Prithi 
Sinh, on whose death, in 1779 A.D., the surviving brother Pratap Sinh, claimed 
the succession. The nephew's right was subsequently upheld by Daulat Rao 
ISindhia, but the young prince was devoted to letters and religion, and on 
being assured of an annual income of Rs. 30,000 he gladly relinquished the 
royal title and retired to Brinda-ban. Here he spent the remainder of his 
days in the practice of the most rigid austerities, till death overtook him at the 
age of 70, in 1848. For 27 years he had remained sitting cross-legged in one 
position, never moving from his seat but once a week when nature compelled 
him to withdraw. Five days before his death he predicted his coming end 
and solemnly bequeathed to the Seth the care of his old servants, from one of 
whom, Lakshmi Narayan Byas, the writer gathered these particulars. He was 
for some years manager of the temple estate, and to the great regret of all who 
knew him died as these sheets were passing through the press. 

If the effect of the Seths' lavish endowment is impaired by the ill-judged 
adoption of a foreign style of architecture, still more is this error apparent in 
the temple of Radha Raman, completed within the last few years. The founder 
is Sah Kundan Lai, of Lakhnau, who has built on a design suggested by the 
modern secular buildings of that city. The principal entrance to the court-yard 
is, in a grandiose way, decidedly effective ; and the temple itself is constructed 
of the most costly materials and fronted with a colonnade of spiral marble pil- 
lars, each shaft being of a single piece, which though rather too attenuated are 
unquestionably elegant. The mechanical execution is also good ; but all is ren- 
dered of no avail by the abominable taste of the design. The facade with its 
uncouth pediment, flanked by sprawling monsters, and its row of life-size female 
figures in meretricious but at the same time most ungraceful attitudes, re- 
sembles nothing so much as a disreputable London casino ; a severe though 

T 



138 MAHARAJA OF GWALIAR'S TEMPLE, 

doubtless unintended satire, on the pai't of the architect, on the character of the 
divinity to whom it is consecrated. Ten lakhs of rujjces are said to have been 
wasted on its coustruction.* 

In striking contrast to this tasteless edifice is the temple of Ealhji Indra 
Kishor, built by Eaui Indrajit Kunwar, widow of Het Euin, Brahman zamin- 
djir, of Tikiiri by Gaya. It has been six years in building, and was completed 
at the end of 1871. It is a square of seventy feet divided into three aisles of 
five bays each, with a fourth space of equal dimensions for the reception of the 
god. The sikhara is surmounted with a copper kolas, or finial, heavily gilt, 
•which alone cost Rs. 5,000. The piers are composed of four conjoined pillars, 
each shaft being a single piece of stone, brought from the Pahrapur quarry in 
Bharat-pur territory. The building is raised on a high and enriched plinth, and 
the entire design is singularly light and gi'aceful. Its cost has been three lakhs. 

The temple of Ealha Gopal, built by the Maharaja of Gwaliar, under 
the direction of his guru Brahmachari Giri-dhari Das, is also entitled to some 
special notice. The interior is an exact counterpart of an Italian church and 
■would be an excellent model for our architects to follow, since it secures to per- 
fection both free ventilation and a softened light. It consists of a nave 58 feet 
long, with four aisles, two on either side, a sacrariura 21 feet in depth and 
a narthex of the same dimensions at the entrance. The outer aisles of the nave, 
instead of being closed in with solid walls, have open arches stopped only 
with wooden bars; and the tier of windows above gives on to a balcony and 
verandah. Thus any glare of light is impossible. The building was opened 
for religious service in 1860, and as it stands has cost four lakhs of rupees. 
The exterior has a mean and unsightly appearance, which might be obviated 
by the substitution of reticulated stone tracery for the wooden bars of the outer 
arches below and a more substantial balcony and verandah in lieu of the present 
rickety erection above. 

There are in Briuda-ban no secular buildings of any great antiquity. Tlie 
oldest is the court, or Ghera, as it is called, of Sawai Jay Sinh, tlie founder 
of Jaypur, who made Brinda-ban an occasional residence during the time that 
he was Governor of the Province of Agra (1721-1728). It is a large walled 
enclosure with a paviUon at one end consisting of two aisles divided into 
five bays by piers of coupled columns of red sandstone. The river front of the 
town has a succession of ghats reaching for a distance of about a mile and a 
half; the one highest up the stream being the Kali-raardan Ghat with the 

• In imitation of the bad example thus set, a new temple dedicated to Radhii Gopal has been 
built this year (1873) by Liila Braj Kishor, a wealthy resident of Shahjahanpore, where he is 
district treasurer. It has a long frontage facing one of the principal streets, with a continuous 
balcony to the upper story, in which each pillar is a clumsily carved stoue fi^iurc of a Sakhi, or 
« dancing gir!.' 



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BRIXDA-BAN MUNICIPALITY. 139 

kadanib tree from which Krishna phmged into tlie water to encounter tlie 
^reat serpent Kaliya; and at the other end Kesi Ghat, wliere he slew the equine 
demon of that name. Near the latter are two handsome mansions built by the 
Eanis Kishori and Lachhmi, consorts of Ranjit Siuh and Randhir Sinh, two 
successive Rajas of Bharat-pur. In both the arrangement is identical with 
that of a mediaeval college, carried out on a minature scale but with extreme 
elaboration of detail. The buildings are disposed in the form of a quadrangle, 
with an enriched gateway in the centre of one front and oposite it the chapel, 
o'' more imposing elevation than the ordinary domestic apartments which 
constitute the two flanks of the square. In Rani Lachmi's kunj (such being 
the distinctive name for a building of this character), the temple front is a very 
rich and graceful composition, with a colonnade of five arches standing on a 
high plinth, which like every part of the wall surface is covered with the most 
delicate carving, and shaded above by overhanging eaves supported on bold 
brackets. The work of the elder Rani is of much plainer character ; and a 
third kutij, v/hich stands a little lower down the river, close to the temple of 
Dhi'r Sami'r, built by Thdkur Badan Siuh, the father of Siiraj Mai, the first of 
the Bharat-pur Rajas, though large, has no architectural pretensions whatever. 
The most striking of the whole series is, however, the Ganga Mohan Kunj, built 
in the next generation by Ganga, Siiraj Mai's Rani. The river front, which 
is all that was ever completed, has a high and massive basement story, which 
on the land side as seen from the interior of the court, becomes a mere plinth 
for the support of a majestic double cloister with broad and lofty arch and 
massive clustered pier. The style is precisely the same as that which prevails 
in the Garden Palace at Dig, a work of the same chief ; who, however rude and 
uncultured himself, appears to have been able to appreciate and command the 
services of the highest available talent whether in the arts of war or peace. 

A few years ago the town was exceedingly dirty and ill kept; but this 
state of things ceased from the introduction of a municipality. The conser- 
vancy arrangements are now of a most satisfactory character and all the 
streets of any importance have been either paved or metalled. This unambi- 
tious but most essential work has up to the present time absorbed almost all the 
surplus income. Education, however, has not been neglected ; for, in addition to 
the two primary schools — one for boys, the other for girls — which are supported 
by Government, there is a free school recently opened and an Anglo-vernacular 
department in connection with the tahsili school, which are both dependent 
upon the municipality. The building in which the latter is held was completed 
in 1868 at a cost of Rs. 3,710, which included a donation of Rs. 500 from 
Swami Rangacharya, the head of the Seth's temple. The number of pupils, 
though variable, is never very large, as the children find it more lucrative and 
amusing to hang about the temples and act as guides to the pilgrims and sight- 



140 BRIKDA-BAN CALENDAR. 

Beers. The dispensary, also opened in 1868, cost the small sum of only 
Es. 1,943 ; but as yet it has had no accommodation for in-door patients, whii-h 
is to be provided in the course of the ensuing year. As such a large number of 
people come to Brinda-ban simply for the sake of dying there, while of the 
resident population nearly one-half are professed celibates, the proportion of 
births to deaths is almost in inverse ratio to that which prevails elsewhere; 
a circumstance which might well startle anyone who was unacquainted with 
the exceptional character of the locality. The municipal income for the year 
1871-72 was Rs. 17,549, which may be regarded as a fair average. Of this 
sum, Rs. 16,666 were derived from octroi collections; the tax on articles of food 
alone amounting to Rs. 13,248. These figures indicate very clearly, what 
might also be inferred from the preceding sketch, that there is no local trade or 
manufacture, and that the town is maintained entirely by its temples and re- 
ligious reputation. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER VII. 
I. — Calendar of Local Festivals at Brinda-ban 

CJiait Sudi (April 1 — 15 J. 

1. Chait Sudi 3. — Gangaur : adoration of Ganpati and Gauri. In the 
older Sanskrit calendars this day is generally named Saubhagya Sayana, and is 
appropriated to a special devotion in honour of the goddess Arundhati, which 
is recommended to be practised by all women who desire to lead a haj>py 
married life and escape the curse of early widowhood. At the present day the 
oblations to Gauri are accompanied by the repetition of the following uncouth 
formula, in commemoration of a Rani of Uday-pur, who, after enjoying a life 
of the utmost domestic felicity had the further happiness of dying at the same 
moment as her husband : — 

^K 7TXIT xriT^^T ^TT ^ Tl^R fs^^T I 

2. Chaif, Sudi 9. — Ram Navami. Rama's birthday. 

3. Chait Sudi 11.— Phul dol. 

JBaisdkh (April — May). 

4. Baisakh Sudi 3. — Akhay Tij. Among agriculturists, the day for settling 
the accounts of the past harvest. Visits are paid to the image of Bihari, which 
on this festival only has the whole body exposed. The ceremony is hence 
called ' Chandan baga ka darsan,' as the idol, though besmeared Avith sandal-wood 
(chandan)y has no clothing (Idgctj. The temple hhog on this day consists cxclu- 



BRINDA-BAN CALENDAR. 141 

sively of kakris (a kind of cucumber), f/a/, and a mash made of wheat, barley, 
and chand ground up and mixed with sugar and gld. 

5. Baisdkh Sudi 9. — Janaki Navami. Held at Akrur. Si'ta's birthday. 

6. Bcnsdkh Sudi 10. — Hit ji ka utsav : at the Kas Maudal. Anniversary 
of the birth of one of the Gosains. 

7. Baisdkh Sudi 14. — Narsinh avatar (see page 85). 

Jeth (May — June). 

8. Jeth Badi 2. — Perambulation, called Ban bihar ka parikrama. The dis- 
tance traversed is between five and six miles, each pilgim starting from the 
point which happens to be most convenient. 

9. Jeth Badi 5. — The same, but at night. 

10. Jeth Badi 11. — Ras Mandal. 

11. Jeth Sudi 5. — Jal Jatra. 

On the full moon of Jeth, Gaj-graha ka Mela: representation of a fight 
between an elephant and a crocodile in the tank at the back of the Seth's temple. 
Asdrh ( Jit ne — Ju lij) . 

12. Asdrh Sudi 2. — Rath Jatra. The god's collation, or hhoc/, consists on 
this day only of mangoes, jdman fruit, and chand. 

13. Asdrh full moon. — Dhio dhio ka mela at Madan Mohan, followed by 
the Pavan pariksha. 

Srdvan (July — August). 

14. Srdoan Badi 5. — Hadba Raman Ji ka dhio dhio. Mourning for the 
death of Gosain Gopal Bhatt, the founder of the temple. 

15. Srdvan Badi 8. — Gokulanand ka dhio dhio. Mourning for the death 
of Gosain Gokulanand. 

16. Srdvan Sudi 3. — Hindol, or Jhul-jatra. Swinging festival. 

17. Srdvan Sudi 9. — Fair at the Brahm Kund. 

18. Srdvan Sudi 11. — Pavitra-dharan, or presentation of Brahraanical 
threads. 

19. Srdvan full moon. — Fair at the Gyan gudari. 

Bliddon (August — Septemher.) 

20. Bhddon Badi 8. — Janm Ashtami. Krishna's birthday. 

21. Bhddon Badi 9. — Climbing a greasy pole, which is set up outside the 
temple of Rang Ji, with a dhoti, a lota, five sirs of sweetmeats, and Rs. 5 on the 
top, for the man who can succeed in getting them. This takes place in the after- 
noon. In the evening, the Nandotsav, or festival in honour of iS'anda, is held 
at the Sringar-bat, and continued through the night with music and dancing. 

22. Bhddon Sudi 8. — Radha Ashtami. Radha's birthday. A large as- 
semblage also at the Mauni Das ki tatti by the Nidh-ban, in honour of a saint 
who kept a vow of perpetual silence. 



142 BRIXDA-BAN CALENDAR. 

23. BJiddon Sud'i 11. — Jal jlioliii mela, or Karwatni, ' the turning of tlie 
god' in his four mouths' sleep. 

Kuvdr ( Septertiher — Octoher) . 

24. Kiivdr Badi 11. — Festival of the Sanjhi, lasting for five days ; and niela 
at the Brahm kund. 

25. Kuvdr Siidi 1. — Dan Lila at the Gyan-gudari and mela of the Kalpa 
vriksha. 

26. Kuvdr Sudi 10. — The Dasahara. Commemoration of Rama's conquest 
of Ceylon. 

27. Kuvdr Sudi 11. — Perambulation. 

Kdrtik (October — November). 

28. Kdrtik new moon. — Dipotsav, or festival of lamps. 

29. Kdrtik Sudi 1. — Anna-kut, as at Gobardhan. 

30. Kdrtik Sudi 8. — Perambulation and Go-charan. 

31. Kdrtik Sudi 12.— Festival of the Davanal, or forest-conflagation (see 
page 37). 

32. Kdrtik Sudi 13. — Festival of Kesi Danav (see page 40). 

33. Kdrtik Sudi 14. — Nag-lila : at the Kali-mardan Ghat with procession 
of boats. 

34. Kdrtik fidl moon. Fair at Bhat-rond (see page 57). 

Agdhn ( ISovemher — December). 

35. Agdhn Badi 1. — Byahle-ka-mcla, or marriage feast, at the Pas Mandal 
and Chain Ghat. 

36. Agdhn Badi 3. — Ram Hid. 

37. Agdhn full moon. Dau ji-ka-mela, in honour of Balaram. 

38. Agdhn Sudi 5. — Bihari jaumotsav, or birth of Bihari ; also the Bha- 
rat-milap. 

Ptis (December — January). 

39. Pus Sudi 5 to 11. — Dhanur-mas-otsav, observed at the Seth's temple 
with processions issuing from the Vaikunth gate : ' Dhauur ' being tlie sign 

Sagittarius. Throughout the month distribution of khichri (pulse and rice) is 
mado at the temple of Riidha Ballabh. 

A/dgh (January — Febrxiary). 

40. Mdgh Sudi 5.— Basantotsav. The spring festival. 

Phdlgun (February — March). 

41. Phdlgun Badi 11, — Festival at the Man-sarovar. 

42. Phdlgun Sudi 11.— Phuldol. 

43. Phdlgun full moon. The Iluli or Carnival. 



BRINDA-BAN GHATS. 



143 



Chait Badi (March \6th to Slst). 

44. Chait Badi 1. — Dhurendi or sprinkling of the Holi-powder, and Dol jatra. 

45. Chait Badi 5. —Kali dahan and pliul dol. 

46. Brahmotsav. Festival at the Seth's temple, beginning Chait Badi 2, 
and lasting ten days. 



II. — List of River-side Gha'ts at Brind^-ban. 



1 Madan Ter Gbat, built by Pandit 

Moti Lai. 

2 Eam-gol Gbat, built by the Gosain 
of the temple of Bibari Ji. 

3 Kali-daba Ghat, built by Holkar Rao. 

4 Gopal Ghat, built by 'Madan Pal, 
Raja of Kurauli. 

5 ^^abha\vala Ghat, built by Raja 
Hira Sinh of Nabha. 

6 Praskandan Ghat, re-built by Go- 
sains of temple of Madan Mohan. 

7 Suraj Ghat. 

8 Koriya Ghat, said to be named after 
certain Gosains fx*om Kol. 

9 Jugal Ghat, built by Hari Das and 
Gobind Das, Thakurs. 

10 Dhusar Ghat. _ 

11 Nay a Ghat, built by Gosain Bhajan 
Lai. 

12 Sri-ji Ghat, built by Raja of Jaypur. 

13 Bihar Ghat, built by Appa Ram, 
from the Dakliin. 

14 Dhurawara Ghat, built by Raja 
Randhir Sinh of Dhiira. 

15 ^agari Das. 

16 Bhim Ghat, built by the Raja of 
Kota. 

17 Andha (i. e., the dark or covered) 
Ghat, built by Raja Man, of Jaypur. 

18 Tehriwara Ghat, built by the Raja 
of Tehri. 



19 Imla Ghat. 

20 Bardwan Ghat, built by a Raja of 
Bardwan. 

21 Barwara Ghat. 

22 Ranawat Ghat, built by the Rana 
of Udaypur. 

23 Singar Ghat, built by the Gosain 

of the temple of Singarbat. 

24 Ganga Mohan Ghat, built by 
Ganga, Rani of Siiraj Mai, of 
Bharat-pur. 

25 Gobind Ghat, built by Raja Man, 
of Jaypur. 

26 Himmat Bahadur's Ghat, built by 
Goi^ain Himmat Bahadur (see 
page 175). 

27 Chir Ghat or Chain Ghat, built by 
Malhar Rao, Holkar. 

28 Hanuman Ghat, built by SawaiJay 
Sinh, of Jaypur. 

29 Bhaunra Gliat, built by Sawai Jay 
Sinh, of Jaypur. 

30 Kishor Rani's Ghat, built by 
Kishori, Rani of Siiraj Mai of Bha- 
rat-pur. 

31 Paudawara Ghat, built by Chau- 
dhari Jagannath, of Lakhnau. 

32 Kesi Ghat, built by the Bharat-pur 
Rani, Lachhmi. 



III. — Names of Mahallas, or City Quarters, at Brinda-ban, 



Gyan Gudari. 
Gopesvar Mahadeva. 
Bansi-bat. 
Gopinath Bagh. 
Bazar Gopinath. 
Brahm-kuud. 
Radha Nivas, 



8 Kesi Ghat. 

9 Radha Raman. 

10 Nidh-ban. 

11 Pathar-pura. 

12 Nagara Gopinath. 

13 Ghera Gopinath. 

14 Nagara Gopal. 



144 



LALA BAEU S ESTATE. 



15 Chir out. 

16 Mandi Darwaza. 

17 Gbera Gobind Jf. 

18 Nafjara Gobind Ji. 

19 Gali Taksar. 

20 Riim Ji Dwara. 

21 Bazar Kantbiwara (i.e., sellers of 
rosaries and necklaces). 

22 Sewa Kunj. 

23 Kunj Gali. 

24 By as ka Ghera. 

25 8ingcU'-bat. 

26 Ras Mandal. 

27 Kislior ))ura. 

28 Dhobiwari Gali. 

29 Hangi Ltil ki Gali. 

30 Sukban Mata Gali {i. e., street of 
dried up small-pox). 

31 Purana Sbabr (i. e., old town). 

32 Lariawari Gali. 

33 Gabdua ki Gali. 

34 Gobardban Darwaza. 

35 Abir-para. 

36 Dusait (the name, it is said, of a 

sub-division of the Sanadh tribe). 

37 JMaballa Barwara (from the number 

of bar trees). 

38 Ghera Madan Mohan. 



39 Bihari-pura. 

40 Purohit-wara. 

41 Mnni-para. 

42 Gautam-para. 

43 Ath-khamba. 

44 Gobind baorh. 

45 Loi Bazar (the blanket mart).* 

46 Betiya Bazar. 

47 Ban-khandi Mahddeva. 

48 Chbipi k( Gali. 

49 Raewai-i Gali (occupied by Bbats, 
or bards, who are always distin- 
o;uisbed by the title Rae). 

50 Bundele ka Bagh. Bundela is 
the god propitiated in time of 
cholera. He is always represent- 
ed as riding on a horse. When 
small-pox, the twin scoui'ge of 
India, is raging, an ass is tlie 
animal to which offerings are 
made. 

51 Matbura Darwaza. 

52 Gbera Sawai Jay Sinh. 

53 Dbir 8amir. 

54 Mauni Das ki tatti. 

55 Gahvar ban. 

56 Gobind kund. 

57 Radba Bagh. 



VI. — Official Report on the Lala Babu's Mathura Estate 

FOR THE YEAR 1872-73. 

" The estate of which the management is herein described was attached urnh^r 
Act XL. of 1858, and is administered by this office under the said Act. Tbo 
orders of the Judge of the 24 Parganas under which this office assumed 
charge of the estate are numbered 119, and dated September, 1866. The names 
and ages of the proprietors are as follows : — 

Kunvar Kanti Chandra Sinh, 17 last birthday, 
Sarad Chandra Sinh, 12 „ „ 
Indra Chandra Sinh, 15 ,, „ 
" Of the above minors, the first two are sons of Raja Pratdp Chandra Sinh, 
and share along with their elder brothers Kunvar Giris Chandra Sinh and 
Pnran Chandra Sinh, aged 25 and 20, respectively, the half of the property. 
The elder sons have, of their own will, made over their shares under Section 3 

* There is a large sale of Loi, or country blanketing, at Brinda-ban. Tlie material is im- 
ported chiefly from Marwar and Bikaner in an old and worn condition; but 'a worked up agaia 
so thoroughly that natives account it as good as new. 



INSCRIPTIONS AT TEMPLE OF GOBIND DEVA. 145 

of Act IV. of 1870, B. C, to the Court of "Wards to act on their behalf the 
same as for the minors. Kuiivar Indra Chandra is the son of Raja Isvar 
Chandra Sinh, and heir to the other half of the property, 

" The minors are, for the present, being educated by Captain R. D. Osborn, 
B. S. C, their private tutor, and a native private tutor ; and the youngest of them 
attends also the Hindu School attached to the Presidency College, Calcutta. 

"The estate, which is scattered over 19 zilas in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and 
the North- Western Provinces, is managed as wards' estate. The manager 
(who is also the guardian) is Mr. Hobert Harvey, who resides at head-quarters 
near Paikpara, Calcutta. This property has always been managed as a joint and 
undivided one, and stands in the joint names of the elder brothers and the minors. 
" 13th June, 1873. " ROBT. HARVEY." 

From the figured statements that accompanied the above report, it appears 
that the gross rental of the ]\Iathura estate was Rs. 69,738, upon which the 
Government demand, including the 10 per cent, cess, was Rs. 39,356-11-11. 
The value of the property when taken in charge was estimated at Rs. 2,40,193; 
it has now increased to Rs. 3,51,912. 



V. — Inscriptions at the Temple of Gobind Deva. 
The inscription inside the building at the west end of the nave is too much 
defaced to be transcribed ; but, as it was in verse, it probably would have added 
nothing to our information, and its loss is not greatly to be regretted. The fol- 
lowing is taken from the exterior of the north-west chapel, where it is cut into 
the wall some ten feet from the ground, and is of considerable interest : — 

57WRi^iraTi^ ^mi^r^w^^ ^i 1 3:1^^ %i7t ifi^^iH 
'^i^f^ifi Tnf%^=^5 %mT^ f^^^iR Ttif%^^TH Cm- 

"In the 34th year of the era inaugurated by the reign of the Emperor Akbar, 
Sri Maharaj Man Sinh Deva, son of Maharaj Bhagavau Das, of the family of 
Maharaj Prithiraj, founded, at the holy station of Brinda-ban, this temple of Gobind 
Deva. The head of the works, Kalyan Das, the Assistant Superintendent, Manik 
Chan.ifChopar (?), the architect, Gobind Das of Delhi, the sculptor, Gorakh 
Das." There is some mistake in the engraving of the last words, which scum 
to be intended for Subha^m Mai'a^like the Latin ' Felix, faustumque sit. 



14G INSCRIPTTONS AT TEMPLE OF GOBIOT) DEYA. 

Eao Pritlii Sinh mentioned in the aboye was the founder's great-grand- 
father. He had seventeen sons, of whom twelve came to man's estate, and to 
each of them he assigned a separate appanage, which, collectively, are known 
as the twelve kothris of Amber. 

The following inscription is mdelj cut on one of the pillars of the chhattn, 
which originally stood in front of the south transept, and now has been taken 
down and re-erected at the west end : — 

^^ R^£? ^T^ ^ifn^F ^]^ i| ^^^^ W^TrT ^ 

m^ ^TH^WT i:i^ xmi ^j'^'RTv^wwi ^i ^31 tt^t 

"In the year Sambat 1693 {i.e., 1636 A.D.), on an auspicious day, Kartik 
Badi 5, in the reign of the Emperor Shahjahan, this chhaitri was erected by 
Eani Rambhavati, widow of Raja Bhi'm, the son of Rana Amar Sinh." 

Rand Amar Sinh, though one of the most gallant princes of his line, was 
the first sovereign of Mewar who had to stoop to acknowledge himself a vassal 
of the Delhi Emperor : not without a manful struggle, in which it is said that 
he fought against Jahangir's forces in as many as seventeen pitched battles. 
He was succeeded on the throne, in 1621 A.D., hy his eldest son, Karan Sinh; 
while the younger, the Bhim of the inscription, being high in the favour of Prince 
Khuram, received also the title of Raja with a gi-ant of territory on the Baniis, 
where he built himself a capital, called Rajmahal. He did not, however, long 
enjoy his honours ; in his friendsliip for the young prince he induced him to 
conspire against his elder brother, Parviz, the rightful heir to the throne, and, 
in the disturbances that ensued, he was slain ; while Prince Khuram took refuge 
at the court of Uday-pur till his father's death, in 1628 A.D., summoned him to 
ascend the throne of Delhi with the title of Shahjahan. 



CHAPTER VIIL 



MAHA-BAN, GOKUL, AND BALADEVA. 



The town of MaLa-ban is some five or six miles from Mathura, lower down 
the stream and on tlie opposite bank of the Jamuna. Thongli the country in 
its neighbourhood is now singularly bare, the name indicates that it must at one 
time have been densely wooded ; and so late as the year 1634 A.D., we find the 
Emperor Shahjahan ordering a hunt there and killing four tigers. It stands 
a little inland, about a mile distant from Gokul ; which latter place has appro- 
priated the more famous name, though it is in reality only the water-side 
suburb of the ancient town. This is clearly indicated by the fact that all the 
traditional sites of Krishna's adventures, described in the Puranas as havinor 
taken place at Gokul, are shown at Maha-ban ; while the Gokul temples are 
essentially modern in all their associations, and whatever celebrity they possess 
is derived from their having been founded by the descendants of Vallabhacharya, 
the great heresiarch of the sixteenth century. The existence of Q-okul as a 
distinct town was no doubt long antecedent to its religious aggrandizement, and 
probably dates from the time when the old Hindu fort was occupied by a Mu- 
hammadan garrison, and the Hindus expelled beyond its immediate precincts. 

Taking then Maha-ban as equivalent to the Gokul of Sanskrit literature, 
the connection between it and Mathuni lias always been of a most intimate 
character. For, according to the legend, Krishna was born at the one and 
cradled at the other. Both, too, make their first appearance in history together, 
and under most unfortunate circumstances, having been sacked by Mahmiid of 
Ghazni in the year 1017 A. D. From the effects of this catastrophe, it would 
seem that Maha-ban was never able to recover itself. It is casually mentioned 
in connection with the year 1234 A. U., by Minhaj-i-Siraj, a contemporary 
writer, as one of the gathering places for the imperial army sent by Shams-ud- 
dfn against Kalinjar ; and the Emperor Babar, in his memoirs, incidentally 
refers to it, as if it were a place of some importance still, in the year 1526 A. D. ; 
but the name occurs in the pages of no other chronicle ; and at the present day, 
though it is the seat of a tahsili, it can scarcely be called more than a consider- 
able-village. Within the last few years, one or two large and handsome private 
residences have been built, with fronts of carved stone in the Mathura style ; but 
the temples are all exceedingly tnean and of no antiquity. The largest and also 
the most sacred is that dedicated to Mathuni-nath, which boasts of a pvramidal 
tower, or sikhara, of some height and bulk, but constructed only of brick and 



148 THE FORT AT MAHA-BAN. 

plaster. The Brahman in charge used to enjoy an endowment of Rs. 2 a day, 
the gift of Sindhia, but this has long lapsed. There are two other small shrines 
of some interest : in the one, the demon Trinavart is represented as a pair of 
enormous wings overhanging the infant god ; the other bears the dedication of 
Mahti Mall Hae, the great champion prince, a title given to Krishna after his 
discomfiture of the various evil spirits sent against him by Kansa. 

Great part of the town is occupied by a high hill, partly natural and partly 
artificial, extending over more than 100 bighas of land, where stood the old fort.* 
This is said to have been built by the same Eana Katira of Mewar to whom is 
also ascribed the fort at Jalesar. According to a tradition current in the 
Main-puri District, he had been driven from his own country by an invasion of 
the Muhammadans, and took refuge with the Rajji of Mtdia-ban, by name Dig- 
pal, whose daughter un s{u)sequently married, and by her became the ancestor 



township of Maha-ban to his Purohits, or family priests, who were Sanadh Brah- 
maus, of the Parasar family. Their descendants bear the distinctive title of 
Chaudhari, and still own two shares in Maha-ban, called Thok Cliaudhariyan. 
The fort was recovered by the Muhammadans in the reign of Ala-ud-din, 
by Sufi Yahya of Mashhad, who introduced himself and a party of soldiers 
inside the walls in litters, disguised as Hindu ladies who wished to visit the 
shrines of Syam Lala and Kohini. The liana was killed, and one-third of the 
town was granted by the sovereign to the Saiyid Yahya. This sharef is still 
called Thok Saiyidat, and is owned by his descendants ; the present head of the 
family being Sardar Ali, who holds the post of Naib Tahsildar at Chhata. The 
place where his great ancestor was buried is shown, but is unmarked by any 
monument. 



* With the exception of the /iila, or keep, the rest of the hill is known as the kot. 
t The division of proprietary rights in Mcaha-ban is of a very perplexing character, tlic 
several shares being very ditferent in extent from what their names seem to indicate. TI1& 
total area is 6,529 bighas and 10 biswas, distributed as follows : — 

Bighas. Big. 
The 1 1 biswa Thok Chaudhariyan 
The 9 ditto ditto 

The Thok Saiyidat 

Free lands, resumed by Government .„ 
Common land ... ... ... 

Total, ... 6,52'J 10 

One-third of the profits of Ihe common land goes to the Saijids ; the remaining' two-thlrda 
arc then again sub-dividtid into three, of which one part goes to the 9 biswa thok, and two to the 
11 biswas. 



1,397 


10 


703 


4 


570 


19 


1,750 


4 


2,107 


13 



THE ASSI-KHAMBA. 149 

The stoiy as told in different localities is so identical in all its main features 
that it may reasonably be accepted as based on fact ; but it is difficult to de- 
termine an exact date for the event, or decide which of the Sissodia Princes 
of Chitor is intended by the personage styled ' the Eana Katira.' Still, though 
certainty is unattainable, a conjectural date may be assigned Avith some amount 
of probability ; for as the Riina Katira is represented as still living at the time 
when the fort of MahA-ban was recovered by Ala-ud-din, his flight from his 
own country cannot have occurred very long previously, and may plausibly 
be connected with Ala-ud-din's memorable sack of Chitor, which took place in 
the year 1303. If so, he can scarcely have been more than a cadet of the 
royal line ; for, according to accepted tradition, the actual Rana of Mewar and 
all his family had perished in the siege with the exception only of the second son 
and his infant nephew Hamir, the heir to the throne, who eventually not only 
recovered the ancient capital of his forefathers, but made it the centre of a far 
wider dominion than had ever previously acknowledged their sway. The stra- 
tao"em of introducing armed men disguised as women in closed litters into the 
heart of the enemy's camp had been successfully practised against Ala-ud-din him- 
self after a former siege of Chitor, and had resulted in the escape of the captured 
Rana. This may have suggested the adoption of the same expedient at Maha- 
ban, either in fact to the Sufi, who is said to have carried it into execution, or to 
the local legend-monger, who has used it as an embellishment to his narrative. 

The shrine of Syam Lala, to which allusion has been made above, still 
exists as a mean little cell, perched on the highest point of the fortifications 
on the side where they overlook the Jamuna. It is believed to mark the spot 
where Jasoda gave birth to Maya, or Joga-nidra, substituted by Vasudeva 
for the infant Krislma. But by far the most interesting building is a covered 
court called ]J5anda's Pahico, or more commonly the Assi-Khamba, i. e., the 
eighty pillars. It is divided by five rows of sixteen pillars each into four 
aisles, or rather into a centre and two narrower side aisles, with one broad 
outer cloister. The external pillars of this outer cloister are each of one mas- 
sive shaft, cut into many narrow facets, with two horizontal bands of carv- 
ing : the capitals are decorated either with grotesque heads or the usual four 
squat figures. The pillars of the inner aisles vary much in design, some 
being exceedingly plain and others as richly ornamented with profuse and 
often graceful arabesques. Three of the more elaborate are calhid respect- 
ively the Satya, Dvviipar, and Treta Yug ; while the name of the Kali Yuo- 
is given to another somewhat plainer. All these interior pillars, however, 
agree in consisting as it were of two short columns set one upon the other. 
The style is precisely similar to that of the Hindu colonnades by the Kutb 
Minar at Delhi ; and both works may reasonably be referred to about the same 
age. As it is probable that the latter were not built in the years immediately 



150 HINDU COLUMNS. 

preceding the fall of Delhi in 1194, so also it would seem that the court at 
Maha-ban must have been completed before the assault of Mahmiid in 1017 ; 
for after that date the place was too insignificant to be selected as the site of so 
elaborate an edifice. Thus, Fcrgusson's conjecture is confirmed, that the Delhi 
pillars are to be ascribed to the ninth or tenth century. Another long-mooted 
point may also be considered as almost definitely set at I'est, for it can scarcely 
be doubted that the pillars as they now stand at Maha-ban ocoupy their ori- 
ginal p oirtion . Fergusson, who was unaware of their existence, in his notice 
of the Delhi Cloister, doubts whether it now stands as originally arranged by 
the Hindus, or whether it had been taken down and re-arranged by the con- 
querors; but concludes as most probable that the former was the case, aiid 
that it was an open colonnade surrounding the Palace of Prithi Raj. " If so," 
he adds, " it is the only instance known of Hindii pillars being left undisturb- 
ed." General Cunningham comments upon these remarks, finding it utterly 
incredible that any architect, designing an original building and wishing to 
obtain height, should have recourse to such a rude expedient as constructing 
two distinct pillars, and then, without any disguise, piling up one on the top 
of the other. But, however extraordinary the procedure, it is clear that this 
is what was done at Maha-ban, aa 40 proved hf tho outer row of columns 
whioh are each of one unbroken shaft, yet precisely the same in height as the 
double pilWo of tho iimcr ai a lca . The roof is flat and perfectly plain excei)t in 
two compartments, where it is cut into a pretty quasi-doine of concentric raul- 
tifoil circles. Mothers come here for their purification on the sixth day after 
childbirth — chhathi pi'ija — and it is visited by enormous crowds of people for 
several days about the anniversary of Krishna's birth in the month of Bhadon. 
A representation of the infant god's cradle is displayed to view, with his foster- 
mother's churn and other domestic articles. The place being regarded not 
exactly as a temple, but as Nanda and Jasoda's actual dwelling-house, all 
persons, without regard to the religion they profess, are allowed to walk about 
in it with perfect freedom. Considering the size, the antiquity, the artistic ex- 
cellence, the exceptional archa3ological interest, the celebrity amongst natives, 
and the close proximity to Mathura of this building, it is strange that it has not 
attracted more attention from European writers, especially those whose pro- 
fessed object it has been to illustrate the architectural antiquities of the neigh- 
bourhood. 

A good illustration from another point of view of the Hindu fancy for bro- 
ken pillars may be seen at Noh-jhil, a town across the Ganges in the extreme 
north of the district. Here is a Muhammadan dargah, constructed out of the 
wreck of a Hindu temple. Tho pillars, twenty in number, are very simple in 
character, but exceptional in two respects ; first, as being all of uniform design, 
which is quite anomalous in Hindu architecture ; secondly, as being, though of 



THE ASST-KHAMBA. 151 

fair heiglit, each cut out of a single piece of stone. The only decoration on the 
otherwise plain shaft consists of four deep scroll-shaped notches half way 
between the base and capital ; the result of which is to make each column 
appear as if it were in two pieces. The explanation is obvious. In earlier days, 
when large blocks of stone were difficult to procure, there was also lack of 
sufficient art to conceal the unavoidable join in the structure. In course of 
time, the eye became accustomed to the defect, and eventually required its 
apparent introduction even where it did not really exist. A similar conserva- 
tism may be traced in the art history of every nation, and more especially in 
religious art. In breaking up his columns into two pieces and thus perpetua- 
ting, as a decoration, what in its origin had been a signal defect, the Hindu 
architect was unconsciously influenced by the same motive as the Greek, who 
to the very last continued to introduce, as prominent features in his temple 
facades, the meto])es and triglyphs which had been necessities in the days of 
wooden construction, but had become unmeaning when repeated in stone. 

Like this building at Noh-jhil, the Assi-Khamba at Maha-ban was also, 
it is said, for some time used as a mosque, and the statement is confirmed by 
Father Tieffenthaller, who writes : — " On voit a Maha-ban dans une grande 
maison portee par 80 colonnes, une peintm-e qui represente Krishna volant du 
lait, en jettant le clair, et jouant avec d'autres. Get edifice a ete converti en 
partie en une mosquee, en partie en une pagodc." Let into its outer wall 
is a small figure of Buddha ; and it is said that whenever foundations are sunk 
within the precincts of the fort, many fragments of sculpture — of Buddhist 
character, it may be presumed — have been brought to light ; but hitherto they 
have always been buried again, or broken up as building materials. Doubtless, 
Maha-ban was the site of some of those Buddhist monasteries, which the Chinese 
pilgrim Fa Hian distinctly states existed in his time on both sides of the river. 
And further, whatever may be the exact Indian word concealed under the form 
Klisoboras, or Clisobora, given by Arrian and Pliny as the name of the town 
between Avhich and Mathura the Jamuna flowed — Amnis Jomanes in Gangem 
per Palibothros decumt inter oppida Methora et Clisobora, Pliny, Hist. Nat. vi., 
22 — it may be concluded with certainty that Maha-ban is the site intended.* 

* The parallel passage in Arrian's India is as follows : — royrov tov HpaKXca^fidXianj 
TTpbs iovpacTTjwcov yepa/psadai Iv^ikov b6veos, Li/a h^o 7r6X/£s fisydXaL, MsBopd re 
kat kXsiCo^opa., kdi. ttotjioS Taj(3dpnis uXovroQ Qu/ppet ■nji' X'^'*'7^ avriJl. As 
both authors seem to be quoting from the same original, the insertion of the words per Palibothro^ 
in Pliny must be due to an error on the part of some copyist, misled by the frequent mention 
of Palibothra in the preceding paragraphs. The mistake cannot be credited to Pliny himself, 
who fixes the site of Palibothra as 415 miles to the east of the confluence of the Ganges and 
the Jamuna. The gods whom Arrian proceeds to describe under the names of Dionysus 
and Hercules correspond closely with Krishna and Balarama, who are still the local divinities 
of Mathura. 



152 IDENTIFICATION OF MAHA-BAN WITH C'LISOBOKA. 

Its other literary names are Brihad-vana, Bribad-aranya, Gokula, and Nanda- 
grama ; and no one of these, it is true, in the slightest resein])Ies the word 
Clisobora, which would seem rather to be a ccrrupiion of 'Krishna-pura,' or 
some similar compound in which ' Krishna' was at all events the first element, 
whatever the second might be ; and which was used by the speaker as a descrip- 
tive title, but taken by the foreign traveller for the ordinary jjroper name. 
General Cunningham in his 'Ancient Geography' identifies Clisobora (read in 
one MS., as Cyrisoborka) with Brinda-ban, assuming that Kalikavartta, or 
' Kalika's Whirlpocd,' was an earlier name of the town, in allusion to Krishna's 
combat with the serpent Kiilika. But in the first place, the Janmna does not 
flow between Mathura and Brinda-ban, seeing that both are on the same bank ; 
secondly, the ordinary name of the great serpent is not Kalika, but Kaliya ; 
and thirdly, it does not appear u])on what authority it is so boldly stated that 
" the earlier name of the place was Kalikavartta." Upon this latter point, a 
reference has been made to the great Brinda-ban Pandit, Swami Rangacharya, 
who, if any one, might be expected to speak with positive knowledge, and 
his reply was that in the course of all his reading, he had never met with 
Brinda-ban under any other name than tliat Avhich it now bears. In order to 
establish the identification of Clisobora with Malia-ban, it was necessary to 
notice General Cunningham's counter theory and to condemn it as at variance 
with facts ; ordinarily the accuracy of his research and the soundness of his 
judgment are entitled to the highest respect. 

The glories of Maha-ban are told in a special (interpolated) section of the 
Brahmanda Parana, called the Brihad-vana Mahatmya. In this, its tirthas, or 
holy places, are reckoned to be twenty-one in number as follows : — 
Eka-vinsali-iirlhena yuhtam bh urigundnvitam, 
Yamal-ch'jima pwiyatamam, Nanda-kupam tathaiva c/ia, 
C/iintd-haraiia Brdlundndam^ kuvdam Sanisvatam tuthd, 
Surasvali sild tatra, Vishmi-kimda-saindnvitam, 
Karna-Mpam^ Kvishia-kundum, Gopti-kiipam tathaiva cha, 
liamanam-ramana-stltdnam, N drada-sthdnam eva cha, 
Fiitand-patana sthdnam, Trinavarttdkhja pdtanam, 
Nanda-harmyam, Nanda-geham, Ghdtam Ii,ama7ia-samjnakam^ 
Mathurdndthodbhavam-kslietram piinyam ptdpa-prandsanaiHy 
Janma-sthdnam tu Sheshas;/a, jananam Yogamdijaya. 
The Putana-patana-sthanam of the above lines is a ravine, commonly call- 
ed Putana khar, which is crossed by the Mathura road a short distance out- 
side the town. It is a mile or more in length, reaching down to the bank of 
the Jamuna, and, as the name denotes, is supposed to have been caused by 
the passage of Putand's giant body, in the same way as the Kans Khar at 
Mathura. 



HAHA-BAN FESTIVALS. 153 

The remainder of the twenty-one tirthas have been already noticed in the 
course of this narrative, and commemorate such well-known incidents in Krish- 
na's childhood that any further explanation is unnecessary. 

The principal Hindu festivals observed in Maha-ban are the Ram Lila in the 
month of Ku\ ar, first set on foot by a late Tahsildar, Mnnshi Bhajan Lai ; the 
Piitana mela, Kartik Sudi 6th ; the Jakhaiya mela, held on the Sundays of the 
month of Magh (there is a similar festival held at Paindhat in the Mustafabad 
Pargana of the Mainpuri District, which is believed to have great influence on 
the fall of rain in the winter season) ; the Raman Reti, held on the sands of the 
Jamuna, Phalgun Sudi 11th ; and the Parikama, or Perambulation, Kartik Sudi 
5th ; this includes the town of Gokul and village of Raval, at which latter place 
Radha's mother is said to have lived. The Muhammadans have several small 
mosques and two festivals. One of these, the Chatiyal Madar, is held on the 
3rd of Jamadi-ul-awul, in honour of Saiyid Badia-ud-din, better known as 
Shah Madar, whose principal shrine is at Makhanpur on the Isan. His festivals, 
wherever held, are distinguished by the name of Chatiyal, meaning 'an open 
place,' and the hereditary hierophants bear the title of Khalifa. The second 
Muhammadan mela is the Urs Dargah of Shah Gilan, or Saiyid Makhdum. 
The dargah was built about a century ago by Nawab Sulaiman Beg. 

Gokul, 

The town of Gokul being the head-quarters of the Vallabhacharyas, or 
Gokulastha Gosains, is throughout the year crowded with pilgrims, of whom 
the majority come from Gujarat and Bombay, where the doctrines of the sect 
have been very widely propagated, more especially among the Bhattias and 
other mercantile classes. In many of its physical characteristics the place pre- 
sents a striking parallel to the presumed morality of its habitues. Its streets 
are tortuous and unsavoury, its buildings unartistic, its environs waste and un- 
inviting ; and though it is only five or six miles distant from Mathura, it is out 
off from easy access by the river, and is thus at once both near and remote, in 
the same way as its literature is modern and yet obscure. From the opposite 
bank it has a picturesque appearance, which is destroyed on nearer approach. 
For the temples, though they amount to a prodigious number, and are many 
of them richly endowed, are all modern in date and tasteless in design ; while 
the thoroughfares are in the rains mere channels for the floods which pour down 
through them to the Jamuna, and at all other times of the year so rough and 
broken that the rudest wheeled vehicle can with difficulty make its way along 
them. Efforts have been made within the last few years to improve its sanitation, 
but the Gosain Muafidars are indifferent to any reform of the kind, and are w^ell 
content to let things remain as they are. The filthy condition of the town is 

X 



154 VALLABIIACHARYA. 

largely OAving to the number of cattle driven within its walls every night, which 
render it really what the name denotes, ' a cattle yard,' rather than an abode of men. 
Its only noteworthy ornament is a spacious masonry tank constructed some 
thirty years ago by a Seth named Chunna. The trees on its margin are always 
•white with flocks of large wator-fow^l of a quite distinct species from any to be 
found elsewliere in the neighbourhood. They are a new colony, being all descen- 
ded from a few pairs which casually settled there tio more than ten or twelve years 
ago. Their plumage is peculiar and ornamental, but not at all times easy to 
obtain, as the birds are considered to enjoy the benefit of sanctuary, and on one 
occasion, when a party of soldiers from the Mathura cantonments attempted 
to shoot a number of them, the townspeople rose en masse for their protection. 

The great heresiarch, Vallabhacharya, from whom Gokul derives all its 
modem celebrity, was born in the year 1479 A. D., being the second son 
of Lakshman Bhatt, a Telinga Brahman of the Vishnu Swami Sampra- 
daya. By the accident of birth, though not by descent, he can be claimed as 
a native of Upper India, having been born at Champaranya, a wild solitude 
in the neighbourhood of Banaras, whither his parents had travelled up from the 
south on a pilgrimage. Their stay in the holy city was cut short by a popular 
emeute, the result of religious intolerance ; and the mother, who was little in a 
condition to encounter the distress and fatigue of so hasty a flight, prematurely 
gave birth on the way to an eight months' child. Either from an exagge- 
rated alarm as to their own peril, or, as was afterwards said, from a sublime 
confidence in the promised protection of Heaven, they laid the babe under a 
tree and abandoned it to its fate. When some days had elapsed, and their fears 
had subsided, they cautiously retraced their steps, and finding the child still 
alive and uninjured on the very spot where he had been left, they took him with 
them to Banaras. After a very short stay there, they fixed their home at Go- 
kul, where the child was placed under the tuition of the Pandit Narayan Bhatt, 
and in four months mastered the whole vast range of Sanskrit literature and 
philosophy. His followers, it may be remarked, are conscientious imitators of 
their founder in respect of the shoit time which they devote to their studies ; 
but the result in their case is more in accordance with ordinary experience, 
and their scholarship of the very slightest. When eleven years of age, he lost 
his father, and almost immediately afterwards commenced his career as a reli- 
gious teacher. His earliest triumphs were achieved in Southern India, where 
he secured his first convert, Diimodar Das, and in a public disputation at Vijay- 
nagar, the place where his mother's family resided, he refuted the arguments 
of the Court Pandits with such authority that even the king, Krishna Deva, 
was convinced by his eloquence and adopted the youthful stranger as his 
spiritual guide. Thenceforth his success was ensured ; and at every place 
that he visited, Ujaiyin, Banaras, Haridwar, and Allahabad, the new doctrine3 



vallabhacharya's succESSons. 155 

enlisted a multitude of adherents, A life of celibacy being utterly at variance 
with his ideas of a reasonable religion, he took to himself a wife at Banaras, 
and became the father of two sons, by name Gopinath, born in 1511, and 
Bitthalnath in 1516. His visits to Braj were long and frequent. There, in 
1520, he founded at Gobardhan the great temple of Sri-nath ; and at Brinda- 
ban saw in a vision the god Krishna, who directed him to introduce a new 
devotion in his honour, wherein he should be adored in the form of a child 
under the title of Baikrishan or Bal Gopal; which is still the cultus most affect- 
ed by his descendants at the present day. His permanent home, however, 
was at Bauaras, where he composed his theological works, of which the most 
extensive is a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, called the Subodhini, and 
where he died in the year 1531. 

He was succeeded in the pontificate by his second son, Bitthalnath, who 
propagated his father's doctrines with great zeal and success throughout all the 
south and west of India, and himself received 252 distinguished proselytes, 
whose acts are recorded in a Hindi work called the ' Do Sau Biivan Varta.' 
Finally, in 1565, he settled down at Gokul, and, at the age of seventy, breathed 
his last on the sacred hill of Gobardhan. By his two wives he had a family of 
seven sons, Giridhar, Gobind, Bal-krishan, Gokulnath, Raghunath, Jadunath 
and Ghansyara. Of these, the fourth, Gokulnath, is by far the most famous, 
aad his descendants in consequence claim some slight pre-eminence above their 
kinsmen. His principal representative is the Gosain at Bombay. 

Unlike other Hindu sects, in which the religious teachers are ordinarily un- 
married, all the Gosains among the Vallabhacharyas are invariably family men 
and engage freely in secular pursuits. They are the epicureans of the east and 
are not ashamed to avow their belief that the ideal life consists rather in social 
ejijoyment than in solitude and mortification. Such a creed is naturally des- 
tructive of all self-i'cstraint even in matters where indulgence is by common 
consent held criminal ; and the profligacy to which it has given rise is so notori- 
ous that the Maharaja of Jaypur was moved to expel from his capital the ancient 
image of Gokul Chandrama, for which the sect entertained a special veneration, 
and has further conceived such a prejudice against Vaishnavas in general, that 
all his subjects are compelled, before they appear in his presence, to mark their 
forehead with the three horizontal lines that indicate a votary of Siva. The 
scandalous practices of the Gosains and the unnatural subserviency of the people 
in ministering to their gratification received a crushing exposd in a cause celehre 
for libel tried before the Supreme Court of Bombay in 1862, from the detailed 
narative of which I have borrowed a considerable amount of information. 

The dogma of Brahma-Sambandh, or ' union with the divine,' upon which 
Vallabhasharya constructed his whole system was, as he declares, revealed to 
him by the Deity in person and recorded word for word as it was uttered. This 



156 THE SIDDHANTA RAHASTA. 

inspired text is called tlie Siddlianta Rahasya, and being very brief and of quite 
exceptional interest, it is here given in full : — 

^^^MrfcT^^T rI^JT15^^JTTm<5 II 

f^^itw: ^T:iw^^l5^Tf^mf^i?r: i 

^ ?qf? $^§:^^ ^TI*I^Tn^flT3q?!i |i 
rl^l^T^T ^^^iS ^^oT^^lTiOT I 

^ J^nWWm ^m it W^m^iTT TTrf I 

^^oRT^T ^^i ^1% ^^wtt: nre^f?T ii 

'TTTlf^^ f^^T2f ^Irl^^^lfq ^^it I 

" At dead of night, on the 11th of the bright fortnight of Srdvan, what is 
here written was declared to me, word for word, by God himself. Every sin, 
whether of body or soul is put away by union with the Creator ; of whatever 
kind the sin may be, whether, 1st, original ; 2nd, accidental (i. e., born of time 
and place) ; 3rd, social or ceremonial (i. e., special offences defined by custom or 
the Vedas) ; 4th, sins of abetment ; or 5th, sins sensual.* No one of these is to 
be accounted any longer existent ; but when there is no union with the Creator 
there is no putting away of sin. Therefore, one should abstain from anything 
that has not been consecrated ; but when once a thing has been dedicated the 

* There is a paraphrase on the Siddhanta Hahasya by Gosain Gokulnath, called Bhakti Sid- 
dhanta Vivritl ; in which, with the characteristic fondness of Sanskrit commentators for scho- 
lastic refinements, he explains these lernis in a much more narrow and technical sense than that 
vhich I have applied to them. As the text contains an uneven number of lines, it would appear 
at first sight to be imperfect; but this suspicion can scarcely be well founded, since in Gokul- 
nuth'B time it stood preciBtly as now. 



THE SAMAUPANA. 157 

offerer may do with it what he likes : this is the rule. The God of gods will not 
accept any offering which has already been used by the owner. Therefore, at 
the outset of ever action there should be u.nreserved offering. It is said by those 
of a different persuasion, ' what is once given cannot be taken away ; it is all 
God's '; but as is the practice of servants on earth, so would we act in the dedi- 
cation through which everything becomes God's. Ganges water is full of impu- 
rities; and *the holy Ganges' may be pi'edicated of bad as well as good. Pre- 
cisely the same in our case." 

The last four lines are rather obscurely expressed. The idea intended is that 
as servants* use what remains of that which they have prepared for their masters^ 
so what we offer to God we may afterwards use for ourselves ; and as dirty 
water flowing into the Ganges becomes assimilated with the sacred stream, so 
vile humanity becomes purified by union with God. 

The practice of the sect has been modelled strictly in accordance with these 
instructions. A child is Krishna-ed (christened) while still an infant by the 
Gosain's putting on its neck a string of beads and repeating over it the formula 
called the Ashtakshar Mantra, Sri Krishna saranam mama (Deus adjutorium 
meum), but before the neophyte can claim the privileges of full communion 
he has to undergo a rite similar to that of confirmation, and at the age 
of twelve or thereabouts, when ready to take upon himself the responsibilities 
of life he initiates his career by a solemn dedication (samarpana) of all that 
he has and is to the god of his devotion. This oblation of tan, man, dhan, as it 
is popularly expressed — that is, of body, soul, and substance — is couched in the 
following terms : — 

^Wf^^T^^RrIrIlxr^^Rrirr[TmTtl¥ ^^i^^ ^ffX^iTJ 

xrTifl:JrToR^T ^w ^T^^^nw ^miw f w ri^ii^ ii 

" Om. The god Krishna is my refuge. Distracted by the infinite pain and 
torment caused by the separation from Krishna, which has extended over a 
space of time measured by thousands of years, I now, to the holy Krishna, 
do dedicate my bodily faculties, my life, my sovxl and its belongings, with my 
wife, my house, my children, my whole substance and my own self. 0, Krish- 
na ! I am thy servant."! 

* Heuce Sevakdn, ' servants,' is the distinctive name for lay members of the Vallabha- 
charya commmiity. The whole system of doctrine is known as ' Pushti Marg,' or way of happi- 
ness and its practice as ' Daivi jivan,' the Divine life. Their sectarial mark consists of two red 
perpendicular lines down the forehead meeting in a curve at the root of the nose with a red spot 
between them. 

t Thii formula is, I find, based on a passage in the Narada Pancharatra. 



158- DOCTEINE OF THE BRAHMA SAMBANDH. 

Now, all this may be so interpreted as to couvey a most iinexceptionalile 
meaning: that man should consecrate to God, wholly and without reserve, 
his body, soul, and substance, his every thought, word, and action, and all 
that he has, or does, or suffers ; that such consecration is sufficient to hallow 
and ennoble the meanest actions of our ordinary life and is an effectual preser- 
vative from all evil, while even good works done without such consecration 
are unprofitable and "have even the nature of sin."* This is the doctrine of 
Christianity, and it may be deduced from Vallabliacharya's revelation with- 
out forcing the sense of a single word. But though there may be some slight 
doubt as to his own views, there can be none as to those entertained by his most 
immediate successors and transmitted by them to his disciples at the present 
day. For Gokulnath, who is regai'ded as the most authoritative exponent of his 
grandfather's tenets, repeatedly insists in all his works, with the most marked 
emphasis, in the absolute identity of the Gosaiu with the Divinity.f In fiict, 
lie goes even a step beyond this, and represents the Gosain as so powerful a 
mediator that practically his favour is of more importance to us than God's: 
for, if God is displeased, the Gosain can deprecate his wrath; but if the Gosain 
is displeased, God will be affected towards us in the same way, and conciliation 
will then be impossible. When to this it is added that the Gosain obtains his 
position solely by birth, and that no defect, moral or intellectual, can impair 
liis hereditary claim to the adoration of his followers, Avho are exhorted to close 
their eyes and ears to anything that tends to his discredit,^ it is obvious that a 
door is opened to scandals of a most intolerable description. By the act of 
do Jicition, a man submits to the pleasure of the Gosain, as God's representative, 
not only the first fruits of his wealth but also the virginity of his daughter 
or his newly-wedded wife ; while the doctrine of the Brahma Sambandh 
is explained to mean that such adulterous connection is the same as ecstatic 
union with the god, and the most mgritorious act of devotion that can bo 
performed. This glorification of immorality forms the only point in a large 
proportion of the stories in the Chaura,si Varta, or ' Accounts of Yallablia- 
charya's 84 great proselytes.' One of the most extravagant will be found 
given in full at the end of this chapter. The woi'k commences with reference 
to the Revelation of the Siddhanta Rahasya, preceded by a brief colloquy 

* The final climax states the doctrine of the Anglican, but not of the Catholic 
Church. 

t This extravaorant doctrine pervades all the later Vaishnava Schools, and is accepted by 
the disciples of Chaitanya no less than by those of Vallabhacliilrya. The foundation upon which 
it rests is a line in the Bhugavat, where the Guru is styled Sarva-deva-maya, 'made up of all 
divinity.' 

J Thisis considered socssential a duty, tliat in the Dasa Marma, or Vallabhacbarya Oeca» 
logue, ' See no faults,' stands as the tenth commandmeut. 



VALLABHACHARYA THEOLOGY. 159 

between the Deity and the Gosain, of which the following words arc the most 
important : — 

^^TT ^T ^t; ^l^rT IT WI ^T^J^'fT W ^T ^TT ^t ^^^ 

^% 11^ rT^ 5^i3t^?:^"t ^m ^W %T 3^ Ct^^ ^t 

" VaUabha. — You know the nature of life, that it is full of defects ; how 
can there be union between it and you ? 

" Kruhna. — You will effect the union of the divinity with living creatures, 
and I will accept them. You will give your name to them and all their sins 
shall be put away." 

Professor Wilson interprets this as merely the declaration of a pliilosopl il- 
eal dogma, that life aiid spirit are identical; but (it can scarcely be doubted) 
the passage means rather that human life can only be purified by bringing it 
into intimate connection with God, or in default of God, with God's repre- 
sentative, the Gosain. 

Such being the revolting character of their theological literature, it is easy 
to understand why the Vallabhacharyas have always shown a great reluct- 
ance to submit it to the criticism of the outer world of unbelievers, who might 
not be prepared to accept such advanced doctrines. Though there are several 
copyists at Gokul, whose sole occupation it is to make transcripts for the use 
of pilgrims, they would ordinarily refuse to sell a manuscript to any one who 
was not of their own denomination ; and none of their books had ever been 
published till quite recently, when two or three of the less esoteric were issued 
from Pandit Giri Pnisad's Pi-ess at Beswa in the Aligarh District. However, 
as in many other forms of religion, and happily so in this case, practice is not 
always in accordance with doctrine. Though there may be much that is re- 
prehensible in the inner life of the Gosains, it is not at Gokul obtruded on 
the public, and has never occasioned any open scandal ; while the present head 
of the community, Gosain Purushottam Lai, a descendant of Bitthaluatli's 
sixth son, Jadunath, deserves honourable mention for exceptional liberality and 
enlightment. He is the head of the temple of Navanit-Priya, popularly called, 
by way of pre-eminence, Raja Thakur,* and is the proprietor of the whole of 
the township of Gokul. His uncle and predecessor, Gobind Lai, died, leaving 
a widow, Janaki Ban Ji, and an only daughter. The latter, according to inva- 
riable custom, was married to a Bhatt, and by him had two sons by name 

* He also presides over two temples dedicated to Baladeva and Madan Mohan near the 
Kaukhal Ghat in Mathura, where he ordinarily resides. 



160 GOSAIN PURUSHOTTAM LAL OF GOKUL. 

Ran-chhor Lai and Gop Ji. But, as by Salic law neither of them could suc- 
ceed to the spiritual dignity, the widow adopted her nephew Purushottara, the 
son of her husband's brother Braj Pal. The adoption was disputed by the two 
sons, who carried their suit in appeal even up to the Privy Council, and there 
were finally defeated. Under their mother's will, they enjoy a maintenance 
allowance of Rs. 900 a year, paid to the elder brother by the Gosain, and 
they have further retained — though under protest — all the property conferred 
by the Maharaja of Jodhpur on their common ancestor Murlidhar, the father of 
Gobind Lai and Braj Lai, who was the founder of the family's temporal pros- 
perity and was the first muafidar of Gokul by grant from Sindhia. 

Gosain Purushottam Lai has one son, Raman Lai, through whom he is the 
grandfather of Braj Lai and Kanhaiya Lai. The latter of these has been 
adopted by Lachhman Ji, a descendant of Bitthalnath's fourth son, Gokulnath, 
and is now the Gosain of the temple bearing that title. Thus the two prin- 
cipal endowments have both come into one branch of the family, and the 
Gosain is one ""of the very lai'gest landowners and wealthiest residents in 
the district ; while he wields, at the same time, in virtue of his religious 
character, an influence which is absolutely unbounded among his own people, 
and very considerable in all classes of Hindu society. In the official world, 
however, he is barely known even by name, as his estates are too well 
managed to bring him before the courts, and he is still so far fettered 
by the traditions of his order that he declines all social intercourse with 
Europeans, even of the highest rank : so much so, that when the Lieutenant- 
Governor of these Provinces visited the station in 1873, and, being un- 
aware of this peculiarity, expressed in Avriting a desire to see him, the invi- 
tation was not accepted. The compliment was prompted by the Gosain's 
annual gift of a prize of Rs. 300 for the student who passes first in the gene- 
ral Entrance Examination for the Calcutta Univei-sity; a donation which, under 
the circumstances, cannot have been suggested by any ulterior motive be- 
yond a genuine desire for the furtherance of education. In the same spirit, 
though he makes no claim to any high degree of scholarship himself, he has 
maintained for some years past in the city of Mathura a Sanskrit school, whicli 
is attended by a large number of adults as well as boys, for whom he has 
secured very competent teachers. He has also contributed freely to a new 
school to be built in the course of the ensuing year for the use of the two 
towns of Gokul and Maha-ban. 

At all the Vallabhacharya temples, the daily services are eight in number- 
viz., 1st, Mangala, the morning levee, a little after sun-rise, when the god is 
taken from his couch and bathed; 2nd, Sringara, an hour and a half later, Avhcn 
the god is attired in all his jewels and seated on his throne ; 3rd, Gwala, after 
an interval of about three-quarters of an hour, when the god is supposed to bo 



YALLADHAOHARYA TEMPLES AT GOKULa 161 

starting to graze his cattle in the woods of Braj ; 4th, Eaj Bhog, the mid-day 
meal, which, after presentation, is consumed by the priests and distributed 
among the votaries who have assisted at the ceremonies ; 5th, Uttapan, about 
3 P. M., when the god awakes from his siesta; 6th, Bhog, the evening collation ; 
7tb, Sandbya, the disrobing at sunset; and 8th, Sayan, the retiring to rest. 
Upon all these occasions, the ritual concerns only the priests, and the lay wor- 
shipper is simply a spectator, who evinces his reverence by any of the ordinary 
forms with which he would approach a human siaperior. As has already been 
mentioned, none of the buildings present a very imposing appearance. The 
three oldest, dedicated respectively to Gokul Nath, Madan Mohan and Bitthal 
Nath, are ascribed to the year 1511 A. D. The most notable of the remainder 
are Dwaraka Nath, dating from 1546 A. D., Balkrishan, from 1636, with an 
annual income of Rs. 4,420; Navanlt Priya, or Dau Ji, the latter name being that 
of the Gosain, whose grandson, Giridhari Ji, is now in possession, with an in- 
come of Rs. 9,382; Braj Ratn, under Gosain Gokul Nath Ji, a descendant of 
Bitthal Nath's younger son, Ghan Syam, with an income of Rs. 10,650; Srf 
Chandrama, with Rs. 4,050, and Navanit Lai, Natwar, Mathures, Gopal Lai, and 
Brajeswar ; all of these being quite modern. There are also two shrines in 
honour of Mahadeva, built by Bijay Sinh, Raja of Jodhpur in 1602. The prin- 
cipal melas are the Janm Ashtami, Krishna's birthday, in Bliadon, and Ann- 
kut on the day after the new moon of Kartik. The Trinavart mela is also 
held Kartik badi 4th, when paper figures of the demon are first paraded and 
then torn to pieces. 

Baladeva, or Bal-deo.* 

Some six miles beyond Maha-ban, a little to the right of the high road lead- 
in cr to Sa'dabad and Jalesar, is the famous temple of Baladeva in the centre of the 
modern town to which it gives a name. The original village was called Rirha 
and still exists, but only as a mean suburb occupied by the labouring classes. 
Adjoining the temple, is a brick-built tank, about SO yards square, called variously 
Kshir Sagar, the ' sea of milk,' or Kshir Kund, or Balbhadra Kund. It is in a di- 
lapidated condition, and the surface of the water is always covered with a repul- 
sive thick green scum, which, however, does not deter the pilgrims either from 
drinking or bathing in it. Here it is said that Gosain Gokul Nath was warned 
in a vision that a god lay concealed. Lnmediate search was made, and th3 
statue of Baladeva, that has ever since been regarded as the tutelary divinity 
of the place, was revealed to the adoring gaze of the assembled multitude. 

• The latter name represents the common pronunciation, which (as in all similar words) 
has become corrupted by the practice of writing in Persian characters, which are inadequate to 
express the va termination. 

Y 



162 TEMPLE OF BALADEVA. 

Attempts woro made to remove it to Gokul ; but as every cart broke down, either 
from the weight of the stone, or the reluctance of the god to change his abode, 
a shrine was erected for his reception on the spot, and an Ahivasi of Bhartiya, 
by name Kaly;in, constituted guardian. From his two sons, Jamuna Das and 
Musiya, or Sukadeva, are descended the whole horde of Pandas, who now find 
the god a very A'aluablc property. They have acquired, by purchase from the 
Jats, the old village of Rirha,* and are also considerable landowners in six other 
villages — viz., Artoni, Nera, Chhibarau, Kharaira, Niir-pur and Shahab-pur, 
whence they derive an annual income of Rs. 3,853. This estate, which was for 
the most part a grant from Sindhia, forms however but a small part of their 
Wealth, as the offerings made at the shrine in the course of the year are esti- 
mated to yield a net profit of Hs. 30,000 more. 

The temple, despite its popularity, is neither handsome nor well appointed. 
Its precincts include as many as eleven cloistered quadrangles, where accom- 
modation is provided for the pilgrims and resident priests. No definite charge 
is levied on the former, but they are expected to make a voluntary donation ac- 
cording to their means. Each court, or hmj, as it is called, bears the name 
of its founder as follows : — 1st Kunj, of Eashk Lai of Agra and Lakhnau, 
1817 A.D. ; 2nd, of Bachharaj, Baniya, of Hathras, 1825 ; 3rd, of Naval Karan, 
Baniya, of Agra, 1768; 4th, of Bhim Sen and Hulas Rai, Baniyas, of Math ur a, 
3828 ; 5th, of Das Mai, Khattri, of Agi-a, 1801 ; 6th, of Bhattacharya of Jaypur, 
1794 ; 7th, of Gopal, Brahman, of Jaypur ; 8th, of Chiman Lai of Mathura, 
1778 ; 9th, of fSada Ram, Khattri, of Agi-a, 1768; 10th, of Chunna, Halwai, of 
Bharat-pur, 1808; and 11th, of Puran Chand, Pachauri, of Mahaban, 1801. 
The actual temple, built by Seth Syam Das of Delhi, towards the end of last 
century, stands at the back of one of the inner courts, and on each of its 
three disengaged sides has an arcade of three bays with broad flanking piers. 
On each of these three sides a door gives access to the cella, which is sur- 
mounted by a squat pyramidal tower. In addition to the principal figure, 
Baladeva, who is generally very richly dressed and bedizened with jewels, it 
contains another life-sized statue, supposed to represent his spouse Revati. 
Apparently, she was an after thought, as she is put away in a corner, off the 
dais. In an adjoining court is shown the small vaulted chamber which served 
the god as a residence for the first century after his epiphany. Near the 
tank is a shrine dedicated by Bihdri LjiI, Bohra, of Mursan, in 1803, to the 
honour of the god Harideva, and two stone chhatris in memory of the Pandas, 
Harideva and Jagannath. 

• Besides the entire zamindari, tlie Pandas hold also 255J bi'ghas io Eirha as Muufidars. Of 

this area, 79 bl,'ha8 are occupied by buildings, while the remainder is cither waste or orchard. As 

the township has no arable land attached to it, the name Baladeva does not appear al all iu the 
diatrict rent-roll. 



THE BALADEVA PANDAS. 163 

Two annual melas are held at Baladeva, the one Bhadou Sudi 6th (commouly 
called Deo Chhatt), the other on the i'ull moun of Agahu ; but there is probably 
not a single day in the course of the whole year in which the temple courts are 
not occupied by at least as many as a hundred pilgrims, who come from all parts 
of Nortlieru India. The cost of the religious ceremonial cannot be much ; but 
a charitable dole of an ana a piece is given to every applicant ; and as the Pandas 
with their families now number between 300 and 400 persons, the annual 
cost of their maintenance must be very considerable. After reasonable deduc- 
tions on these three heads— viz., temple expenses, charity, and maintenance of 
the priests, the balance of profits is calculated at over Rs. 30,000. There is 
ordinarily a division among the shareholders at the end of every three months, 
when they make an allotment into twelve equal portions, that being the num- 
ber of the principal sub-divisions of the clan, and then each sub-division makes a 
separate distribution among its own members. The votive offerings in the 
vast majority of cases are individually of very trifling amount ; but even so, 
their collective value is not altogether to be despised. Thus, poorer pilgrims, in 
addition to a few copper coins, often present a piece of sugar ; and the heap of 
sugar accumulated in three or four days has been sold by auction for as much 
as Rs. 80. The shrine is a very popular one among all classes ; scarcely ever 
is an important venture made without a vow that the god shall receive a fixed 
share of the profits, if he bring it to a successful issue; and even casual votaries, 
who have no special boon to beg, are often most lavish in their donations, either 
of money, horned cattle, carriages, horses, or other property. For example, a 
iew years ago, Siiraj-bhan, a wealthy merchant of Agra, gave Rs. 4,000 worth 
of jewellery for the personal adornment of the god. 

It is unfortunate that the hereditary guardians of so wealthy a shrine 
should be such a low and thriftless set as the Ahivasis are. The temple-garden 
occupies 52 bighas of land, and was once a well-planted grove. It is now a 
dirty, unsightly waste, as the Pandas have gradually cut down all the trees for 
firewood, without a thought of replacing them, and have thus not cnly dete- 
riorated the value of their property, but also forfeited a grant that used to be 
made by the Maharaja of Bharat-pur for its maintenance. It is also asserted 
to be a common practice for the younger members of the clan, when they see 
any devotee prostrate in devotion before the god, to be very forward in assistino- 
them to rise and leading them away, and to take the opportunity of despoiliiKy 
them of any loose cash or valuable ornaments that they can lay their hands 
upon. It is believed that thefts of the kind are frequent ; though the victim 
generally prefers to accept the loss in silence, rather than incur the odium 
of bringing a charge, that there might not be legal evidence to substantiate, 
against a professedly religious community. It appears in every way desirable 
that some extra police should be maintained at the expense of the Pandas, 



164 VALLABHACHABYA LITEBATUBE. 

and a constable or two kept permanently on duty in the inner court of tlie 
temple. 



NOTES TO CHAPTER VIII. 
1. — Catalogue of Vallabhacharya Literature. 

I. — Sanskrit works ascribed to the founder himself, divided into two classes: 
First, commentaries of considerable length on older writings of authority, being 
four in number, viz., Bhagavata Tika Subodhini, Vyasa Siitra Bliashya, Jaimini 
Sutra Bhashya, and Tattva Dipa Nibandha. None of these have I seen. Second- 
ly, seventeen very short original poems entitled — Siddhanta Rahasya, Siddhanta 
Muktavali, Pushti Pravaha Maryada, Antah-karanah Prabodha, Nava Ratna, 
Viveka Dhairyasraya, Krishnasraya, Bhakti Vardhani, Jala-bheda, Sannyasa 
Nirnaya, Nirodha Lakshana, Seva-phala, Bal-bodh, Chatur-sloki, Panch-sloki, 
Yamunashtakam, and Purushottam Sahasr-uama. Of all of these, except the 
last, 1 have obtained copies from Gokul. 

II. — Sanskrit works ascribed to Vallabhacharya's immediate successors. 
These also are, for the most part, very short. The principal are as follows : 
Sarvottama-stotram of Agui-Kumar, Ratna Vivarna of Bitthalnath, Bhakti 
Siddhanta Vivriti of Gokulnath, Vallabhashtakam of Bitthaluath, Ki'ishna 
Premamritam of Bitthalnath, Siksha Patram, Gokulashtakam, Prem-Ami'itam 
of Gokulnath, Sri Vallabha-bhavashtakara of Hari Das, Madhur Ashtakam, 
Saran Ashtakam, Namavali Acharya, Namavali Goswami, Sidhanta Bhavana, 
Virodha Lakshana, Srinagara Rasamandala, Saranopadesa, Rasa-Sindhu, Kal- 
padruma, Mala Prasanga, and Chita Prabodha. 

III. — Works in the modern vernacular, i. e., the Braj-Bhasha. Such are the 
Nij Varta, Chaurasi Varta, Do Sau Bavan Varta, Dwadasa Kunja, Pavitra 
Mandala, Purnamasi, Nitya Sovaprakara, Rasa Bhavana of Gokulnath, Va- 
chanami-ita of Gokulnath, Braj Bilas of Braj-basi Diis, Ban-Jatra, Vallabhakh- 
yana, Dhola, Nitya-pada, Sri Gobardhan-nath Ji ka Pragatya, Gosain Jf Pra- 
gatya, Lila Bhavana, Swarupa Bhavana, Guru Seva, Seva Prakara, Miila Pu- 
rusha, Dasa Marama, Vaishnava Battisi Lakshana, Chaurasi Siksha, Otsava 
Pada, Yamuna Ji Pada, and others. 



II. — Specimen of the Tone and Style of popular Vallabhacharya 
Literature, 

The following story of ' how Krishan Diis showed his devotion to the Go- 
sains' is extracted from the Chaurasi Varta, and is interesting as a specimen, both 
of the dialect and religious superstition of the locality. Though written some 
two hundred years ago, it might, for all internal evidence to the contrary, have 



THE CHAURASI VARTA. 165 

been taken down only yesterday, word for word, from the mouth of a village 
gossip. It does not contain a single archaic term, and in its unartificial 
style and rustic phraseology is an exact representation of the colloquial idiom 
of middle-class Hindus of the present century ; yet it has absolutely nothing 
in common with the language officially designated the vernacular of the coun- 
try, either as regards the arrangement of the sentence or the choice of words ; 
the latter being all taken from the Hindi vocabulary, with the exception of 
three only — viz., kaul, a * promise,' sauda, ' merchandise,' and k/iabr, ' news.' 
These are inserted as if on purpose to show that the non-admission of a larger 
number was a spontaneous and not a pedantic exclusion. As to its purport ; 
the eulogy which it bestows on the extraordinary sacrifice of personal de- 
cency and honour, merely for the sake of procuring the Gosains a good dinner, is 
so revolting to the principles of natural morality that it condemns the w^hole 
tenour of Vallabhacharya doctrine more strongly than any argument that could 
be adduced by an opponent. The style of the narrative is so easy and perspi- 
cuous that it can present no difficulty to the student, who alone will take an 
interest in the matter, and therefore I have not considered it necessary to add 
a translation : — 

^I'gm^l JillTIIg^ % ^^^ TTiTT ^ TlH W^ ^T ^X^l WiFiS ?^3iT 

c!i ^T ^m r\^ ^W^IH HI ^T WH ^IWT ^^ ^}^ ^ ^TIT ^1^ ^lU 
nm V^ TTiTT ^^T rlWi ^W ^ ^^ W^ %K ^W^T^^T Ct ^T ^T 

^T^ ^f%^ ^IlTrl ^T^T ^^ITR ^R^ ^T TJ ^SK ^\^ "^X Ti 

^ll ^T ^1 IT^ITT ^i%^T ^1^i f^rJI 31^ ^TrT W ^R ^Irf W %T 

^TW^T =^lT^rI W ^1 §3 %§ jh^K =RrS "^1^% TT^ Tt tlW ^1 =^# 
^1 ciT ^RZft 5^T W13 ^^X ^^ rT=f ^T cfFTui ^ W13 "S^T 31^1 rl^ 



166 "' STORY OF KRISHAN DAS. 

gi^T %T ^mi ^ifriiifT ^wi ^ ^iw w ^wi n^K afmi risi %t n^ t 

W^ mS ^T 2^^^ §i^ ^^ ^ ^r3T TTl HH.^f f^^T %T ^TT% ^^ 
m-g ^TXl^ ^^TT T.f% ^TT^rl ^ItIi ^^rT ^Trfl ^^r ^^RT OTT rl^ 

^c( li^n^ f w^^w wiii^ ^^ rm ^^^]^ ^ifrei gR 3^^t ^ii^gixr 

im ^m "^^^ ^^ ^1^ ^"^ ^^ ^l^T^T^l *"t ^^1 5FfR^ '^TU ^T- 
9lr1 ^i ^^ ^1^ ^T "^ T^T% ^R^ ^T^T^T^ ^i ^m ^?qx^l ^[TI 
S^TIXI ^l^reT 5RR^ TTWlU^l^ ^ii% T?^ rTcf ^W^IH ^i^ ^T 

^^i ^1 ^iW "citi §^ri %raTt( rii^ ^i^T ^1^ jn ofrRj ni *;^t i 

cT^ W( ^iti ^of3%i crR^ ^r crR^ ^R %I ^r %t r^^R WT^f 

^T ^^ ^^^ ^#1 ^^^ ^1 ^^^ ^ ^1"^ ^llrTT rTI^ ^m ^iW^ra 
7f ^1 ^i oFflT %I ^TT ^^ gfi^^T ^^T ll3 ^^ ^M ^il^m ^T^ 
^IrlT ^^ ^IT^ 5Rl=gl1 *;R ^}Tl^ W^ Tf oRl^ ^i ^ rl^ ^T %t 

?«lcl oJT cK^mi ^ felT %lf^%' ^Tlr^T ^Tsfl rT^ ^W ^1^ ^l^^%f 



STORY OF KRISHAN DAS. 167 

Ti ^I^ VTf W H^ ^iJ7 %TT ^T Tt rT^ 3^ ^T ^ cR^T %T rf 

On 

Tjf^% ^WT ^W rT nn ^IJT ^R rT^ ^T ^^T^T "^ ^^ %T ^W 

f^^%T %^T TT^ ^i%l ¥ %R ^Tc!i U^ %lfT$ ^f^T^^rT ^fl ^IT ^^It 

i %T rW m Tl^iJ WT ^1^ ^W ^^TOT ^^^^1^ ^T Tmil):^^ ^1 

% ^cT^TT^ ^3t rllri ^tt ^t^t ftf ^^t^^T^ ^T ^X^\ m^ ^f 
^^T^t ffiaiF^T^ ^t ^^T ^1^1 ^TlrT Tl^T ^R f W^^ Ct ^T ^T 
^11% ^ ^^-^ Tjm t ffTau^m ^T ^1=^1^ ^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^ 

^li rlit \^W^ ^mi H^TT II ^ II ^^"^ ^^0 ^T^QjoT 11^811 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE THREE HILL-PLACES OF MATHURA : GOBARDHAN, BAR8ANA, AND 

NAND-GANW. 

At a distance of three miles from the city of Mathurd, the road to Gobar- 
dhan runs throufrh the village of Satoha, by the side of a large tank of very 
sacred repute, called Santanu Kuud. The name commemorates a Raja Sdntanu, 
Avho (as is said on the spot) here practised, through a long course of years, the 
severest religious austerities in the hope of obtaining a son. His -wishes were 
at last gratified by a union with the goddess Ganga, who bore him Bhishma, one 
of the famous heroes of the Mahabharat. Every Sunday, the place is frequented 
by women who are desirous of issue, and a large mela is held there on the 6th 
of the light fortnight of Bhadon. The tank, which is of very considerable 
dimensions, was faced all round with stone, early last century, by Sawai Jay 
Siuh of Amber, but a great part of the masonry is now much dilapidated. In its 
centre is a high hill connected with the main land by a bridge. The sides of 
the island are covered with fine ritha trees, and on the summit, which is ap- 
proached by a flight of fifty stone steps, is a small temple. Here it is incum- 
bent upon the female devotees, who would have their prayers effectual, to make 
some offering to the shrine, and inscribe on the ground or wall the mystic device 
called in Sanskrit Svastikd and in Hindi Sathiya, the fylfot of Western eccle- 
siology. The local superstition is probably not a little confirmed by the acci- 
dental resemblance that the king's name bears to the Sanskrit word for ' children,' 
aantdna. For, though Raja Santanu is a mythological personage of nuich ancient 
celebrity, being mentioned not only in several of the Puranas, but also in one 
of the hymns of the Rig Veda, he is not much known at the present day, and 
what is told of him at Satoha is a very confused jumble of the original legend. 
The signal and, according to Hindu ideas, absolutely fearful abnegation of self, 
there ascribed to the father, was undergone for his gratification by the dutiful 
son, who thence derived his name of Bhishma, 'the fearful.' For, in extreme 
old age, the Raja was anxious to Aved again, but the parents of the fair girl on 
whom he had fixed his affections would not consent to the union, as the fruit 
of the marriage would be debarred by Bhishma's seniority from the succession 
to the throne. The difficvilty was removed by Bhishma's filial devotion, who 
took an oath to renounce his birthright and never to beget a son to revive the 
claim. Hence every religious Hindu accounts it a duty to make him amends 
for this want of direct descendants by once a year ofifering libations to Bhishma's 



THE GIRI-RAJ AT GOBARDHAN. 1C9 

spirit in the same way as to one of bis own ancestors. The formula to be used 
is as follows : — " I present this water to the childless hero, Bhishma, of the 
race of Vyaghrapada, the chief of the house of Sankriti. I\Iay Bhishma, the 
son of Santanu, the speaker of truth, and subjugator of his passions, obtain by 
this water the oblations due from sons and grandsons." 

The story in the Nirukta Vedanga relates to an earlier period in the king's 
life, if, indeed, it refers to the same personage at all, which has been doubted. 
It is there recorded that, on his father's death, Santanu took possession of 
the throne, though he had an elder brother, by name Devapi, living. This 
violation of the right of primogeniture caused the land to be afflicted with a 
drought of twelve years' continuance, which was only terminated by the recitation 
of a hymn of prayer (Rig Yeda, x., 98) composed by Devapi himself, who had 
voluntarily adopted the life of a religious. The name Satoha is absurdly derived 
by the Brahmans of the place from satlu, ' bran,' which is said to have been the 
royal ascetic's only diet. In all probability it is formed from the word Santanu 
itself, combined with some locative affix, such as sthdna. 

Ten miles further to the west is the famous place of Hindu pilgrimage, Go- 
bardhan, i. e., according to the literal meaning of the Sanskrit compound, ' the 
nurse of cattle.' The town, which is of considerable size, occupies a break in a 
narrow limestone range of hill, which rises abruptly from the alluvial plain, 
and stretches in a south-easterly direction for a distance of some four or five 
miles, with an average elevation of about 100 feet. 

This is the hill which Krishna is fabled to have held aloft on the tip of his 
finger for seven days and nights to cover the people of Braj from the storms pour- 
ed down upon them by Indra when deprived of his wonted sacrifices. In pic- 
torial representations it always appears as an isolated conical peak, Avhich is as 
unlike the reality as possible. It is ordinarily styled by Hindus of the present 
day, the Giri-raj, or royal hill, but in earlier literature is more frequently 
designated the Anna-kiit. There is a firm belief in the neighbourhood that, 
as the waters of the Jamuna are yearly decreasing in body, so too the sacred hill 
is steadily diminishing in height ; for in past times it was visible from Aring, 
a town four or five miles distant, whereas now a few hundred j-ards are 
sufficient to remove it from sight. It may be hoped that the marvellous 
fact reconciles the credulous pilgrim to the insignificant appearance presented 
by the object of his adoration. It is accounted so holy that not a particle 
of the stone is allowed to be taken for any building purpose ; and even 
the road which crosses it at its lowest point, where only a few fragments of 
the rock crop up above the ground, had to be carried over them by a paved 
causeway. 

The ridge attains its greatest elevation towards the south between the vil- 
lages of Jatipura and Anyor. Here, on the summit, was an ancient temple 

z 



170 PERAMBULATION OF THE GIRI-RAJ. 

founded in the year 1520 A.D. by the famous Vallabhachaiya of Gokul, and 
dedicated to Sri-nath. In anticipation of one of Auran^zeb's raids, the image 
of the god was removed to Nathdwara in Udajpur territory, and has remained 
there ever since. The temple on the Giri-raj was thus allowed to fall into ruin, 
and the wide walled enclosure now exhibits only long lines of foundations and 
steep flights of steps, AAath a small, untenanted, and quite modern shrine. The 
plateau, however, commands a very extensive view of the neighbouring coun- 
try, both on the Mathura and the Bharat-pur side, with the fort of Dig and the 
heights of Nand-ganw and Barsana in the distance. At the foot of the hill on 
one side is the little village of Jatipura with several temples, of which one, de- 
dicated to G-okul-nath, though a very mean building in appearance, has con- 
siderable local celebrity. Its head is the Gosain of the temple with the same 
title at Gokul, and it is the annual scene of two religious solemnities both 
celebrated on the day after the Dip-dan at Gobardhan. Tlie first is the ador- 
ation of the sacred hill, called ihe Giri-raj Puja, and the second the Anna-kiit, 
or commemoration of Krishna's sacrifice. The right to take the lead in the 
procession has been vehemently disputed by the priests of the two rival tem- 
ples, Sri-nath and Gokul-nath ; and it is generally found desirable, a little 
before the anniversary, to bind both parties over in heavy sums to keep the 
peace. Immediately opposite Jatipura, and only parted from it by the inter- 
vening range, is the village of Anyor — literally ' the other side ' — with the 
temple of Sri-nath on the summit between them. A little distance beyond 
both is the village of Puchhri, which, as the name denotes, is considered ' the 
extreme limit ' of the Giri-raj. 

Kartik, the month in which most of Krishna's exploits are believed to have 
been performed, is the favourite time for the pari-krama, or perambulation of 
the sacred hill. The dusty circular road which winds round its base has a length 
of seven hos, that is, about twelve miles, and is frequently measured by devotees 
who at every step prostrate themselves at full length. When flat on the ground, 
they mark a line in the sand as far as their hands can reach, then rising they 
prostrate themselves again from the line so marked, and continue in the same 
style till the whole weary circuit has been accomplished. This ceremony, called 
JDandavati -pari-krama, occupies from a week to a fortnight, and is generally 
performed for wealthy sinners vicariously by the Brahman s of the place, who 
receive from Rs. 50 to Rs. 100 for their trouble, and transfer all the merit of 
the act to their employers. The ceremony has been performed with a hundred 
and eight prostrations at each step (that being the number of beads in the 
Vaishnava rosary) ; it then occupied some two years, and was remunerated by 
a donation of Rs. 1,000. 

About the centre of the range stands the town of Gobardhan, on the 
margin of a very largo irregularly sliapod masomy tank, called the Manasi 



THE MANASI GANGA. 171 

Ganga, supposed to have been called into existence by the mere action of the 
divine will (mdnasa). At one end the boundary is formed by the jutting 
crags of the holy hill, on all other sides the water is approached by long 
flights of stone steps. It has frequently been repaired at great cost by the 
Rajas of Bharat-pur ; but is said to have been originally constructed in its 
present form by Raja Man Sinh of Jaypur, whose father built the adjoining 
temple of Harideva. There is also at Banaras a tank constructed by Man 
Sinh, called Man Sarovar, and by it a temple dedicated to Mdnesvar : facts 
which suggest a suspicion that the name ' Mauasi ' is of much less antiquity 
than is popularly believed. Unfortunately, there is neither a natural spring, 
nor any constant artificial supply of water, and for half the year the 
tank is always dry. But ordinarily at the annual illumination, or Dip-dan, 
which occurs soon after the close of the rains, during the festival of the 
Diwali, a fine broad sheet of water reflects the light of the innumerable 
lamps, which are ranged tier above tier, along the ghats and adjacent build- 
ings, by the one hundred thousand pilgrims with whom the town is then 
crowded. 

In the year 1871, as there was no heavy rain towards the end of the 
season, and the festival of the Diwali also fell later than usual, it so happened 
that on the bathing-day, the 12th of November, the tank was entirely dry, 
with the exception of two or three green and muddy little puddles. To obviate 
this mischance, several holes were made and wells sunk in the area of the tank, 
with one large pit, some 30 feet square and as many deep, in whose turbid 
waters many thousand pilgrims had the happiness of immersing themselves. For 
several hours no less than twenty-five persons a minute continued to descend, and 
as many to ascend, the steep and slippery steps ; while the yet more fetid patches 
of mud and water in other parts of the basin were quite as densely crowded. 
At night, the vast amphitheatre, dotted with groups of people and glimmering 
circles of light, presented a no less picturesque appearance than in previous 
years when it was a brimming lake. To the spectator from the garden-side of 
the broad and deep expanse, as the line of demarkation between the steep 
flights of steps and the irregular masses of building which immediately sur- 
mount them ceased to be perceptible, the town presented the perfect semblance 
of a long and lofty mountain range dotted with fire-lit villages ; while the clash 
of cymbals, the beat of drums, the occasional toll of bells from the adjoining- 
temples, with the sudden and long-sustained cry of some enthusiastic band, 
vociferating the praises of mother Ganga, the clapping of hands that began 
scarce heard but was quickly caught up and passed on from tier to tier, and 
prolonged into a wild tumult of applause, — all blended with the ceaseless mur- 
mur of the stirring crowd in a not discordant medley of exciting sound. Accor- 
ding to popular belief, the ill-omened drying up of the water, which had not 



172 TEMPLE OF HARI-DEVA, 

occurred before in the memory of man, was the result of the curse of one Ha- 
bib-ullah Shah, a Muhammadan fakir. He had built himself a hut on the top 
of the Giri-raj, to the annoyance of the priests of the neighbouring temple of 
Dan-Rae, who complained that the holy ground was defiled by the bones and 
other fragments of his unclean diet, and procured an order from the Civil Court 
for his ejectment. Thereupon the fakir disappeared, leaving a curse upon his 
persecutors ; and this has borne fruit in the drying up of the healing waters of 
the Manasi Ganga. 

Close by, is the famous temple of Hari-deva, erected during the tolerant 
reign of Akbar by Raja Bhagawan Dds of Amber on a site long previously oc- 
cupied by a succession of humbler fanes. It consists of a nave 68 feet in length 
and 20 feet broad, leading to a choir 20 feet square, with a sacrarium of about 
the same dimensions beyond. The nave has five arches on either side with 
clerestory windows above, and is about 30 feet high to the cornice, which is 
decorated at intervals with large projecting heads of elephants and sea- 
monsters. There was a double roof, each entirely of stone : the outer one 
a high pitched gable, the inner an arched ceiling, or rather the nearest ap- 
proach to an arch ever seen in Hindu design. The centre was really flat, 
but it was so deeply coved at the sides that, the width of the building being 
inconsiderable, it had all the effect of a vault, and no doubt suggested the 
possibility of the true radiating vault, which we find in the temple of Govind 
Deva built by Bhagawan's son and successor, Man Sinh, at Brinda-ban. The 
construction is extremely massive, and even the exterior is still solemn and 
imposing, though the two towers which originally crowned the choir and 
sacrarium were long ago levelled with the roof of the nave. The material 
employed throughout the superstructure is red sandstone from the Bharat- 
pur quarries, while the foundations are composed of rough blocks of the lime- 
stone found in the neighbourhood. These have been laid bare to the depth 
of several feet; and a large deposit of earth all round the basement would much 
enhance the appearance as well as the stability of the building. Bihari Mall, 
the father of the reputed founder, was the first Rajput who attached himself 
to the court of a Muhammadan emperor. He was chief of the ilajuwat branch 
of the Kachhwaha Thakurs seated at Ambor, and claimed to be eighteenth in 
descent from the founder of the family. The capital was subsequently trans- 
ferred to Jaypur in 1728 A.D.; the present Maharajii being the thirty-fourth 
descendant of the original stock. In the battle of Sariidl, Bhagawan Das had 
the good fortune to save Akbar's hfe, and was subsequently appointed govern- 
or of the Panjab. He died about the year 1590 at Labor. His daughter was 
married to Prince Salim, who eventually became emperor under the title of 
Jahangir ; the fruit of their marriage being the unfortunate prince Khusrn. 
The temple has a yeariy income of some Rs. 2,300, derived from the two vil- 



TE^rrLE OF HARI-DEVA. 173 

lages, Bliagosa and Lodhipuri, the latter estate being a recent grant, in lien of an 
annual money donation of Rs. 500, on the part of the Raja of Bbarat-pur, who 
further makes a fixed monthly offering to the shrine at the rate of one rupee per 
diem. The hereditarj^ Gosains have long devoted the entire income to their own 
private uses, completely neglecting the fabric of the temple and its religious ser- 
vices.* In consequence of such short-sighted greed, the votive offerings at this, one 
ofthe most famous shrines in Upper India, have dwindled down to about Rs. 50 
a year. Not only so, but, early in 1872, the roof of the nave, which had hither- 
to been quite perfect, began to give way. An attempt was made by the writer 
of this memoir to procure an order from the Civil Court authorizing the expen- 
diture, on the repair of the fabric, of the proceeds of the temple estate, which, in 
consequence of the dispute among the shareholders had for some months past been 
paid as a deposit into the district treasury and had accumulated to more than 
Rs. 3,000. There was no unwillingness on the part of the Local Government 
to further the proposal, and an engineer was deputed to examine and report on 
the probable cost. Meanwhile, the whole of tlie roof had fallen in with the 
exception of one compartment; which, however, would have been sufficient to 
serve as a model in the work of restoration. The estimate was made out for 
Rs. 8,767 ; and as there w^as a good balance in hand to begin upon, operations 
mi^ht have been commenced at once and completed without any difficulty in 
the course of tw' o or three years. But no further orders were communicated to 
the district authorities from April, when the estimate was submitted, till the 
following October, and in the interim a baniya from the neighbouring town 
of Aring, by name Chhitar Mai, hoping to immortalize himself at a moderate 
outlay, came to the relief of the temple proprietors and undertook to do all that 
was necessary at his own private cost. He has, accordingly, ruthlessly demolish- 
ed all that yet remained of the original roof, breaking down at the same time not 
a little of the curious cornice, and in its place is simply throwing across, from 
wall to wall, rough and unshapen wooden beams, of which the best that can be 
said is, that they may, for some few years, serve as a protection from the wea- 
ther. But all that was unique and characteristic in the design has ceased to 
exist ; and thus another of the few pages in the fragmentary annals of Indian 
architecture has been blotted out for ever. Like the temple of Gobind Deva at 
Brinda-ban, it has none of the coarse figure sculpture which detract so largely 
from the artistic appearance of most Hindu religious buildings ; and thouo-li 
originally consecrated to idolatrous worship, it was in all points of construc- 
* The estate is divided into tweuty-lour bats, or shares, allotted among seventeen different 
families. It appears that all are agreed as to the distribution, with the exception of one maa by 
name Xarayan, who, in addition to his own original share claims also as sole rejiresentative of a 
shareholder deceased. This claim is not admitted by the others, and the zamindars continue to 
pay the revenue as a deposit into the district treasury, till such time as the muafidars can 
concur in making a joint application for its transfer to themselves. 



174 CHHATTRIS OF THE BHARAT-PUR RAJAS. 

tion equally well adapted for the public ceremonial of the purest faith, plad it 
been preserved as a national monument, it might at some day, in the future 
golden age, have been to Gobardhan what the Pagan Pantheon is now to 
Christian Rome. 

On the opposite side of the Mdnasi Ganga are two stately cenotaphs, or 
chhattris, to the memory of Randhir Sinh and Baladeva Sinh, Rajas of Bharat- 
pur. Both are of similar design, consisting of a lofty and substantial square 
masonry terrace with corner kiosks and lateral alcoves, and in the centre the 
monument itself, still further raised on a richly decorated plinth. The cella, 
enclosed in a colonnade of five open arches on each side, is a square apartment 
surmounted by a dome, and having each wall divided into three bays, of which 
one is left for the doorway, and the remainder are filled in with reticulated 
tracery. The cloister has a small dome at each corner, and the curious curvi- 
linear roof, distinctive of the style, over the central compartments. In the 
larger monument, the visitor's attention is specially directed to the pannels of 
the doors, painted in miniature with scenes from the life of Krishna, and to the 
cornice, a flowered design of some vitreous material executed at Delhi. This 
commemorates Baladeva Sinh, who died in 1825, and was erected by his son 
and successor the late Raja Balavant Sinh, who was placed on the throne after 
the reduction of the fort of Bharat-pur by Lord Combermere in 1826. The 
British army figures conspicuously in the paintings on the ceilings of the 
pavilions. Raja Randhir Sinh, who is commemorated by the companion 
monument, was the elder brother and predecessor of Baladeva, and died in 
the year 1823. 

A mile or so from the town, on the borders of the parish of Radha-kund, is 
a yet more magnificent architectural group erected by Javahir Sinh, in honour 
of his father Suraj Mai, the founder of the family, who met his death at Delhi 
in 1764 (see page 24). The principal chhattri, which is 57 feet square, of 
precisely the same style as the two already described, is flanked on either side 
by one of somewhat less dimensions, commemorating the Raja's two queens, 
Hansiya* and Kishorl. The lofty terrace upon which they stand is 460 feet in 
length, with a long shallow pavilion serving as a screen at each end, and nine 
two-storied kiosks of varied outline to relieve the front. Attached to Rani 
Hansiya' s monument is a smaller one in commemoration of a faithful atten- 
dant. Behind is an extensive garden, and in front, at the foot of the terrace, 
is an artificial lake, called the Kusum-Sarovar, 460 feet square ; the flights of 
stone steps on each side being broken into one central and four smaller side 

• Hans-ganj, on the bank of the Jamuna, iramediatcly opposite Mathura, was founded by 
this Rani. In consequence of a diversion of the road which once passed throng; h it, the village is 
now that most melancholy of all spectacles, a modern ruin ; though it comprises sorao spaoioua 
walled gardeaa, crowded with magaificeat trees. 



GOSAIN niMMAT BAHADUR. 175 

compartments by pannelled and arcaded walls running out 00 feet into the 
water. On the north side, some progress had been made in the erection of 
a chhattri for Javahir Sinh, when the work was interrupted by Munammadan 
inroad and never renewed. On the same side, the ghats of the lake are partly 
in ruins, and it is said were reduced to this condition, a very few years after 
their completion, by the Gosain Hinimat Bahadur, who carried away the ma- 
terials to Brinda-ban, to be used in the construction of a ghat which still com- 
memorates his name there. Such a wanton exercise of power seems a little 
startling, and therefore it will not be out of place to explain a little in detail 
who this warlike Gosain was. A native of Bundel-khand, he became a pupil 
of Mahant Rajendra Giri, who had seceded from the Dasnamis* or followers of 
Sankaracharya, the most fanatical of all Hindu sectaries, and had joined the 
Saiva Naga, which is characterized by equal turbulence unfettered by even an 
assumption of any religious motive. Through his instigations, Ali Bahadur, 
an illegitimate grandson of Baji Rao, the first Peshwa, was induced to take up 
arms against Siudliia and establish himself in Bundel-khand as virtually an 
independent sovereign. In 1802, Ali Bahadur fell at the siege of Kalinjar, leav- 
ing a son, Shamsher Bahadur. At first the heir was supported by Himmat, who, 
however, continued quietly to extend his own influence as far as possible ; and, 
on the combination of the Mahratta chiefs against the British Government, in 
which they were joined by Shamsher, foreseeing in their success an immediate 
diminution of his own authority, he determined to co-operate Avith the British. 
On the 4th of Septembei', 1803, a treaty was concluded between Lord Wellesley 
and ' Anup-giri Himmat Bahadur,' by which nearly all the territory on the west 
bank of the Jamuna from Kalpi to Allahabad was assigned to him. His death, 
however, occurred in the following year, when the lands were resumed and pen- 
sions in lieu thereof granted to his family. 

Other sacred spots in the town of Gobardhan are the temple of Cha- 
kresvar Mahadeva, and four ponds called respectively Go-rochan, Dharm- 
rochan, Pap-mochan and Rin-raochan. But these latter, even in the rains, 
are mere puddles, and all the rest of the year are quite dry; while the 
former, in spite of its sanctity, is as mean a little building as it is possible io 
conceive. 

The break in the hill, traversed by the road from Mathura to Dig, is called 
the Dan Ghat, and is supposed to be the spot where Krishna lay in wait to 
intercept the Gopis and levy a toll (dan) on the milk they were bringing into 
the town. A Brahman still sits at the receipt of custom, and extracts a copper 

* The ten names —whence the title Dasn ami — are tirtha, dsrama, vana, araivja, sarasvati, 
puri, Bhdrati, giri, parvata, and sdgara, one of which is attached to his pcraon-a/Dame by every 
member of the order. 



176 FOUNDATION OF GOBARDHAN. 

coin or two from the passers-b3^ On the ridge overlooking the ghat stands 
the temple of Dan Rae. 

Of late years, the paramouut power has been repeatedly solicited by the 
Bliarat-pur Raja to cede him Gobardlian in exchange for other territory of equal 
vahxe. It contains so many memorials of his ancestors that the request is a 
very natural one for him to make, and it must be admitted that tlie Bharat-pur 
frontier stands greatly in need of rectification. It would, however, be most 
impolitic for the Government to make the desired concession, and thereby lose 
all control over a place so important, both from its position and its associations, 
as Gobardhan. 

The following legend in the Harivansa (cap. 94) must be taken to refer to the 
foundation of the town, though apparently it has never hitherto been noticed in 
that connection. Among the descendants of Ikshvaku, who reigned at Ayodhva, 
was Haryasva, who took to wife Madhumati, the daughter of the giant Madhu. 
Being expelled from the throne by his elder brother, the king fled for refuge 
to the court of his father-in-law, who received him most affectionately, and 
ceded him the whole of his dominions, excepting only the capital Madhuvana, 
which he reserved for his son Lavana. Thereupon, Haryasva built, on the 
sacred Girivara, a new royal residence, and consolidated the kingdom of Anavta, 
to which he subsequently annexed the country of Ariipa, or (as it is otherwise 
and preferably read) Aniipa. The third in descent from Yadu, the son and suc- 
cessor of Haryasva, was Bhima, in whose reign Eama, the then sovereign 
of Ayodhya, commissioned Satrughna to destroy Lavana's fort of Madhu- 
vana, and erect in its stead the town of Mathura. After the departure of its 
founder, Mathura was annexed by Bhima, and continued in the possession of 
his descendants down to Vasudeva. The most important lines in the text 
run thus : — 

Haryasvascha mahateja divye Girivarottame 
Nivesayamasa puram vasartham amaropamah 
Anartam nama tadrashtram surashtram Godhanayutam. 
Achircnaiva kalena samriddham pratyapadyata 
Amipa-vishayam chaiva vela-vana-vibhushitara. 
From the occurrence of the Avords Giri-vara and Godhana, and the declared 
proximity to Mathura, it is clear that the capital of Haryasva must have been 
situate on the Giri-raj of Gobardhan ; and it is probable that the country 
of Anupa was to some extent identical with the more modern Braj. Anupa 
is once mentioned, in an earlier canto of the poem, as having been bestowed 
by king Prithu on the bard Siita. The name Anarta occurs also in canto 
X., where it is stated to have been settled by king Reva, the son of Saryati, 
who made Kusasthali its capital. In the Rtimayana IV., 43, it is described 
as a western region on the sea-coast, or at all events in that direction, and 



r>UP RAM OF BAR SANA. 177 

has therefore been identified with Gujarat. Thus there wouLl seem to have 

been an intimate connection betAveen Gujarat and Mathurii, k^ng anterior to 
Krishna's foundation of Dwaraka. 



Bars ANA. 

Barsana, according to modern Hindu belief the home of Krishna's favourite 
mistress Kadha, is a town which enjoyed a brief period of great prosperity 
about the middle of last century. It is built at the foot and on the slope of a 
ridge, originally dedicated to the god Brahma, AAhich rises abruptly from the 
l)lain, near the Bharat-pur border of the Chhata Bargana, to a height of some 
200 feet at its extreme point, and runs in a south-westerly direction for about 
a quarter of a mile. Its summit is crowned by a series of temples in honour of 
Larli-Ji, a local title of Badha, meaning 'the beloved.' These were all erected 
at intervals within the last two hundred years, and now form a connected mass 
of building with a lofty wall enclosing the court in which they stand. Each of 
the successive shrines was on a somewhat grander scale than its predecessor, 
and was for a time honoured with the presence of the divinity, but even the 
last and largest, in which she is now enthroned, is an edifice of no special pre- 
tension ; though seated, as it is, on the very brow of the rock, and seen in con- 
junction with the earlier buildings, it forms an imposing feature in the land- 
scape to the spectator from the plain below. A long flight of stone steps, bro- 
ken about half way by a temple in honour of Eadha's grandfather, Mahibhan, 
leads down from the summit to the foot of the hill, where are two other small 
temples. One of them is dedicated to Eadha's female companions, called the 
Sakhis, who are eight in number, as follows : Lalita, Visakha, Champaka-lata, 
Ranga-devi, Chitra-lekha, Dulekha, Sudevi, and Chandravali. The other con- 
tains a life-size image of the mythical Brikh-bhan robed in appropriate costume 
and supported on the one side by his daughter Radha, and on the other by 
Sridama, a Pauranik character, here for the nonce represented as her brother. 

The town consists almost entirely of magnificent mansions all in ruins, and 
lofty but crumbling walls now enclosing vast, desolate, dusty areas, which once 
were busy courts and markets or secluded pleasure grounds. All date from 
the time of Riip Earn, a Katara Brahman, who, having acquired great reputa- 
tion as a Pandit in the earlier part of last century, became Purohit to Bharat-pur, 
Sindhia,* and Holkar, and was enriched by those princes with the most lavish 
donations, the whole of which he appears to have expended on the embellish- 

* It appears that Barsana was an occasional residence of Madho Rao Sindhia ; for a treaty 
of hi8 with the Company, regarding trade at Baroch, dated the 30th of September, 1786, was 
signed by him there, as also the supplementary article dated the following January. 

AA 



178 GREAT FAMILIES OF BARSANA, 

ment of Barsaaa and the other sacred places within the limits of Braj, his 
native country. Before his time, Barsana, if inhabited at all, was a mere 
hamlet of the adjoining village Unchu-ganw, which now, under its Gujar 
landlords, is a mean and miserable place, though it boasts the remains of a 
fort and an ancient and well-endowed temple, dedicated to Baladeva. Riip 
Ram was the founder of one of the now superseded temples of Larli-Jf, with 
the stone staircase up the side of the hill. He also constructed the largest 
market-place in the town, with as many, it is said, as sixty-four walled gardens ; 
a princely mansion for his own residence ; several small temples and chapels, and 
other courts and pavilions. One of the latter, a handsome arcaded building of 
carved stone, has for some years past been occupied by the Government as a 
police-station without any award of compensation, though the present represen- 
tative of the family is living on the spot and is an absolute pauper. Three 
cJJiattris, commemorating Rup Ram himself and two of his immediate relatives, 
stand by the side of a large stone tank with broad flights of steps and flanking 
towers, which he restored and brought into its present shape. This is esteemed 
sacred and commonly called Bhanokhar, that is, the tank of Brkhai-bhan, 
Radha's reputed father. In connection with it is a smaller reservoir, named 
after her mother Kirat. On the mai'gin of the Bhanokhar is a pleasure-house 
in three stories, known as the Jal-mahall. It is supported on a series of vaulted 
colormades which open direct on to the water, for the convenience of the ladies 
of the family, who were thus enabled to bathe in perfect seclusion, as the two 
tanks and the palace are all enclosed in one court-yard by a lofty bastioned and 
embattled wall with tower-like gateways.* Besides these works, Riip Ram 
also constructed another large masonry tank for the convenience of a hamlet in 
the neighbourhood, which he settled and called after his own name Rup-nagar ; 
and on the opposite side of the town, in the village of Ghazipur, faced with 
octagonal stone ghats, the sacred lake called Prem Sarovar. Opposite the latter 
is a walled garden with an elegant domed monument, in the form of a Greek 
cross, to his brother Hem-rdj. 

Contemporar}'- with Rup Ram, two other wealthy families resided at Bar- 
sana and were his rivals in magnificence. The head of the one family was 
Mohan Rdm, a Lavaniya Brahman ; and of the other Lalji, a Tantia Thakur. 
It is said that the latter was by birth merely a common labourer, who went off 
to Lakhnau to make his foxiune. There he became first a Harkara, then a 
jamadar, and eventually the leading favourite at court. Towards the close of 
his life he begged permission to return to his native place and there leave some 
permanent memorial of the royal favour. The Nawiib not only granted the 
request, but further presented him with carte bla?iche on the state treasury 

• Both the house and Bhanokluir have been considerably damaged by the new proprietor, 
wlio has removed many of the larger slabs of stouc. 



THE SANKHAEI-KHOR. 179 

for the prosecution of liis desisjns. Besides the stately mansion, now much 
dilapidated, he constructed a large bdoli, still in excellent preservation, and two 
wells, sunk at great expense in sandy tracts where previously all irrigation had 
been impracticable. 

The sacred tank on the outskirts of the town called Priya-kund, or Piri-po- 
khar, was faced with stone by the Lavaniyas, who ai'e further commemorated 
by a large katra, or market-place, the ruins of the vast and elaborate mansion 
where they resided, and by elegant stone chhattris at the foot of the hill. They 
held office under the Haja of Bharat-pur, and their present representative, Ram 
Kaniyan, is now Tahsildar of Kama in that territory. 

Barsana had scarcely been built, when, by the fortune of war, it was des- 
troyed beyond all hope of restoration, as has already been related in Chapter II. 
of this memoir, page 26. As if this blow were not enough, in the year 1812 it 
sustained a further misfortune, when the Gaurua Thakurs, its zamiudars, 
being in circumstances of difficulty, and probably distrustful of the stability 
of British rule, then only recently established, were mad enough to transfer 
their whole estate to the oft-quoted Lala Babil for the paltry sum of Rs. 602 
and the condition of holding land on rather more favourable terms than other 
tenants. The parish now yields Government an annual rental of Rs. 3,109 
and the absentee landlords about as much, while it receives nothing from them 
in return, though their donations for charitable purposes in the neighbour- 
hood of their own home in Bengal are often on a magnificent scale. Thus the 
appearance now presented by Barsana is a most forlorn and melancholy one. 

The hill is still, to a limited extent, known as Brahna-kd-pahdr or Brahma's 
hill : and hence it may be inferred with certainty that Barsana is a corruption 
of the Sanskrit compound Brahma-sdnii, which bears the same meaning. Its 
four prominent peaks are regarded as emblematic of the four-faced divinity 
and are each crowned with some building ; the first with the group of temples 
dedicated to Larli Ji, the other three with smaller edifices, known respectively 
as the Man-Mandir, the Dan-garh and the Mor-Kutti. A second hill, of less 
extent and elevation, completes the amphitheatre in which the town is set, and 
the space between the two ranges gradually contracts to a narrow path which 
barely allows a single traveller on foot to pass between the shelving crags that 
tower above him on either side. This pass is famous as the Sankari-khor,* 
literally ' the narrow opening,' and is the scene of a mela (called the Biirhi 
Lila) on the 13th of the month of Bhadon, often attended by as many as 10 000 
people. The crowds divide according to their sex, and cluster about the rocks 
round two little shrines erected on either side of the ravine for the temporary 

* A similar use of the local form Khor, for Khol, may be observed in the village of Khaira 
where is a pond called Chinta-Khori Kuod, corresponding to the more common Sanskrit compound 
Chinta-harana. 



180 NAND-GANW. 

reception of figures of Rdcllid and Krishna, and indulge to tlieir heart's content 
in all the licentious banter api)ropriate to the occasion. At the other mouth of 
the pass is a deep dell between the two high peaks of the Man-Mandir and the 
Mor-Kutti Avith a masonry tank in the centre of a dense thicket called the 
Gahrwar-ban : and a principal feature in the diversions of the day is the 
scrambling of sweetmeats by the better class of visitors, seated on the terraces 
of the ' Peacock Pavilion ' above, among the multitudes that throng the margin 
of the tank some 150 feet below. 

The essentially Hindi foi-m of the title Larli, equiv^alent to the Sanskrit 
Lalita, may be taken as an indication of the modern growth of the local 
cultus. Even in the Brahma Vaivarta, the last of the Purdnas, and the one 
specially devoted to Hadha's praises, there is no authority for any such appel- 
lation. In the Vraja-l>hakti-vilasa the mantra or formula of incantation which 
the prilgrims are instructed to repeat runs as follows : — 

Lalita-sanyutam krishnam sarvaishu sakhibhir yutam. 

Dhyaye tri-veni-kilpa-stham maha-rasa-kritotsavam. 



Nand-ganw. 

Nand-ganw, as the reputed home of Krishna's foster-father, with its spa- 
t;ious temple of Nand Bae Ji on the brow of the hill overlooking the viHage, is 
in all respects an exact parallel to Barsana. The distance between the two 
places is only five miles, and Avhen the nakdra is beaten at the one, it can be 
heard at i\\e other. The temple of Nand Eae, though large, is in a clumsy 
style of architecture, and apparently dates only from the middle of last century. 
Its founder is said to have been one liiip Sinh, a Sinsinwar Jat. It consists 
of an o])en nave, with choir and sacrarium beyond, the latter being flanked on 
either side by a Rasoi and a Sej-mahall, and has two towers, or sikharas. It 
stands in the centre ot a paved court-yard, surrounded by a lofty wall with 
corner kiosks, which conunaud a very extensive view of the Bliarat-pur hills 
and the level expanse of the Mathura District as far as Gobardhan, The 
village, which clusters at the foot and on the slope of the rock is, for the most 
part, of a mean description, but contains a few handsome houses, more espe- 
cially one erected by the famous Hup Rdm of Barsana. With the exception 
of one temple dedicated to Manasa Devi, all the remainder bear some title of 
the one popular divinity, such as Nar-sinha, Gopinath, Nritya-Gopal, Giri- 
dhari, Nanda-nandan, Radha-Mohan, and Jasoda-nandan. This last is on a 
larger scale than the others, and stands in a court-yard of its own, half way up 
the hill. It is much in the same style and apparently of the same date as the 
temple of Nand-Rae, or probably a little older. An opinion which is confirmed 



INDIAN VICISSITUDES. 181 

by its being meBtioned in the mantra, which runs as follows : — Yasodd — 
nandanam hande nanda-grwna—vanddhipam. A flight of 114 broad steps, con- 
structed of well-wrought stone from the Bharat-pur quarries, leads from the 
level of the plain up to the steep and narrow street which terminates at the 
main entrance of the great temple. This staircase was made at the cost of 
Babu Graur Prasad of Calcutta, in the year 1818 A. D. At the foot of the hill 
is a large unfinished squai'e with a range of stone buildings on one side for the 
accommodation of dealers and pilgrims, constructed by Suraj Mai's Kani, the Rani 
Kishori. At the back is an extensive garden with some fine kJdrui trees, the 
property of the Eaja of Bharat-pur. They are, however, gradually disappearing, 
one by one every year, and no attempt made to replace them. A little beyond 
this is the sacred lake called Pan Sarovar, a magnificent sheet of water with 
noble masonry ghats on all its sides, the work of one of the Eajas of Bardwan. 
It measures 810 feet by 378, and therefore covers all but six acres. It is said to 
be designed in the form of a ship ; but the resemblance is not very apparent 
to an uninformed observer. This is one of the four lakes of highest repute in 
Braj ; the others being the Chandra-sarovar at Parsoli by Gobardhan, the Prera- 
sarovar at Ghazipur near Barsana, and the Man-sarovar at Arua in the Mat 
Pargana. According to popular belief, there are within the limits of Nandgaiiw 
no less than fifty-six smaller lakes or kunds ; though it is admitted that in this 
degenerate age all of them are not readily visible. In every instance the name 
is commemorative of Krishna and his pastoral occupations. Like Barsaua and 
so many other of the holy places, Nandganw is part of the estate of the repre- 
sentatives of the Lala Babu, who, in 1811 A. D., acquired it in free gift from 
the then zamindars. 

If the few squalid buildings which at present disfigure the square at the foot 
of the hill were removed, and replaced by a well, or temple, or other public 
edifice, and the line of shops completed on the other side, an exceedingly pic- 
turesque effect might be secured at a comparatively small cost. But it is 
needless to expect any local improvements from the absentee landlords, while 
the inhabitants are too impoverished to have a thought for anything beyond 
their daily bread. 

The above sketch has entered rather largely into details regarding two com- 
paratively unimportant places. But the intention has been first to rescue from 
oblivion the name of a local worthy, who has been somewhat hardly treated by 
posterity ; and secondly, to illustrate by a view of the fortunes of one small 
town, a curious transitional period in Indian history. After a checquered exist- 
ence of five himdred years, there expired with Aurangzeb all the vital energy 
of the Muhammadan empire. The English power, its fated successor, Avas 
yet unconscious of its destiny and all reluctant to advance any claim to the 
vacant throne. Every petty chieftain, as for example Bharat-pur, scorning the 



182 INDIAN VICISSITUDES. 

narrow limits of his ancestral domains, pressed forward to grasp the glittering 
prize ; and spared no outlay in the attempt to enlist in his service the ablest men 
of any nationality, either like Sumroo to lead his armies in the field, or like 
Riip 'Ram to direct his counsels in the cabinet. Thus men, whatever their 
rank in life, if only endowed by nature with genius or audacity, rose in an 
incredibly short space of time from obscurity to all but regal power. The 
wealth so rapidly secured was as profusely lavished ; nor was there any object 
in hoarding, when the next chance of war would either increase the treasure 
ten-fold, or transfer it bodily to a victorious rival. Thus, a hamlet became in 
one day the centre of a princely court, crowded with magnificent buildings, aiid 
again, ere the architect had well completed his design, sunk with its founders 
into utter ruin and desolation. 



END OF PART I. 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



Page 1. Add at end ofparciffraph : — The simplest and most satisfactory plan 
of all would be to^make — with the Agra District — an exchange of the Jalesar 
for the Farrah Pargana. 

Page 7. — Among the other peculiarities of the Mathuriya Chaubes, it 
should have been noted that they are very celebrated as Avrestlers. 

Page 17, line 2. — I am now informed that there is an old sarde at Hodal — 
■a place out of the district, and also out of the Province, whence my want of more 
definite knowledge concerning it. Thus, De Laet's inaccuracy on this point 
consists only in his omission of the sarae at Kosi, one of the most important of 
the series. 

Page 20. — Some lines of the Suni Sar, it may be curious to notice, are 
almost literally translated from the Vedanta Sara of Sadananda Parivrajaka- 
charya. 

Page 44, hne 21. — Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History, is aiithority for 
the fact that Pantrenus, the teacher of Clemens Alexandrinus, preached in India 
in the second century, and brought back with him to Alexandria a copy of the 
Hebrew Gospel of S. Matthew. S. Chrysostom also speaks of a translation into 
the Indian tongue of a Christian Gospel or Catechism. 

Page 49. Add to second note : — In the Padma Purana, the name of Radha's 
mother is given as Sri Kirrtida. 

Page 74. — It should have been noted that the speculations regarding 
Ptolemy's Kasperia are borrowed from an article of Professor H. H. Wilson's. 

Page 78, line 10. — The sculptures are clearly of different dates, being 
probably successive contributions to a temple which was in existence for some 
hundreds of years ; but the eleventh century after Christ seems much too modern 
a date for any of them. 

Page 78, line 17. — A female figure of very similar character is figured at 
page 36 of Mr. Oldham's Memoir of Ghazipur, among the antiquities found at 
a place which he calls Aonreehar. 

Page 80. Fo7' line 12, i^ead : — If there ever was any building on the Kankali 
tila at aU, it must have been, &c. 

Page 80, line 16. — Dele the loords "The town, no doubt, always stood on 
the water's edge, but" 
• Page 93, hne 20.— For ' Gaur' read Sarasvat. 



( ii ) 

Pack 94. Add after line 24 ;— A little below the Saini Gbat is a small 
mosque and group of tombs commemorating a Muhammadan Saint, Makhdura 
Shah "Wilajat, of Hirdt. The tombs date ai)pareutlj from the sixteenth century, 
and the architecture is in all its details so essentially of Hindu design, that, 
were it not for the word 'Allah,' introduced here and there into the sculptured 
decorations, there would be nothing to distinguish them from Hindu Chhattris. 
Page 96, line 1'^.— After 'barber' insert the word who. 
Page 101, line 32. — Add^ Some of the brass thdlis, or salvers, ai-e embos33d 
with tasteful designs, and are of more finished execution. 

Page 103. Add at line 19. — The foundations of the new Catholic Church, to 
be dedicated to the Sacred Heart, were laid on the 18th of January, 1874, being 
the feast of the Holy Name of Jesus. The works are under the control of the 
writer, who hopes, so far as very limited funds allow, to innovate on estab- 
lished usage by the introduction of several novel architectural features, or rather 
by the novel application to Christian ecclesiology of local materials and local 
forms of design. Hitherto, our Indian church-builders have been content to 
disfigure the land with clumsy reproductions of gothic details worked up on 
eminently un-gothic principles : the effect has yet to be tried of what seems 
a more promising experiment, viz., the combination of gothic principles wdtH 
Indian details. 

Page 115, line 16. — In the Padma Purana, Radha's incarnation is explained 
in somewhat different fashion: that Vishnu, being enamoured of Vrinda, the 
wufe of Jalandhara, the gods, in their desire to cure him of his guilty passion, 
begged of Lakshmi the gift of certain seeds. These, when sown, came up as the 
tidsi, mdlati, and dhdtri plants, which assumed female forms of such beauty that 
Vishnu on seeing them lost all regard for the former object of his affections. 

Page 115, line 18. — ' Exhaustive' is scarcely the correct Avord to use, since 
the full number of Radhd's titles amounts to as many as 108. 

Page 134, line 31 : read his four cousins, Girischaudra, Puranchandra, 
Kdnti-chandra and Sarad-chandra. 

Page 145, line 3 from bottom : for ' Chan ' read Chand. 
Page 145, last line : for ' Subhaum bhavat' i^'ead Subham bhavatu. 
Page 160. Add to line 28. — The Gosain has now converted this annual 
grant into a permanent endowment. 

Page 161. Add at end of section. — A large trade is done at Gokul in the 
manufacture of silver toys and ornaments — figures of peacocks, cows, and other 
animals and devices — which are principaly purchased as souvenirs by pilgrims. 
The designs are very conventional, and the work roughly finished ; but consi- 
derable taste is often displayed, and when better models are supplied, they are 
copied with much readiness and ingenuity. The trade has been largely en- 
couraged by Lord Ralph Kerr and other oflEicers of the 10th Royal Hussars 



( iii ) 

who have been purchasers to the extent of more than Rs. 1,000. The articles 
being of pure silver, are sold for their weight in rupees with the addition of two 
anas in the rupee for the work, unless it is exceptionally well finished, when a 
somewhat higher rate is demanded. 

Page 174. Add to line 24. — In the garden attached to the principal Chhattri 
is a house, the property of the Raja, which is obligingly placed at the dispo- 
sal of European visitors. 

Page 175. Add to line 27. — For many years past one of the most striking 
sights of Gobardhan has been an aged Hindu ascetic, who had bound himself 
by a vow of absolute silence. Whatever the hour of the day, or time of the year, 
or however long the interval that might have elapsed since a previous visit, a 
stranger was sure to find him sitting exactly on the same spot and in the same 
position, as if he had never once stirred; a slight awning suspended over his 
head, and immediately in front of him a miniature shrine containing an em- 
blem of the god. The half century, which was the limit of his vow, has at length 
expired; but his tongue, bound for so many years, has now lost the power of utter- 
ing any articulate sound. In a little dog-kennel at the side sits another devotee, 
with his legs crossed under him, ready to enter into conversation with all comers, 
and looking one of the happiest and most contented of mortals; though the cell 
in which he has immured himself is so confined that he can neither stand up 
nor lie down in it. 



INDEX TO PART I. 



Abd-nl-^fajid, 17. 

Abd-nn-Nabi Khau, 8, 66, 97, 98, 107. 

Acha, 76, 

Adwaitanand, 121. 

Agarwala Baniyas, 8. 

ARhasur, 36. 

Ajrra City, 24, 27. 

Agra Sarkiir, 2, 3. 

Ahalva Bai, 114, 

Ahiviisis, 7, 8, 162, 163. 

Ahmad-nfigar, 52. 

Ahmad Shah Durani, 24, 67. 

Airavata, 38, .56. 

Ajit Sinh of Marwar, 90. 

Ajnokh. 50, 56. 

Akbar, 3, 64, 65, 123—125, 1.^1, 172. 

Akbar-pur, 5, 16, 17. 

Akrur, 41, 57, 114, 141. 

Ahi-ud-din, 4, 148. 

Ali Bahadur, 175. 

Aligarh District, 1, 3, 8, 9. 

Ali^arh Fort, 67. 

Allaliabad. 6. 

Allah Virdi Khan, 106. 

Alphonsua Liguori, S., 93. 

Al-utbi, 63. 

Amanabad estate 1 1. 

Amar Sinh, Rana of Mewar, 14S. 

Ambaii?ha, 95. 

Amber, 90. 

Amherst, Lord, 28. 

Ananda, 62. 

Anarta, 176. 

Angad Sarmma Sastri, 21. 

Angiras. 39, 95. 

Anupa or Arupa, 176. 

Anyor, 55, 169. 

Arhan, 62. 

Ariiig, 3, 13. 14, 55. 

Arishta, 40, 55. 

Arjun, 39, 44, 46, 120. 

Arrian, 75, 111. 

Asaf Khan, 17, 106. 

Asikuuda (Jhat, 96, 

Asoka, 74. 

Asii-khamba, 149. 

Aurangabad, 7, 69. 

Aurangzeb, 22, 43, 65—67, 82, 84, 9 

l'^4, 125. 
Awa, 10, 11. 

Azamabad Sarae, 17, 18, 106. 
Azam-garh, 107. 
Azam Khan, 18, 106, 
Azam, Prince, 18, 22. 
Azam-pur, 106. 



B. 



Bahar, Emperor, 147, 

Bachhals. 8. 

Bachhasur, 35. 

Bachh-ban, 35, 57. 

Badan Sinh, Tii.aknr, 23, I S9. 

Bahadur Sinh, ThaUur, 12. 

Hahula-ban. 5, 55, 59, 60. 

Bajravats, 7. 

Bakasur, 36. 

Bakhtawar, Bairagi, 9, 19 

Bakht;iwar Sinh, Pachaiiri, 12. 

Bakir-pur, 106. 

llaladeva Gosain, 86. 

Baladeva town, 8, 47, 58, 60, 161—164. 

Baladeva Sinh, Raja. 2S, 173. 

Balarama, 33—46, 53, 58, 75, 113. 

Balavant Sinh, Eaja, 28 100, 173, 

Balbhadra-kund, 78, 79, 85. 

Ballabh-gaih, 25. 

Ballabh Sinb, Pachauri, 12. 

Hanaras. 30, 118, 154, 171. 

Bandi-ganw, 58. 

Ban-jatra, 53, 60, 

Bans, the twelve, 54, 59. 

Bar-hadd, 52, 53, GO. 

Earsana, 5, 26, 48— 51, 56, 69, 60, 134, 177—180. 

Basal, 55, 57. 

Batesar, 53, f.O. 

Bathan, 49, 51, 56, 57. 

Biiti, 5, 55. 

Bedar Bakht, 90, 

Bel-ban, 58, 59, 60, 132, 

Bengali Vaishnavas, r9, 121, 

Bernier, 82. 

Bernouilli, 7. 

Bhadra ban, 37, 58 . 60. 

Bhagawan Das, Kaja of Jay-pur, 97, 125, 145, 

172. 
Bhagawant Sinh of ^Tursan, 8, 9, 
Bhagavat Purana, 31, 32. 
Bhaiyaehari tenure, 13. 
Bhalit Mala, 128—130. 
Bhakt Sinh, Thakur, 10, 11. 
Bhandir ban, 87, 45, 58, 59, 60, 115. 
Bhanokhar, 5, 17 8. 
Bhao Sinh, Raja, 125. 
Bharatas, 2. 

Bharat pur, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 21 — 29, 
Bluir Mall, or Bihari Mall, Raja of Jay-pur, 97,. 

172. 
Bharna, 6. 
Bhat-rond, 57, 114. 
Bhau-ganw, 49, 57. 
Bhikha, Brahman, 57. 
Bhima, 44, 46, 54, 65, 176. 



Bhim, Eaja of Rajmahal, 146. 

Bhi'shma, 168, 169. 

Phoja, 32. 

Bhupat Sinh, Pacliauri, 1 2. 

Blmtesvar, temple of, 78, 81, 83, 104. 

Biana, 12, 21. 

Biliar-ban, 57. 

Bijay Sinh, Kajii. 25. 

Bijay Sinh.Thaknr, 10, 11. 

Eir Sinh Deva, Bundela, 66. 

Bir Siuh, Raja Chanhan, 134. 

Biruni, 44. 

Bitthal-nath, Gosain, )55. 

Blochmann, Mr., 18, 97, 101, 

Eoddam, Mr., 13. 

Bodlii-satwa, 62. 

Bopadeva, 32. 

Brahmanda Ghat, 58. 

Brahmdnda Pin-ana, 152. 

Brahma Samaj, 117 

Brahma Sambaudh, 155—158. 

Brahma-Vaivarta FMima, 49, 50, 115. 

Brahm Kuiul, 110— i 16. 

Braj, 30, 44, 46, 47—60. 

Braj Bihis, 5rt, 164. 

Brihat Sanhlta, 2, 22. 

Brikli-bhaii-p'jkhar, 5, 178. 

Brinda-ban, 8, 9, 32, 35, 37, 40, 42, 57— 59,'60, 70; 

113—144, 152. 
Biidha 2, 46. 

Buddhism, 30, 31, 43, 61—64. 
Buddhist antiquities, 72—81. 
Buddhist sites, 104, 105. 
Buddh Sinh, Thakur, 10, 12. 
Bundehi, 144. 
Bundel-khand, 175. 
Burhan Shaikh, 131. 
Burhiya-ka-kherii, 58. 
Burlton, Lieutenant, 68, 69. 
Byomasur, 41. 
Byom Sar, the, 9, 19. 



Calendar for Brinda-ban, 140—143. 

Calendar for Matlmra, 110—112. 

Cantomuents, 103. 

Chacholi, 6. 

Chaitanya, 121, 124. 

Chaksauli, 56. 

Champarauya, 154. 

Chandra-prabhu, 8. 

Chandra Sarovar, 55, 181. 

Chanur, 40, 41, 85, 88. 

Charan Pahar, 56. 

Chatiir-bhuj, Thakur, 10. 

Chaube iirahman.s 6, 7, 70, 84. 

Chaunmha, 16 — 18. 

Chaunisi Varta, 158, 159, 164—167. 

Chhahiri, 35. 

Chhatii, 3, 5, 6, 17, 18, 47, 59, 68—70. 

Chhatikra, 57. 

Chir Ghat, 38, 57. 

Cliinta-baran Ghat, 58. 

Chitor, 149. 

Christ and Krishna compared, 44. 

Churaniani, Jat, 22,23, 

Churches, 103. 



Chiiri, Seths of, 109. 

Clisobora, 151, 152. 

Conibcrmere, Lord, 28, 174. 

Court-house, 70, 72, 103. 

Cunningham, General, 21, 22, 72, 76, 78, 79, 81, 

82. 150— ir,2. 
Customs-hedge, 16. 



Dah-gauw, 51, 57. 

Daksha, 88. 

Hamodar, 35. 

Damodar of Kashmir, 75. 

Damodar Das, 154. 

Dan Ghat, 175. 

Diingoli, 58. 

Dara, Prince, 65, 97. 

Dasuamis, the, 175. 

Uanlat-abad, 32. 

Daulat Rao, Sindhia, 67. 

DaulH Sinh, of Hal, 10, 11. 

Daya Ram, of Ilathras, 8, 9, 19, 20. 

DeLaet, 15, 16. 

De la Hire, 91. 

Delhi, 25—27. 

Delhi road, 15—17. 

Deva-ban, in Saharanpur, 121. 

Devaki, 33, 34, 46. 

Devapi, 169. 

Devi Sinh, Jat, 69. 

Dhadhu, 28. 

Dhakaras. 11. 

Dham Sinha, 6. 

Dhara patau Ghat, 95. 

Dhenuk, 37, 55. 

Dhritarashtra, 31. 

Dhruva, 95. 

Dig, 22, 26—28, 67, 69, 139. 

Digambaras, 8. 

Dighiyas, 7. 

Dig-pal, l{aja of Maha-ban, 148. 

Dilawar Khan, Jamadar, 69. 

Dirgha Vishnu, ^8. 

Dispensary at Mathura, 102. 

Diwali at Gobardhan, 171. 

Doab, 1, 2, 24. 

Dotana, 17. 

Durjan Sal, 28. 

Durjodhau, 31,44. 

Durvasas, 95. 

Dwaraka, 31, 43,81. 177. 

Dwarakadhis, Seth's temple of, 99. 



Elliot's Glossary, 7, U, 62. 

F. 

Fa Ilian, 61, 62, 81, 104, 151. 

Faiz AH Khi'in, Nawab, 12. 

Farrukh-abad, 67. 

Farrukh-nagar, 24. 

Fatili-pur Sikri, 27. 

Fergusson's Architecture, 78, 160. 

Plrishta, 63, 04. 

Fort at Maha-ban, 148, 149. 



INDEX. 



lU 



Fort at Mathura, 90, 91. 
Fraser, Major-General, 67. 



G. 



Gandhara, 75. 

Ganges Canal, 1, 13. 

Ganthauli, 55. 

Garden, Public, 103, 

Gargi-Sargi, 94. 

Gnur Brahmans, 6. 

Gaurua Thakurs, 8. 

Ghantabharan Ghat, 94. 

(ihats, tlie, of Brinda-han, 143. 

Ghats, the 24, of Mathura, 93-97. 

Gluizi-ud-din, 23, 24. 

(Ihulani Hnsain, Deputy Collector, 6H. 

Ghulaiu Kadir, 27, 67. 

Giridhar Lai, Gosain, 99 

Giri-prasad, Pandit, 21, 159. 

Giridhar-pur, 106. 

Girinij, 1G9, 170, 176. 

Giris Chandra Sinh, Babu, 134, 144. 

Gobaidhan, S, 5, 6, 14, 28, 33—38, 40, 44, 55, 59, 

60, '55, 169—177. 
Gobind, 39. 

Gobind Das, Seth, 91, 112, 134. 
Go bind Deva temple, 123—127, 145, 146. 
G.bhid Kund, 116. 
Gcbind Sinh, Haja, 9, 71. 
Gohar-pur 4. 
Gokarn, 94. 
G 'kharauli, 10, 12. 

Gokul, 7, 28, 33—35, 44, 51, 5S— 60, 84, 15.3—161 
Gokulnath, Gusiiin, 155 — 158, 160. 
Goloka, 115 
Gonarda, 31, 75. 
Gopal Bhatt, 122, 141. 
Gopiil-pur, 68. 

Gopinath, temple of, 131, 132. 
Gusains of Brindii-ban, 122. 
Governr.rs of Mathura, 106, 107. 
Greeks at Mathura, 73, 
Gujars, 47, 71. 
Gurganw, 1, 3. 



H. 

Hakim-un-Nissa, Thakurani, 12. 
Hamilton, Mr., 13, 
Hansgunj, 6, 8, 174. 
Hardeva liaklisli, 23. 
Hardinge, Mr. Bradford, 100. 
Hari Das, Swami, 122. 
Harideva, temple of, 172 — 174. 
Harivansa, 32, 44, 54, 
Hari^ansa, Gosain 121. 
Hari Vyasa, Bhatt, S6. 
Harvey, Mr. Robert, 134, 145. 
Haryasva, 46, 176. 
Hasan Ali Khan, 66, 107. 
Hasangarh, H. 
Hataiia, !3, 57. 
Hathras, 1, .3, 8,9, 102. 
Heber, Bishop, 15, 99. 



Hemadri, 32. 

Hcrculeg, 75, 151. 

High School, 102. 

Himmat Bahadur, Gosain, 175. 

Hiranya Kasipu, 85. 

Hira Sinh, Subadar, 70. 

Hira Sinh, Thakur, 10. 

Hodal, 26 

Holi Gate, 100. 

Holkar, 55, 28 

Hushka or Huvishka, 74, 7 7, 105. 

Hwen Thsang, 2, 61 — 63, 71, 79, tO. 



Ikshvaku,46,176. 

Indra, 38, 56 

Indra-prastha, 31. 

Irshad Ali Khan, Kunvar, 10, 12. 

Isa-pur, 6, lOG. 

Isa Tarkhan, Mirza, 106. 

Islamabad, 3, 65, 67, 

Ismail Beg, 27. 

Itawa, 98. 

Itibar Khan, 17. 



J. 



Jacquemont, 99. 

Jadon Thakurs. 8, 10, 11, 30—32, 44. 

Jadunath, Gosain, 155, 159. 

Jiifar Kluin, 107. 

Jahangir, 172. 

Jahangir-pur, 58. 

Jahan Khan, Sardiir, 24. 

Jail, the, 103 

Jait, 16, 49, 134. 

Jakhaiya, 153. 

Jakhin-ganw, 55. 

Jalal-pur Sarae, 16, 17, 76. 

Jalesar, 1, 3, 4, 6 10, 148. 

Jama Masjid, 97, 98. 

Jamuna 47, 48, 113. 

Jamuua Bagh, 100. 

Jambu Swami, 8. 

Janaki Ban ji, 159. 

Jaraaandha, 30, 31, 43, 41, 46, 75. 

Jasavant Sinh, Kaja, 29. 

Jasavant Kao, Holkar, 67. 

Jasavats, 8. 

Jasdda, 34, 36, 42, 44, 94. 

Jatharas, 21, 22. 

Jatharotpati, the, 21. 

Jatipura, 169, 171. 

Jat9,the, 2, 3, 21—29, 47. 

Jau, 56, 134. 

Jawahir Sinh, Raja, 10, 24, 25, 173. 

Jawan Hakht, Mirza, 24. 

Jaya-pida, 75. 

Jay -pur, 9, 12, 23, 25, 27, 84, 90, 125, 127. 

Jay-piir, Maharaja of, 126, 155. 

Jay-Siuhpura, 8, 114. 

Jay Sinh Sawae, 22, 90, 91, 98, 13 i, 138, 143, 1( 

Jiva (JupiterJ, 2. 

JIva, Gosain, 122. 



IT 



INDEX. 



Jonranidra, 34, 94, 149, 
Joti Prasad, contractor, 91. 
Jusbka, 74. 

K. 

Kahir, 117, 11 f. 

Kachhwahas, 8, 25. 

Kiila ncmi, 33. 

Kala-yavaiia, .31, 43. 

Kali-mardan Gliat, 37, 127. 

Kali Sundari, Chaudhanini, 116. 

Kaliya, 3t;, 152. 

Kalyan Siuh, Pachauri, 10, 12. 

Kamai, 56. 

Kam-ban, 56, 59, 60, 85. 

Kiimar, 23, 49. 

Kanauj, 2. 

Kanchi, 81, 119. 

Kandi, 133, 13-1. 

Kfuiishka, 74, 77. 

Kankali tlla, 76—78, 80, 81, 105. 

Kaukarauli, 84, 100. 

Kansa, 30, 32—34, 40—42, 46. 

Kana-ka tila, 42, 79. 

Kans-khar, 92. 

Karalila, 49, 56, 60, 134, 

Karatuat Ali, Maulvi, 70. 

Karan Sinh, liana of Mewar, 146. 

Kama, 31, 4G, 75. 

Kasim Khan, 107. 

Kauravas, the 31, 75. 

Kedara, 115. 

Keene, Mr. H. G., 29. 

Kesari, Kaja, 25. 

Kesava, 40. 

KesaTa Bhatt, 95, 96. 

Kesava Deva, temple of, 66, 62 — 84, 8S. 

Kesi, 40. 

Kcso-pur, 8. 

Khaira, 5, 36, 50, 54, 56. 

Khajurao, 124. 

Khandauli, 3. 

Khelban, 67. 

^'Irat (Kalavati), 58, 178. 

Kistiitit-earb, 28. 

Kishori, Rai'i, -26, 1.19, 174. 

Kokila-ban, 49, 56, ;, 9, 60. 

Kokila, Jat, 66. 

Kol, 3. 

Kosi, 3,4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 16, 17, 26, 47, 68, i 

Kosi, Little, 13. 

Kot-bau, 26, 52, 57. 

Krishna, 30—60, 75, 81, 93, 147, 152. 

Krishna Deva, Eaja, 154. 

Kubja, 41, 86. 

Kulchand, R:ija, 63. 

Kumbbir, 26. 

Kumud-ban, 55, 59, 60. 

Knndal-pnr, 43. 

Kundan Lai S:ih, 112, 137. 

Kunjesat Baladeva, 162. 

Kuiijcs at brinda-ban, 139. 

Kunti or Pritha, 46, 75. 

Kunvar Pal, Riija, 11. 

Kiirauli, 1 1. 

Kusam Sarovar, 5, 25, 173, 174. 

Kusaiitbali 81. 



Kushal, Setli, 109, 114. 
Kuvalaya Pida, 41. 



Lachman Das, Seth, 92. 

Lake, Lord, 9, 28, 67. 

Lakshmau Uas of Marsana, 52, 178. 

Lakhrai Chand, .Seth, 8, 69, 70, 86, 91, 98 119. 

Lakshnii Narayan, Byiis, 137. 

Lakshmi Narayan, Kaj;i, 125. 

Laid Babu, 10,'lj2— 134, J44, U5, 179, 181. 

Lalsot, 27 

Ldrli Ji, temple of, 177. 

Lavann, .<)2, 4t;, 55, 176. 

Lavaniya Tbakurs, 178. 

Lethbridge, Mr., 15, 125. 

Loha-ban, 5S, 60. 

M 

Madan Mohan, temple of, 127 — 130, 

Madhu, 46, 54, 104, 176. 

Madhu-ban, 32, 46, 54, 55, 176. 

Madhvacharya, 1 20. 

Magadha, 30, 31, 43, 44. 

Maha-ban, 1, 3, 4, 8, 13, 34, 35, 47, 58—60, 63, 65, 

81. 105, 147-153. 
Maha-ban festivals, 153. 
Mahabharat, 31, 32. 
Mahallas of Brinda-ban, 14-3, 144. 
Mahallas of Mathura, 107. 
Maha Kam, Jilt, 23. 
Mahavidya Devi, 87, 
Mahavira, 8. 
Mahi-bhan, 177. 

Mahmiid of Ghazni, 63, 64, 147. 
Maholi, 3, 5, 32, 54, 55, 104, 134, 
Mainpuri, 2, 5, 7, 148, 153. 
Maklian, Misr, 9.3. 
Makhaii pur, 153. 
Makramat Khan, 107 
Malakanas, 4. 

Manasi Ganga, 21, 170—172. 
Mangi Lai, Keth, 69. 
Mangotla, 3. 

Mani Ram, Setli, 8. 91, 133. 
Manohar-pur Mosque, 89. 
Man Sarovar, 58, 181. 
Man Sinh I., 90, 125, 131, 145, 171. 
Man Sinh IL, 137, 143. 
ilanvati, 58. 
Marna, 6, 56. 
JMiirland, 52. 
Mat, 3, tf, 13, ."5, 47, 58. 
Mathura Mahalmya, 6, 59, 92 — 96, 
Mathura-nath, temple of, 147. 
Matthew, Saint, 44. 
Merath, 27, 6f. 
Metcalfe, Sir Charles, 28. 
Mir Inidad Ali Klian, 70. 
Misa, 10. 
Mokal, 131. 
Mor-ban, 55. 
Moti Sinh, Thakur, 12. 
Maazzam, Prince, 22. 
Muhammad Anwar, y8. 
Muhammad-pur, 6, 55. 
Muhammad Shah, 89, 91. 



INDEX. 



Muhammarl Sultan, 65. 
Mu:iiin-aba 1, 5, 116. 
Municipality of Brinda-ban, 139. 
Municipality of ^lathura, 102. 
Jfurad, Prince, 65, 6-j. 
Mursan, 1, 3, 8, 9. 
Mushtika, 40, 42 85, 89. 
Mustaf-abad, 2, 153. 

N. 

Nabha Ji, 129. 

Nadiya, 121, 1.33. 

Nahar Sinh, Haja, 55. 

Kaiii-sukh, Siran^i, 8. 

Najaf Khan, 26, 27. 

2\ajib-ud-daula 24. 

Kanda, .33, 35, 36, 39—42, 57, 149. 

Nand gainv, 49, 50, 56, 59, 6;', 134, 

Nanrt gliat, 49, 57. 

Karayan, Hhatt, 59. 

Narayan Swdmi, 87. 

Nari, lO, 57. 

Nar-siuha; 85, 86, 110, 141. 

Iv'ath-dwara, 84, 170. 

Nachu Lai, Tahsildar, 70. 

Naus^ania, l(i5. 

Kaval 8inh, Raja, 25, 26. 

Nek Ram Sinh, 9. 

Kicdiolls, Kev, W. W., 68. 

Nidh-han, 123. 

Nimliarak Sainpradaya, 95, 96, 103. 

Nit-a land, 121, 124. 

Kivasacharya SMami, 136, 137. 

Nixon, ( aptain, 6B. 

Niyaz Khan, 26. 

Noh, 3. 

Noh-jhil, 3, 15P, 151. 

Non-karan, Shaikhawat, 131, 132. 



Ochterlony, Sir David, 28. 
P. 

Padma Purana, 21. 

J ai-ganw, 5i.'. 

Paikpara Estate, 144, 145. 

Paitha, 55 

Pancbajana, 42. 

Pancliala, 53, 74. 

Pandavas, 75, 87. 

Panilu, 3!, 46. 

Panipat, 24, 26. 

?an iSaTovar, 56, 181. 

Parasuraoi Siuh, Pachaiiri, 12, 

Parasar Brahmans, 148. 

Parilch .Ji, 91. 

Parsoli, 5, 55. 

Parsvauath; 8. 

Pataliputra'or Palibothra, 73, 74, 151. 

Patui Mall, Kaja, 87, 88. 

Perron, Monsieur, 67, 

Phatak Ahirs, 148. 

Pilhora, 11. 

PiloU, 6. 



Piparauli. 58. 
Fir-pur, 57. 
Pisayo, 49, 56. 
Pitambar Sinh, Eaja, 11. 
Playfair, Dr., 72. 
Pliny, 151. 
Potara-kund, 33. 85. 
Pontoon bridge, 89. 
I'rabhasa, 42. 
Pragwalas, 6. 
Prahlad, 86. 
Pralamba, 37, 5^ 
Prami da, kinc; of Mathura, 76. 
Pran Kunvar, Thakuruai, 1 2. 
Pran-nathis, the, 118. 
Pratap Sinh, Jat, 23. 
'ratap Sinh, Kaja of Jay-pur 137 
Preni Sagar, 32. 
Prem Sarovar, 56, 59, 178. 
Frit hi Sinh, Raja of Awa, 8, 10, 11. 
Prithi Sinh, Rao of Amber, 146. 
Priya Das, 129. 
Ptolemy, 74, 75. 
Puchhri, 170. 

Purau Chand, Pachauri, 12. 
Puriiravas, 46. 

Purushottam Lai, Gosain, 10, 112, 159, 160. 
Pushkara lake, 25 
Putana, 34, .35, 152, 
Putana-khiir, 152. 



R. 



Radha, 32. 49—59, 115, 120, 177. 

Radha Gopal, temple of, 138. 

Radha Krishan, Seth, 91, 92, 134, 136. 

Radha-kuiid, 40, 55, 59, 60, 133. 

Radha Vallahhis, 119-121, 

Rae-sil, Shaikhawat, 131, 132. 

Raghunath Das, Seth, 91, 112. 

Rahula, 62. 

Railway to Mathura 102. 

Raja Tarangini, 74, 75. 

Hajauli, 10, 

Rajeudra Lai .Mithra, 73, 74. 

Haj Siuh, Ra^a, 84. 

Ral, 10, 11. 

Rama, 32. 

Hamanak, 37. 

Uamanand, 129. 

Ramanuja, 91, 11!', I35. 

Kam Chand, Pachauri 12. 

Ram Tal, 12s. 

Riina Katira, 148, 149. 

Handiiir Sinh, Raja, 9, 28, 139, 173. 

Rangacharya Swami, 10, 91, 112, 134 136, 139 

152. 
Rang Ji, temple of, 91, 119, 134—137. 
Hani Sahib Kunvar, 9. 
Ran jit Sinh, Uaja, 25 — 28, 139. 
Rankata, J C, 
Ras-dharis, 53. 
Kas-maudal, 39. 
Ratu Sinh, Chaudhari, 68. 
Hatn Siuh, Kaja, 25. 
Kaval, 58, 59. 
Raya, 8, 69. 



VI 



INDEX. 



Kazi-ud-din, 66. 
Eevati, 46, 162. 
Eirha, 161, 162. 
Rithora, 56. 
Bobertson, IMr., 14. 
Kohini, 33, 34, 46. 
Kukinini, 43, 46. 
Eupa. Gosain, 122, I25. 
Eup Ram, Katara, 51, 94, 177 



Sa'dabad, 1, 3, 4, 8, 13. 

Sa'dullah Khan, 3. 

Safdar Jang, n azir. 23, 24. 

Saff-Shikan Khan, C6, 1U7. 

Sahilr, 3, 13, '^3, 28. 

Sahora, 66, as. 

Sahpau. 8. 

Saketa, 74. 

Sakhis, the eight, 177. 

Sakya Muni, 61, 62. 

Salim-garh, 6fi. 

Samarpana, form of, 157. 

Sami Ghat, 94. 

Samoizaih, 65, 97. 

Sanadhs, 6 

Saiiatana, Gosain, 122, 125. 

San.-hanli, 57. 

Saniiipani 42. 

Sandila, 128. 

Sankarshana, 33. 

Sankasya, 2. 

Sankliasur, 42. 

banket, 50, .'J6 60. 

Sankhari khor, 56 179. 

Sankh-chur, 40, li5. 

Santanu, 168, 169. 

Sarae.s, Imperial, 16, 18. 

Sara.svati kund, 86. 

SarauuiB, 8. 

Sardar Ali, 4, 148. 

Sariputia, 6', 62. 81. 

Sarvar Sultan, 108. 

Sati Burj, 97. 

Satoha, 12, 55, !04, 168, 169. 

Satru«hna, 32, 64, 55, 176. 

Sessai, 57. 

Shah Alam I., 90. 

Shah Ahun II., 24, 25, 28. 

Shahjahan, 65, 106, 146, 147. 

Shah-pur, 3, 4. 

Shaikhawats, 90, \^\ 

Shanisher, Bahadur, 175. 

bliams-vid-din, 147. 

Shergarh, 3, 5, 54, 67. 

Shtr Shah, 17, 54, 57. 

Shikoh-ftbad, 2 

Shuja, Prince, 106. 

Siddhanta Rahasya, 156. 

Sikandar Lodi, 61. 

Sinsini, 29. 

Sirhind, 98. 

Sirdh.ana, 20. 

Sisupiil, 43, 46. 

Sitala Ghati, 98. 

Siva Tal, 87. 



Siyara, 38, 57. 

Sona, 52, 53, 60. 

Sonai, 8. 

Sonkh, 8. 

Sonsa, 42 

Sridama, 37, 177. 

Srinalli, temple of, 155, 170. 

Sringd'-bat, temple of, 132. 

Sri Siimpradaya, 119. 

Suda.na, 41. 

Sudarsan, .^9. 

Sudliarnia, 8 

Sultan Kuii Khan, 107. 

Suniitra, 55. 

Sumroo, 56. 

Sun! Sar, the, 9, 19. 

Snnrakh, 8, 12S. 

Suraj Mall, 2:j-26, 139, 173, 174. 

Suraj-bhati of Agra, 1C3. 

Surasen, 52. 

Suraseni, 53, 76, 151. 

Sur Das, 128—131. 

Svctambaras, 8. 

Syani Lala, shrine of, 149. 

T. 

Tal-ban, 37. 45, 55. 

Taiitia Thakurs, i78.^ 

Tai a-chand, Kachhwaha, 55. 

Tarsi, 55. 

Tavernier, 16, 80, 82—84, 104. 

Taylor, Mr. E. F., 98. 

Temple of Dwarakadhis, 99. 

iJitto Gobind Deva, 12.J— 127, 146, 146. 

Ditto Gopinath, 131, 132. 

Ditto .Jngal-kishor, 132. 

Ditto Larii Ji (Barsana) 177. 

Ditto Madan M dian, 127 — 130. 

Ditto Mathurd-nath, 1 47, 148. 

Ditto Mand Hae, 180. 

Ditto Radha Gopal, 138. 

Ditto Radha Indra Kishor, 138. 

Ditto Radhi Raman, 137. 

Ditto Hang Ji, 134—37. 

Ditto Sringar-bat, 132. 
Temples in Gokul, 161. 

,, „ Mathui-a City, 08, 109. 
Thomas, Saint, 44. 
Thoruhill. Mr. Mark, 68, 70, 101. 
Thornton's Gazetteer, 22. 
Thun^ 22, 23. 
Tietfeuthaller, Father, 7, 17, 63, 98, 116, 127, 

151. 
Tikiim Sinh, Raja, 9. 
Tikani Sinh, Thakur, 12. 
Tikari Rani's temi^le, 138. 
Tindi.k, 93, 96. 
Tirhiit, 31 
Todar Mall, 129, 
Tod's liajasthan, 21, 91. 
Tush, 36, 55. 
Trinavart, 34,35, 148. 



U. 



Uday Karan, Raja, 131. 



INDEX. 



Udipi, '20. 

Ugrasen, 30—33, 42, 43, 46, 53. 

Ujjaiyin, 42. 

Umar-garh, ,10, 12. 

Uncha-ganw (Chhata), 56, 59, 178. 

IjDcha-ganw (Mathura,) 55. 

Upabans, the, 54, f<9. 

Upagupta, 62, 80, 81. 

Upendra, 39, 

Usha, 46. 

V. 

Vaishaava Reformers, 117. 

Vaishnava Sampradayas, 119 — 121. 

"Vajra, 46. 

Vallabhacharya, 119, 121, 154, 155. 

Vallabhacharya literature, 164 — 167. 

Vallabhacharya doctriues, 153 — 161. 

Varaha Miliira, 2. 

Vararuchi, 5. 

Varuna, 57. 

Vasudeva, 33 — 35, 42, 46, 149. 

Vidarbha, 43^ 46. 



Vijaynagar, 154. 

Vira Bhadra, 88. 

Vishnu Purana, 32, 92. 

Vishnu Swarai Sampradaya, 119, 154. 

Visrant Ghat, 42, 58, 92, 93. 

Vraja Bhakti-Vilasa, 59, 60, 94, 180. 

Vrisha-Bhauu or brikh-bhan, 149, 56, 77. 



Wealthy residents of Mathura, 112. 
Wilson, Professor H. H., 113, 159. 



Yahya, Sufi, of Mash-had, 4, 148,149. 
Yamin-ud-daula, 106. 
Yavanaa, 31. 
Yudhishthir, 46. 



Zabita Khan, 26, 27. 



w: 










^m ^T^ ^ ITTXTT^sm r^^l^ZTT JlT^fr^f^ 



Rj 



M A T H U R A 



DISTRICT lEMOIK. 

5 _^ : J 

& BY ^5 



r. S, GROWSE, M.A., 



BP BENGAL CIVIL SERVICE. 



18 74:. 

PRINTED AT THE NOSTH-WESTERN PROVINCES' GOVERNMENT PRESS. 



aj 'm3JJiX\ f ?T ^1^ n^^'g T^^^lrT 



rr 



^\ 



TO TJIE READER. 



In consequence of the official jDractice of spelling all Indian 
names phonetically, the following village lists acquire an accidental 
value for the philologist, as being probably the only attempt yet 
made to exhibit with accuracy and completeness the local nomen- 
clature of the whok of a definite tract of country. 

In preparing such a catalogue there are three main impedi- 
ments to be surmounted:— /r.vf, the dullness of the English ear in 
distinguishing between dental and cerebral letters, and in detecting 
the presence or otherwise of an aspirate. Hence the difficulty so 
frequently experienced in telling sdt^ 'seven,' from sdth, 'sixty'; 
Jdt from jdt ; and Idt, 'a kick,' from latli., ' a club' : though iu these 
two particulars a native of the country is never at fault. Sccondlj/, 
the dullness of the Indian ear in distinguishing between the 
short vowels, which constantly leads to the substitution in vulgar 
writing of i for a ; and thirdly, the fancy of office clerks for assimi- 
lating Hindi words which they do not understand to Persian words 
of somewhat kindred sound, from which they imagine them to have 
been corrupted. In my first draft the errors arising from these 
causes were numerous, and it is possible that some may yet re- 
main for future elimination. 

A study of the lists suggests two remarks of some little import- 
ance in the history of language. First, so many names that at a 
hasty glance appear utterly unmeaning can be positively traced 
back to original Sanskrit forms as to raise a presumption that the 
remainder — though more effectually disguised — will ultimately be 
found capable of similar treatment : a strong argument being thus 
afforded against those scholars who maintain that the modern Ver- 
nacular is impregnated with a very large non-Aryan element. 
Secondly, the course of phonetic decay in all its stages is so strictly 
in accord with the rules laid down by the Prdkrit Grammarians, 



( ii ) 

as to demonstrate that the Prdkrit of the dramas (to which the 
rules particularly apply), even though extinct at the time when 
the dramas were composed for the delectation of a specially learned 
audience, had once been the popular language of the country, and 
as Anglo-Saxon imperceptibly developed into modern English, so 
has Priikrit been transmuted into modern Hindi — more by the 
gradual loss of its inflections than by the violent operation of any 
external influences. 

Mathura : f 
May 10th, 1874. j F. S. GROWSE. 



CONTENTS OF PART II- 



Page. 

Section I. — Pargana Kosi ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Town of Kosi ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Bathaa ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Dotana ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Kamar ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Shah-pur ... ... ... ... ... .. 10 

Alphabetical List of Kosi Tillages ... ,m ... 12 

Sectiok n.— Pargana Chhaia ... ... ... ... ... 18 

Chaumuha ,.. ... „, „<, ... 21 

Chhata ... ... ... ... .. ... 22 

Sahar ... ... ... ... ... ... 22 

Sher-garh... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Alphabetical List of Chhata villages ... ... ... 24 

Section IIL— Pai-gana Mathura ... ... ... ... ... 37 

AriDg ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Aurangabad ... ... ,,. ... ... 39 

Alphabetical List of Mathura villages ... ... ... 40 

Section IV.— Pargana Mat ... ... ... ... ... 60 

Town of Mat ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Bajana ... ... ... ... ... ... 66 

Noh-jhil ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Surir ... ... ... ... ... ... 62 

Alphabetical List of Mat villages ... ... ... 70 

Section V. — Pargana Maha-ban ... ... ... ... ... 86 

Alphabetical List of Maha-ban villages ... ... ... 8D 

Section VL — Pargana Sa'dabad ... ... ,„ ... ... 105 

Alphabetical List of Sa'dabad villages ... ... ... 108 

Section "VII.— Pargana Jalesar ... ... ... ... ... 121 

Town of Jalesar ... ... ... ... ... 125 

Awa ... ... ... ... ... 127 

L^mar-garh ... ... ... ... „, 128 

Alphabetical List of Jalesar villages ... ... ... 129 

Scpplementart Village Notes — 

Kosi ... ... ... ... ... ... 139 

Chhata ... ... ... ... ... ... 141 

Mathura ... ... ... ... ... ... 144 

MiSCELLANEODS STATISTICS ... ... ... ... ... 148 

Appendix A.— Indian Caste ... ... ... ... ... 163 

Appendix B. — Latest results of Archaeological research ... ... ... 171 

Glossary ,., „. ... ... ,., ... ... 177 



PART II. 



I.— PARGANA KOSI. 

The Pariranfi of Kosi is tlie most northei'n of the three on the ■wcstei'n side 
of the Jaimin;i and bordei-s on the district of Glur^aon. It is tlie smallest of 
the Matlmrd seven, having an area of 152 square miles, or 97,301 acres, and 
yields an annnnl revcime of Rg. 1,52,013. Its villages, only sixty-one in number, 
with six exceptions are all bhaii/dc/fdri, divided into infinitesimal shares among the 
whole of the community ; so that, barring a few shopkeejiers and menial servants, 
every resident is to some extent a ])roprietor. In the ordinary course of events, all 
■would be not only members of the same caste, but also descendants of one man, 
the founder of the settlement ; but in many instances, in spite of the right of i)re- 
emption, several of the subordinate shart^s have been bought up by oiatsiders. A 
fresh assessment is made jn-ivately every year ; and, according to the amount of 
land actually under cultivation, each tenant-proprietor pays his quota, at so much 
per biglia, into the treasury, and enjoys the remaining profits as his private income. 
The (xovernment denumd is realized tlii'ough the head-men or himberdars, of 
whom there are several in each village. As a natural result of this minute sub- 
division of estates, there is not a single landed proprietor in the wliole pargana 
of any social distinctioii. Tlie two wealthiest inhabitants are both traders in 
the town of Kosi,— Chunni Lai, son of Mohan Lai, and Kushali Ram, son of 
Lai Ji IMail, with incomes of Rs. 5,000 and Rs. 4,943, respectively. The former 
has no land at all, the other owns one small village. 

Of the six zamindiiri villages, only two were so previous to the last settlement ; 
viz., P;'ikhar-pur, the property of Kushuli Ram abo\'e mentioned, and Jau, a 
purchase of the Laid Babu. The other four have acquired their exceptional 
character only Avithin the last few years; Garhi having been bought from the 
Jats by Sah Kundan L^l, of Lakhnau ; Majhoi and Ram-pur having been con- 
ferred, after the mutiny, on Raja Grobind Sinh, of Hathras, and Chauki on Shiv 
Bahay Mall, of Delhi, at the same time. One mahal of Chaundras has also quite 
recently been constituted into a zaminddri ; and two or three other villages, now 
in the hands of money-lending mortgagees, will probably become so before long. 
The Muhammadans number only 8,()G8 out of a total population of 74,211), 
and, with the exception of a few scattered families, are almost confined to seven 
places, viz., Barha, Bisambiiara, Dotana, Jalal-pur, Kosi, Mahroli, and Shah-pur, 

A 



2 PARGANA KOSI. 

At three of tbeso, viz.^ Bisambliara, Dotdna and Jalal-pur, they even slightly 
outnumber the Hindus. 

The predominant Hindu castes are Juts, Gauruas^and Jadons, and there are 
also a considerable number of" Gujars, though these latter have now in every 
]>lace ceased to be proprietors. They nmster stronger in the adjoining pargana 
of CIiLata, and were ringleaders of disaffection during the mutiny. In conse- 
quence, eight of their villages — Majhoi and Hani-pur in Kosi ; Basai, Husaini, 
Jatwari, Karahri, Khnrsi, and Ujhani in Chhata — were cimfiscatcd and con- 
ferred on Raja Gobind Sinh. They had previously disposed of their four other 
Chhata villages, Chamar-garbi, Dhimri, Gulal-pur and Pir-pur, to the Lala 
Babu. Tlie course of years has not reconciled the ejected community to their 
changed circumstances, and so recently as the 29th of September, 1872, the 
widowed Rani's agent. Jay Ram Sinh, was, in result of a general conspiracy, 
barbarously murdered at night while sleeping in the Jatwai-i chaupdl. Si.-c of 
the murderers were apprehended, and, after conviction of the crime, were sen- 
tenced to death, but one escaped from the jail before the sentence was executed. 
In the year 1857, the period during which there was no recognition of any 
government whatever extended from the 12th of July to the 5th of December. 
With the exception of the Gitjars, who assembled at Slier-garh and distinctly 
declared themselves indopendent, there was little or no ill-feeling towards the 
British Crown expressed by any class of the poi)ulation ; though many persons 
took advantage of the favourable opportnnity for paying off old scores against 
ill neighbours, and especially for avenging themselves on their natural ene- 
mies — tlie Pafwdris or village accountants and /jo/irrts or money-lenders. Thus 
there was a pitched battle between Hatdna and the adjoining village of Banswa 
in Gurgaon ; the patwaris at Barha and Bisambhara had all their papers des- 
troyed ; at Pakhar-pur, Ganga Dan, bohra, was plundered by the zamindars of 
Kadona and Sirthala ; at Kotban, Dhan-raj, bobra, was only set at liberty on 
payment of a ransom ; and at Little Bathan, Lckhraj, buhra, after seeing all his 
papers seized and burnt, was himself \)\\i to death. The Jats of Kamar, after 
plundering Moti Ram, bohra, proceeded to turn the police out of the place, and 
raised a flame which spr(?ad across the border into the adjoining district ; but 
thoy afterwards atoned for this indiscretion by the assistance which they gave 
to the Deputy Collector, Imdad 'Ali, in suppressing the Gujars** 

The trees mast commonly foimd growing wild in the pargana are the nim and 
the //t/?i, while every \Aqoq of waste ground (and there are several such tracts 
of large extent,) is dotted with clumps of haril. The soil is not suited to the 
growth of tlie mango, and there are scarcely any considerable gro\'es either of 

• Tln> Akiioiid of Suiit, the virtual ruler of all the inflcpendciit tribes from Kibul to reshii\yar 
and fnim Swat to Siiulh, is a Gujar by descent, and maintains the traditions of his race in bis, 
iuvfcttrate antipathy to the British Government. 



PAKOANA KOSI. 3 

that or indeed of any other tree ; the one at Shah-pur beinjT the only notable 
exception. Of the total area of 97,301 acres, there are 71,490 of aral)le land ; 
the crops most extensively gro vn l:>eing jodr, chand, and barley. The vrheat 
sold at the Ko;^i market comes chiefly from across the Jamnna. The number 
of wells has been much increased in late years and is now put at 1,379, of which 
846 are of masonry construction. The Jamuna which forms the eastern 
boundary of the pargana, is crossed by ferries at Shah'j)ur, Khair^l and "Majhci. 
The new Agra Canal will pass through the villages of Hataua, Kharot, Hasan- 
pur Nagara, Kosi, Aziz-pur, Tumaula, and Dham Sinha, a length of ten miles, 
and will be bridged at Kharot, Kosi, Aziz-pur, and Tumaula. The high road to 
Delhi traverses the centre of the pargana, })assing through the town of Kosi and 
the villages of Kotban, Aziz-pur and Dotaua ; and from the town of Kosi there 
is a first-class unmetalled road to Sher-garh, a distance of eleven miles. The 
Ilalkabandi or Primary schools are twelve in number, being one for every five 
villages, an unusually favourable average : ihe attendance, however, is scarcely 
so good as in some other parts of the district; as it is difKcnlt to convince a 
purely agricultural population that tending cattle is not always the most pro- 
fitable occupation in which boys can be employed. 

In additiun to the capital, there are only four places which merit special 
notice, viz., Bathan, Uotana, Kamar and Shah-pur. 

Kosi is a flourishing municipality and busy mai'ket town, twenty-six miles 
from the city of Mathuni, most advantageously situated in the very centre of 
the pargana to which it gives a name and on the high road to Delhi. As this 
road was only constructed as a relief work in the famine of 1860, it avoids all 
the most densely inhabited quarters, and the through traveller sees little from 
it but mud walls and the backs of houses. The Agra Canal, which will probably 
be opened in 1875, runs nearly parallel to it still further back, and a bridc;e 
has already been built at the point where it crosses the road leading to Majhoi 
and Sher-garh. A second bridge is in course of construction at Aziz-pur, a 
mile out of the town on the road to Mathura. 

The zamindars are Jats, Shaikhs, and Brahmans; but the population, which 
amounts to 12,770, consists chiefly of baniyas and Muhammadan ha^d'js (or 
butchers) who are attracted to the place by its large trade in cotton and cattle. 
It is estimated that about 75,000 mans of cotton are collected in the course of 
the year and sent on down to Calcutta.* 

The noklikhdfi, or cattle market, is of large extent and supplied with every 
convenience— a fine masonry well, long ranges of feeding troughs, &c. On every 
beast sold, the zamindars levy a toll of two anas, and the Chaudharis as much; 
in consideration for which payment they are bound to maintain twochankVl.irs 

* The outturn of cotton fur the -n-hole district was estimated iu the year 1872-73 iii i:.;5,C368 
mans, the exportation therefore must te very coneiderable. 



4 PARGANA KOSI. 

for watch and ward, and also to keep tlie place clean and in repair. Prices^ 
of course, vary considerably, but the following may be taken as the average* 
rates : — Well-bullocks from Es. 30 to Rs. 60 each ; cart-bullod^s from 
Es. 50 to 75; a cow from Es. 15 to 50 ; a calf from Es. 10 to 30; a buffala 
from Ep. 25 to 50 ; and a male buffalo calf from Kh. 2 to 10. There are two 
market days every week, on Tuesday and Wednesday; and in 18()8-6U, wiien a 
tax of one and a quarter ana was levied on every beast sold, it yielded as much as 
Es. 2,188-13-0 : the^^amindars' recei])ts rst two anas ahead and the Chaudharis' at 
the same rate amounted to Rs. 3,502 2-0 each. Taking Rs. 25 as an average price 
]ier head, Avhich would be rathei- bcloW than above the mark, the » ni »W r of 
©ft4t*e changing hands in the course of the year Avas 1 00, 4:2bX:T\ie exports of 
grain are put at 200,000 mans; and there are in the town some 100 khnfius, or 
cellars, ordinarily well filled witb reserve stores for the consumption not only 
of the residemts^ hut also of the nttmerous travellers passing up and down the 
great thoroughfare on which the town stands, and who naturnlly take in at 
Kosi several days' sn[)plies, both for themselves and their caftfe. There is 
also a very considerable business done in ountry cloth ; as all the villages in 
the neighbourhotxl are purely agricultural, and supply most of their wants 
from the one central mart. 

As the town lies in a hollo^v, it is liable to be flooded after a few days' con'^ 
tinuance of heavy rain by a torrent which poitrs in upon it from Hodal. This 
was the case in 1873, when nmch damage was done to house projjerty ; and 
the subsequent drying up of the waters — which was a tedious process, there being 
no outlet for their oscajie — was attended with very general and senous siekne>s. 
The only remedy lies in develcping the natural line of drainage, the course of 
Avhich is marked in the acconipanying sketch. Tlie necessity of some such 
operation has forced itself upon the notice of the canal department, and it is 
probable that before v(,'ry long some definite steps will be taken in the matter. 

The income of the municipality is about Rs. 12,000 per aimum ; but this 
sum is a very inadequate test of the actual trade done, since there is no duty 
cither on cotton or on cattle, excepting beasts intended for slaughter. 

The area of the parish is 2,277 acres, on which the government demand used 
to be Es. 6,700 ; but the assessment was proved to be too severe by the distress 
it caused to the zamindars, and it has been reduced to Es. 4,790. 

The principal annual melas arc — 1st, the Dasahara, only started between forty 
and fifty years ago by Lain Sinh, khattri, and Darbari Sildi, baniya ; 2nd, the 
JIuliarrnm ; and 3rdly, the Phul-(K)I, on Chait hadi 2, which is a general gather- 
ing for all the Jt'lts of the Dcnda pal from Dah-ganvv, Kot-ban^ Nabi-pur, Um- 
raura, and Nagara Hasan-pur. 

In the ccntn; of the town stands a large sarae, covering nine and a half bighas 
of land, with high embatthd walls, corner kiosques, and two arched gateways, uU 



THE AGKA CANAL 

MATHURA DISTRICT. 



I 



digM 




n 

G0\/ARD!JAt§4 



J. fv mo LIS, 



PAUGASA KOSt. 5 

bf stone, ascribed to Khwaja I'tihar Kliaii, governor of Delhi, in the rei'rrn of the 
Emperor Akbar. On the inside there are ranges of vanlted aj)artments all round^ 
and the principal bazar lies between the two gateways. The building is being 
i-epaired by the municipality at a cost of lis, 4,000, and if the ground could be 
partially cleared and better laid out, it might form a remunerative property. At 
present it yields an income of between Rs. 300 and 400 a year, even that being 
a considerable increase on what had ever previously been realized. A lar^e 
masonry tank, of nearly equal area with the sarae, dates from the same time, and 
is called the Ratnakar Kund, or more commonly the ' pakka taldo.' Unfortu- 
nately it is always dry except during the rains. The nlunicij^ality were desirous 
of lla^^ng it repaired, but it was found that the cost would amount to Rs. o,500j 
a larger sum than the funds could afford. The enclosing walls are twenty- 
feet high and the exact measurement is (520 by 400 feet. Three other tanks 
bear the names of Maya-kund, Bisiikha-kuud and Gomati-kund ; in allusion to 
places so styled at the holy city of DwarakA, or Kusasthali — a circumstance 
which has given rise to, or at least confirms, the popular belief that Kosi is only 
a contraction of Knsasthali. It is, however, more probable that the name Kosi 
is connected with the adjoining sacred grove of Kot-ban, as Tarsi in the Mathur4 
pargana with Tal-ban. There ai'e a few handsome and substantial private houses 
in the quarter of the town called Baladeva Ganj ; but as a rule the shops and 
other buildings have a very mean a])pcarance ; and though there are a number 
of Hindu temples and four mosques, they, too, are all quite modern and few have 
any architectural pretensions. 

The Sarangis, or Jainis, have also three temples, dedicated respectively to 
Padma-Prabhu, the sixth of the Jlnas or Tirthankaras; Nem-nath (.r Arishtanemi, 
the twenty-second ; and Mahavi'ra, or Varddhamdna, the twenty-fourth and last 
of the series,* who is supposed to have died about the year oOO B. C. A mehi 
or festival is held at the temple of Nem-nath, which is the smallest and most 
modern of the three, on the day after the full moon of Bhadoft, when water is 
brought for the ablution of the idol from a well In a garden at some little 
distance. Any processional display, or beating of drums, or nttering of a 
party cry is so certain to result in a riot that extra police are always told off to 
prevent anything of the kind and to confine every religious demonstration 
strictly within the walls of the temple. The antipathy to the rival faith on the 
part of the Vaishnava Hindus is so strong that it is ordinarilj^ expressed by 
saying that it would be better, on meeting a mad elephant in a narrow street, to 
stand still and be trampled to death than to escape by crossing the threshhold of 
a Jaini temple. 



• Each Tirthabkara has his own distinctive sign : Mahavira, a lion ; Padma-Prahhu, a lotus j 
Nem-nath, a conch ; Chandra-Prabhu, a moun, &c. ; and it is only by these marks that thty can 
be distingulbhtd froni one auotlier as all uic sculpt uted in the same altitude. 



6 PARGANA KOSr. 

As regards tlie essential matters of conservancv, water supply and road 
communioation, the condition of the town is satisfactorj and has been much 
improved by municipal action. Most of the streets are either metalled or paved, 
and lighted by lamps at night ; a neat dispensary has been opened and is M'ell 
attended, though as yet it has no accommodatiun for in-door patients ; and an 
office has been built in which the committee holds its meetings. The ground 
between the dispensary and the municipal offices is being laid out as a garden 
for the supply of fruit and vegetables and as a decorative feature at the entrance 
of the town. A new cotton market is also in course of construction with lines 
of substantial brick-built and stone-fronted shops of uniform design, arranged 
on three sides of a square which has been secm-cd and levelled for the purpose. 
Rs. 6,000 have already been expended, and in order to secure the speedier com- 
pletion of a work which will so much improve both the apjiearance of the town 
and also the finances of the municipality, a loan of Rs. 12,000 has been con- 
tracted, with the sanction of Government, to be repaid in the course of four 
years by half-yearly instalments, beginning from October, 1874. In the pro- 
gress of the works an illustration was afforded of the extraordinary mania with 
which the local baniyas are possessed for hoarding large quantities of grain. 
This they do in the hope that a year of famine will come when they will be able 
to realize a rapid fortune by selling their stores at enormously high rates. Aa 
the grain is simplv thrown into a pit sunk in the ground and no precautions 
taken to preserve it from the damp, in a few years the greater part of it be- 
comes quite unfit for human consumption, and its sale would only increase the 
general distress by spreading disease. This, however, is a consideration which 
has no influence on the mind of a baniya : he has a fixed method of squaring 
accounts with Providence, and holds that the foundation of a sumptuous tenijde, 
at the close of his life, is an ample atonement for all sins of fraud and peculation, 
and the only one which Divine justice is entitled to demand from him. Such 
a pit came to light after the heavy rains of 1873. Five of the shops then in 
course of construction began to settle and give way to such an extent that thej 
had to be takcm down. On digging a few feet below the foundations to ascer- 
tain, if possible, the cause of the accidcmt, a subterranean granary was revealed 
with an invoice stating that it had been filled in Samhat 1898 (1841 A.D.), and 
contained in all 1,303 mans of different kinds of grain. The greater part of 
this was so much damaged that it had to be destroyed, and the sale of the ro- 
maindcr realized only Rs. 324. 

The Tahsili School numbers over 1 00 pupils, of whom about half arc learning 
English ; the attendance will no doubt be largely increased when the school 
is removed from its present crowded and otherwise objectionable quarters in 
the sarae to the more commodious premises now preparing for erection at a cost 
of Rs. GjOOO. The Police, uiaiutaiued by the muuici])ality ou an annual grant 



PARGANA KOSI. 7 

of Rs. 1,800, are" also located in a corner of the sarae, with an entrance made 
through the old Avail directly on to the high road, opposite the parao. The 
latter is the property of private individuals, who levy a toll on every animal or 
vehicle driven into its enclosure,— the rates being fixed by the municipality — 
and ])ay lis. 10 a month for the monopoly. 

On the 31st of May, 1857, the rebels on their march to Delhi stopped at 
Kosi and, after burning down the Customs bungalow and ransacking the police 
station, proceeded to plunder the tahsili, but Rs. 150 was all that they found 
in the treasury tlicrc. The records were scattered to the four winds, but 
were to a great extent subsequently recovered. The Musalmans of Dotana, 
the Jdts of Aziz-pur, and the Gujars of Majhoi and Ram-pur lent a willing hand 
to any deed of mischief; but the townspeople and the inhabitants of the ad- 
joining villages of Hasan-pur Nagara, Umraura, Dah-ganw and Nabi-pur, o-ave 
what assistance they could in maintaining order, and as an acknowledgment 
of their good behaviour one year's jama was remitted and a grant of Rs. 50 
made to each Inmberdar. The position of the town between Agra and Delhi 
and the strength of its fortified sarae haAe rendered it a place of some import- 
ance at other periods of local disturbance. Thus, in 1774, the Jat Raja 
Ranjit Sinh, on his retreat to Rarsana, occupied it for some time ; and again, 
in 1782, after the death of Najaf Khan, his nephew, Mirza Shafi, fled to it as a 
temporary refuge from before his rival Afrazyab Klian. 

Bathan, Great and Little, are two po])ul()us and extensive Jat villao-es 
in the immediate neighbnurliood of the town of Kosi. Accmding to poi)uIar 
belief, the name is derived from the circumstance that Balarama here ' sat down' 
(haithen) to wait for his brother Krishna ; but like so many of the older local 
names, which are now fancifully connected aa ith some my thological incident 
the word is really descriptive simjily of the natural features of the spot ; hatJian 
being still employed in some parts of India to denote a pasture-ground for 
cattle. In the same Avay Brin da-ban, ' the tulsl gi-ove,' is noAv referred ^.o a o-od- 
dess Vrinda ; Loh-ban, ' the lodhri grove' to a demon Loha-jangha ; and even 
Kotl)an, ' the last of the groves,' to a demon Kota, whose head was tossed to Sir- 
thala, and his hands brought to Hataua. On the outskirts of Great Bathan is 
an extensive sheet of water, Avith a masonry ghat built by Rup Ram, the Ka- 
tara of Barsana; Avhich, by its nnme Balbhadra-kund, has either occasioned, or 
at least serves to perpetuate, the belief that Balarama Avas the eponymous 
hero of the place. At a distance of tAvo miles is Kokila-ban, the most 
celebrated in Hindi poetry of all the woods of Braj; so much so, indeed, 
that the Avord is often used as a synonyme for 'the garden of Eden.' It com- 
prises a Avide and densely-Avooded area, the trees becoming thicker and thicker 
toAvards the centre, Avhere a pretty natural lake spreads cool and clear, and re- 
flects iu its deep still Avaters the over-hanging branches of a magnificent banyan 



8 PAROANA KOSI. 

tree. It is oouncctod with a nifisonrv tank of very wcontric confi ouration, also 
the work of Rup Ram ; on the niaroin of wliioh are several shrines and pavilions 
for the accommodation of pilgrims, who assemble here to the number of some 
10,000, Bhddon sudi 10, when the Rds Li'la is celebrated. There is also a Availed 
garden, planted by Ghan-pat R/un, a merchant of Kosi, with a variety of shrubs 
and fruit trees ; but, like most native gardens, it is rapidly becoming a tangled 
and impenetrable jiniglo. 

Between Kokila-ban and the village are two other holy places, called Kabir- 
ban and Padai*-Ganga. The origin of the word Padar is obscure : it is inter- 
preted by hard, ' green,' and therefore may be a corruption of the Sanskrit 
pddapa, ' a tree.'* At the Holanga mehi, Chait hadi 3, there is a con(Hmrse 
of some 15,000 to 16,000 people, and a sham fight takes place between the 
women of Bathan, who are armed with clubs, and the men from the adjoining 
village of Jau, who defend themselves with bundles of jhnu twigs. 

At Little Bathan, a curious ridge of rock, called Charan Pa bar, crops 
up above the ground, the stone being of precisely the same character as at 
Barsdna and Nand-ganw. It was once proposed to utilize some of it for engi- 
neering purposes, but such strenuous objections Avere raised that the design 
was never carried into execution. This, it is said, was one of the places where 
Krishna most delighted to stop and play his flute, and many of the stones still 



mensions, 



bear the impress of his feet. The hill is of very insignificant di 
havino- an average height of only some twenty or thirty feet, and a total 
length of at most a quarter of a mile. It is environed by a small belt of 
jungle, in which may bo found almost every variety of the curious inedible 
fruits for Avhich Braj is noted, viz., the karil, pilii, pasendu, hingot, barna, 
and anjdn-rukh, A little beyond the neighbouring town of Kumar, just across 
the Gurgaon border, is a very similar ridge called the Bichor hill, from a large 
village of that name. 

DoTANA is a Muhammadan A'illnge on the high road between Kosi and 
Chhata Avith a number of old buildings Avhich are sure to attract the traveller's 
attention. There are seven large tombs dating from the time of Shah-jahan 
and Aurangzeb if not earlier (there are no inscriptions) and three mosques of 
the same period, erected respectively by Inayat-uUah Khan, K^zi Haidar Khan, 
and Ruh-ullah Khan. There is also a masoniy tank constructed by Shaikhs 
Hudhan and Jaman, a modern masque founded by Abd-ul Barkat, and four 
small gardens. Many of the large brick houses in the village are in a most ruin- 
ous condition, and the zamindars are noAv in poor circumstances. In the mutiny 
they joined the rebels in plundering the Kosi Tahsili, and part of their estate 
Avas confiscated and bestoAved on KuuAvar Sham Prasad, a Kashmiri, at present 
Tahsildar of Mahd-ban, Avho has transferred it to his sister, Maharani. The 

* It is mentioned by uame iu tUc Vraja-bhakti-vihisa as m^g?;?!^ 



PARGANA KOST. 9 

name Dotana is thought to be derived from Danton, a tooth-brush, and if so, is 
rather suggestive of Buddhist legends. The place is mentioned by Bishop 
Heber in his Journal, who writes : " January 7th, 1825, traversed a wild but 
more woody country to Dotana. Here I saw the first instance of a custom 
which I am told I shall see a good deal of in my southern journey, a number 
of women, about a dozen, who came with pitchers on their heads, dancing and 
singing to meet me. There is, if I recollect right, an account of this sort of 
dance in Kehama. They all professed to be Gopis, or milk-maids, and are in 
fact, as the thdnadar assured me, the wives and daughters of the Grwala caste. 
Their voices and style of singing were by no means unpleasant ; they had all 
the ajipearance of extreme poverty, and I thought a rupee well bestowed upon 
them, for which they were very thankful." There can be no doubt also that 
this is the place to which John de Laet, in 1631, alludes in his India Vera, 
though he calls it Akbar-pur, the name of the next village, " This was formerly 
a considerable town ; now it is only visited by pilgrims who come on account 
of many holy Muhammadans buried here." Annual fairs are still held in 
honor of three of these holy men, who are styled Hasan Shahid, Shah Nizam-ud- 
din, and Pir Shakar-ganj, alias Baba Farid. The shrines, however, are merely 
commemorative and not actual tombs ; for the Hasan, ' the Martyr,' is probably 
All's son, the brother of Husain ; Nizam-ud-din Aulia is buried at Delhi ; and 
the famous Fai'id-ud-din Ganj-i-Shakkar lies at Pak Patau near the Satlaj. 

Kamar, six miles from Kosi on the Gurgaon border, is still a populous Jafc 
town with a considerable trade in cotton ; but in the early part of last century 
was a place of much greater wealth and importance, when a daughter of one 
of the principal families was taken in marriage by Thakur Badan Sinh of Sahar, 
the father of Siiraj Mall, the first of the Bharat-pur Rajas. On the outskirts 
of the town is a large walled gaixlen with some monuments to his mother's 
relations, and in connection with it a spacious masonry tank filled with water 
by aqueducts from the surrounding rakhjd, which is more than a thousand acres 
in extent. At a little greater distance is an artificial lake with unfinished stone 
ghats, the work of the Raja ; this is called Durvasas-kund after the irascible 
saint of that name, but there is no genuinb tradition to connect him with the 
spot ; though it is sometimes said that the town derives its name from a ' blanket' 
(kamal) with which Krishna persuaded him to cover his nakedness. In the 
town are several large brick mansions built by Chaudharis Jasavant Sinh and 
Sita Eam, the Raja's connections, and one of them has a fine gateway in three 
stories, which forms a conspicuous land-mark : but all are now in ruins. At the 
back of the artificial hill on which they stand, and excavated to supply the earth 
for its construction, is a third tank of still greater extent than the other two, 
but of irregular outline, and with only an occasional flight of stone steps here 
and there on its maroin. 



10 PARGAXA KOSI. 

A temple of Suraj Mall's foundation, dedicated to Madan Mohan, is spe- 
cially affected by all the Jats of the Bahia-war pal,* who are accounted its 
chelas and assemble here to tlie number of some 4,000, on Chait hadi 2 and the 
following day, to celebrate the mcla of the Phul-dol, There is a halkabandi 
school, not a very prosperous institution ; and a weekly market. The Chau- 
kfdari Act has been extended to the town ; but it yields a monthly income of 
onlv Rs. GO, which, after pnyment of the establishment, leaves an utterly insig- 
nificaut balaiice for local im|)rovements. The only work of the kind which has 
been cairied out is the metalling of the principal bazar. 

Shah-pur, under the Juts the head of a pargana, is a large but somewhat 
decayed village on the bank of the Jamuna, some ten miles to the north-east of 
Kosi. It is one of the very few places in this part of the country where the 
population is almost equally divided between the two great rehgions of India ; 
there being, according to the census of 1872, as many as 1,205 Muhammadaiis 
to 1,341 Hindus. The total area is 3,577 acres, of which 2,263 are under the 
plough and 1,314 are untillcd. Of the arable land, 612 acres are watered by 
wells, which number in all 63 and are many of masonry construction. The 
Government demand is Hs. 3,907. The village was founded towards the middle 
of the sixteenth century, in the reign either of Shor Shah or Sali'm Shah by an 
officer of the Court known as Mir Ji, of Biluch extraction, who c:dled it Shah- 
pur in honour of his royal master. The tomb of the founder still exists not far 
from the river bank on the road to Chaundras. It is a square building of red 
sandstone, surmounted by a dome and divided on each side into three bays by 
pillars and bracket arches of purely Hindu design. By cutting off the corners 
of the square and inserting at each angle an additional pillar the tomb on the 
inside assumes the form of a dodecagon. On the other side of the village, by 
the I'oad to Bakhai ari, is another tomb in memory of Lashkar Khan, a grand- 
son of the village founder : it is soHdly constructed of brick and mortar, but 
quite plain and of ordinary design. Nearly opposite is the hamlet of Chauki 
with the remains of a fort erected by Nawab Ashraf Khan and Arif Khan, 
upon whom Shah-pur with other villages, yielding an annual revenue of 
Rs. 28,000, were conferred as a' jagir for life by Lord Lake. There is a 
double circuit of mud walls with bastions and two gateways of masonry de- 
fended by outworks, and in the inner court a set of brick buildings now fallen 
into ruin. This was the ordinary residence of the Nawab, and it was during 
his lifetime that Shah-pur enjoyed a brief spell of prosperity as a populous 
and iini)nitant town. It would seem that the fort was not entirely the work of 
Ashraf Klu'm but had been originally constructed some years earlier by Agha 



* r<J' is tlir jiocu'iiir niinie for any suh-divisioii of Jats. In the Kosi Pargana, the principal 
Ja' Pals in a<iaiti(>n to tlif B.ihin-Wiir, who own K;iniar and 11 other villages, arc the Denda, 
Lok lau, and Ghatoui. Similarly, every sub-Jivisiou of Mcwatis ia called a chhat. 



PARGANA KOSI. 11 

Haidar, a local governor under the Maliratta>>, who alsu planted the adjoining 
grove of troops. 

The village has continiTod to the present day in the possession of Mir Ji's 
descendants, to one of whom, Ftizil Muhammad, the great grandfather of Natha 
Khan, now lumberdar, we are indebted for the large bagh, which makes Sliah-pur 
the most agreeable camping place in the whole of the Kosi pargana. It covers 
some sixty or seventy bighas, and, besides containing a number of fine forest 
trees, mango, jd>nan, mahud and lahera, has separate orchards of limes and hev 
trees ; while the borders are fenced with the prickly r,dg-phani, interspersed with 
nims a.\\di babuls, h^Ying their bi'anches overspread with tangled masses of the 
amar-bel with its long clusters of pale and faint-scented blossoms. The yearly- 
contracts for the different kinds of fruit yield close upon Rs. ] ,000. Though a mile 
or more from the ordinary bed of the river, it is occasionally, as for example in 
the year 1871, flooded to the depth of some two or three feet by the rising of the 
stream. The more exten-^ive the inundation, the greater the public benefit; for all 
the fields reached by it produce excellent rabi crops Avithout any necessity for 
artificial irrigation till at all events late in the season. In the village are three 
mosques, but all small ; as the Muhammadan population, though considerable, 
consists to a great extent merely of kasdhs; there is also a temple erected by 
the Mahrattas. The chief local festivals are the Dasahara for Hindus and the 
Muharram for Muliammadans, both of which are largely attended. There is a 
weekly market on Monday and a small manufacture of earthen hdndis. The hal- 
kabandi school maintains a struggling existence and has an average of only 
twenty pupils. 



12 



PARGANA KOSI. 
Alphabetical List of Villages in the Kosi Parr/ana. 



Note. — When column 6 is left blank, it implies that the village community, of the caste 
specified in columa 7, are the proprietors. 



No. 


Name. 


1 


Ainch 


2 


Aziz-pur 


3 


Barchauli 


4 


Barha 


5 


B a r h a n a cum 
Pench-ghar. 


6 


Barka 


7 


Bathan (Great) 
cum D h a n t - 
khera and Koki- 
la-ban. 



Population. 



Bathan (Xittle) 
cum Charan Ta- 
har. 

Bisarabhara ... 

Bukharari 

Chacholi : the ori- 
ginal name for 
riloli. 

Chandauri 



928 

l,OSO 

781 

869 

869 
2,649 



732 
1,550 



Mil sal- 
man 



33 
6 

266 
20 

11 

70 



Total. 



Principal Proprie- iPredominant 
tors. caste. 



1,047 
889 



738 
72 



1,470 
1,622 



Shiv Sahay Mall, 
Khatri of Delhi. 



Jat 
Brahman , 

Ahir 
Jat 

Jadon 
Jat 



Mewati 
Jadon 



Jat 



Acreage. 



1,177 
1,580 

1,728 
1,438 

1,797 
5,266 

1,272 

1,268 
2,329 

J,221 



1, Ainch.—On the Gurgaon border. After the mutiny, part of the village was conferred on 
Khatri Sliiv Sahay Mall. 

3. BarchduH. — The original name is said to have been Banauli. 

4. Barha ■ — The name given on removal of the people here from Tonda Khera. The Phul-dol 
mela is held on Chait badi 3. Biluchis and Shaiklis once owned all the village, but have now 
Bold a considerable part of it to Dhusars, Baniyas, and Jats. A bagh of the Shaikhs and new 
mosque. A struggling halkabandi school. 

5. Barhdna.' — The Ras-lilii mela is held here, Bhadon siidi 8. 

6. Barkd. — Here is a new temple of Gobardhan-nath, built by Ilarsukh, baniya, 

7 and 8. Bathan,— (^^^ page 189). A halkabandi school at each of the two villages. 

9. Bimmhhara. — The Muh.ammadans have a mela here on the 5th and 6th of Rabi-us-sSai 
in honour of two fakirs, Shah Chet and Mir Vilayat Shah. There is a new mosque. 

10. Buhhardri.~ln the village is a substantial house, built about seventy years ago by a 
wealthy baniya named Bhika : there is also a bagh that he planted. His descendants have still a 
share in the village aud iu Mahroli and llup-nagar. Halkabandi school. Temple of Siva Ji. 

11. C/j./mZa/trjis supposed to be a corruption of Chandravali, the name of one of Radha's 
attendant*, but is more piobably for Chanda-puri, after some Chanda, its founder. Here is a 
temple oi Malui-deva. 



PARGAXA KOSI. 13 

Alphahetical List of Villages in the Kosi Ptv^g ina —(continued). 





Name. 


Population 


• 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


12 


Chauki 


167 


25 


192 


Sliiv Sahav Mall, 
Kliatri of Delhi 


Gaurua ... 


933 


13 


Chaundras; 2 ma- 
hals. 


121 


8 


129 


Shaikh Shia.lal, of 
one Qiahal. 


I'tahman... 


570 


14 


Dahi-g:an-w cum 
Kasoli. 


2,107 


45 


2,152 




Jat 


2,952 


15 


Dham Siiiha 


829 


20 


849 




B rahraan ... 


lj252 


16 


Dhanota 


851 


3 


854 


Maya Ram, bohra. 


Jadon ... 


1,748 


17 

18 


Dot ana 

Garhi Barwari ... 


69G 
314 


715 
13 


1,411 
327 


Sah Madhuri Sa- 
rau. 


Shaikh ... 
Jat 


2,400 
1,448 


19 


Gaunhari ,„ 


502 


9 


511 




Ditto 


866 



12. Chauki. — So called from being an old 'out-post' fC/iai^AiJ on the Gurgaon road.. The 
original zamindar.s were Gauruas : on their falling into arrears, their estate was put up to auction 
and bought in by Government. In the mutiny, the inustajir, Hidayat Ali Khan, took part with 
the rebels and was accordingly dispossessed, and the village cimferred on Khatri Shiv Sahay 
Mall, in recognition of his good services. There is a ruined fort, regarding which see page 
192. 

13. Chaundras.^The original Brahman proprietora have sold part of their estate to the 
Shaikhs, who have formed it into a separate zamindari mahal. 

14. Dah gdnw. — The original form of the name is Dadlii-ganw, i. e.. Milk-ham. This is one 
of the stations of the Ban-jatra, the niela being held near the Da Ihi-kund on tha oth of Bhadou 
sudi, when some 2,00J or 3,000 people assemble, ami there is a siiam fight with guns and match- 
locks between Dah-gauw and Hasanpur Nagara and other adjoining villages. There is a 
temple of some antiquity ascribed to Raja ilaa, dedicated to Krishna under his title of Braj- 
bhukhan. A halkabandi school. 

15. Dham Sinha. — Dham is the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit Dharma, and, as it may be 
presumed, Dharma Sinha was the name of the founder. The road immediately below the village 
leading to the town of Kosi traverses the centre of a considerable rahhi/d, in which is a pond 
called Mohari-kund ; a word of doubtful derivation, though it might be taken a"* equivalent 
to chintdharan. With the exception of one group of pasendus and kadambs, and two large 
baniyaiis near the pond, all the trees are pilus and of very great age, with no young ones coming 
on anywhere. This curious fact is probatdy to be explained by the number of cattle that are 
turned out to graze; for in the rains they cat down the young shoots as soon as they appear 
above the ground. The villagers, however, look upon it as one of the many indications that 
they are fallen upon evil times and that the good old days are gone for ever. The lias HI a is 
celebrated here on the 6th of Bhadon sudi. 

16. Dhanota. — The Giijars had a share in the village, which they have sold to the bohra. 
Here is a mango grove planted by Jiya Kam, mortgagee. 

17. Dotdna. See page 190. 

18. Garhi Barwdri. — It is said that the first settlers were Brahmans, who called the place 
Brahmandari, and that it was afterwards refounded by a Jat named Udhma, who called it Udhma 
Garhi, the modern name being a confused combination of tlie two. It has now been bought by 
Sah Kundan Lai, whose son is the present proprietor. 



19. Gaunhdri.—The Phul-dol mela is celebrated here, Chait badi 5. 
planted by Gulab Jat aud Harideya, f ujari. 



There are two bagha 



14 . PAR a AN A KOSI. 

Alphabetical List of Villages in the Kosi Pargnna — (continued). 





Kame. 


I'vpuladon. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


I'l-edoniiuant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musnl- 
inaii. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


20 


Giroi 


2,-i39 


47 


::,2 6 




Jat 


2,'J03 


21 


Goheta, 3 biswas, 
cum Palii Garhi 


147 


... 


147 




Ditto 


394 


22 


Goheta, 7 biswas.. 


578 


18 


592 




Ditto ■ ... 


904 


23 


Gjheta, 10 bis was. 


712 




712 




Ditto 


1 ,302 


24 


Halwai.a 


1,911 


47 


1 958 




Ditto 


2,289 


25 


Hasan-pur Nagara 


1,006 


29 


1,.303 




Ditto 


1,191 


26 


Hatana rum Sara- 
ya and Stssai. 


2,347 


23 


2.a70 




Ditto 


3,450 


27 


Jalal-pur 


148 


165 


313 




Shailch ... 


616 


28 


Jau 


2,0 : 7 


19 


2,036 


PleirsofLalaBabii 


Jdt 


2,377 


29 


Kalona 


1,076 


9 


1 ,085 




Ditto 


1,112 


30 


Kamar 


4,! 59 


161 


4,323 




Ditto 


3,509 


SI 


Khairdl, 3J biswas. 




... 


.. 


Jadon. 


... 


452 


32 


Khairal, 7 5 bis was, 


405 


27 


432 




Jadcn ... 


" 



20. Giroi. — The ziuuindars belong to tne same ])dl as those of the adjoinintr village of Naiid- 
ganw, and both ill concert cclcl)rat.e the Phiil-dol here on L^haljjun sndi 13, near a pond called 
Geiidokhar kund. There ari' two temples of .Jugal-kishor and Alnrli Mauohar, built respective!/ 
hy Naiid Das and Gomati Das. A halkabaudi school. 

24. Halwdtia is more commonly called Pipalwara. A mela in honour of Baladeva is held 
Bliad u sudi 6. There are two small modern temples. A hulliabandi school. 

25. Hasan pur Angara. — The old name was simply Nagara, till one Hasan Ali conferred liis 
own name on the plnce. .Since the mutiny, the I'hul-dol meia has been celebrated liere on (^iiait 
badi 3. The people of Hasan-pur used to keep it at 13athau till they quarrelled with the zamiu- 
dars there. 

26. Hatana. — Here is a grove called Nand-ban. The hamlet of Little Sessai was founded 
by some Gosains from Great Sessai iu Gurgaon ; it is one of the stations iu the Ban-jatra. A 
halkabandi school. 

27. Jaldl-pur, — Founded by a Shaikh Jaliil. Jats and Brahmans have also shares iu the village. 

2S. Jan. — Here is ,Tavak-ban, a station in the Ban-jatra, from which the village derives its 
name, also a pond cnlled Kishori kund. There are two temples, one of Haillia-kant, founded by 
a Seth of Ilaidar-abaJ, the other of Kunj Biluiri, founded by Kup Rain, the Katara, of IJarsaua. 
There are two annual melas ; the Holauga, Chait badi 2, and the Kds-lila, Bhadou sudi 10. 

29. Kddona was founded by the Mowatis. Here are two temples of Brikh-bhan and Mahadeva. 

30. Kdmar.ScQ page 191. 

31. Khairdl (3J biswas) — The older name is Susar-garhi. 

32. Kh<urdl {1\ hiswas).— There are two annual meltis in honour of Barahi Devi, held Chait 
sudi 14 and Kuwiir sudi 14. There is a ba^jh of Neui Siuh, Jadin. The remuiaiug biswas form the 
village of Sher-nagar. 



PARGANA KOST. 15 

Alphahefical Lht of Villages in the Kosi Pargana — ^eontinuerl). 





Name. 


PopnJatiun. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
ca.stc. 




No. 


Ilimlus. 


Musal- 


Total. 


Acreage. 


33 


Kharot 


I,:- 7 4 


77 


1,651 




.lat 


3,t4l 


34 Khiita.ta 


6!8 


24 


6!2 




Ditto 


1,295 


35 Kosi 


8,T9-< 


.3,972 


i 2,770 


Jat, Shaikh and 
Brahman. 


Baniya 


'i,m 


36 : K< t-ban 


1,977 


42 


2,019 




Jat 


2,997 


37 ' L:il-pnr 


1,094 


iO 


I, 24 




Ditto 


1,833 


88 


Lcclri 


... 




... 


Ditto 




319 


39 


Mahanki 


... 


... 


... 


Jat and Brahman. 


... 


298 


40 


Mahroli 


180 


169 


349 


Sah Kundan Lai, 
mortgagee. 


Pathan ... 


8j9 


41 


M.ijhoi 


8S6 


16 


902 


Eani Saliib Kun- 
war. 


Gujar 


2,386 


42 


Mandora 


... 


... 


... 


Jat and Brahman. 




799 


43 


Nab:-pur 


652 


8 


680 




Jdt 


1,070 


44 


Nagariya 


3C5 


... 


385 




Aliivasi ... 


554 



33. Kharot — Tlic Urs mela of a Fakir named Dost 'Ali Shiih is held here on the 1 1th of Rabi- 
us-sani. A tiaarh bears tl*c name of Matlub Shah, Fakir. In the viila^p are four substantial houses, 
now in ruin.';, built by Chinta-mani, a Brahmau in the service of Baja Siiraj Mall. Shaikhs and 
Brahman 8 are part proprietors 

34. Khatdnta. — Brahmar.s and Jngis are also part proprietors. Here is a ba;^h of one Madho 
Siiih. 

35. A'osi.— See page 185. Tahsfli, municipality, police station, imperial pnst-ofEce, tahsili 
sch ol, free scIiojI, customs bung:il)\v, municipal bungalow available as a rest house. 

36. Kot-han^ — This is the northern limit of the Ban-jatra. A pond bears the name of Sital- 
kund. There is II temple of Siti Ua ii, two l!U-;^e brick-houses and a masmry tank constructed by 
Chaudhari Sita UaJi, a connection ot the Bharat-pur Rajas. The bohras have bought up part 
of the village. 

40. Mahroli. — Here is a mosque built by Ilasti and Basti Khai, and on the 4th of Rabi-us-sani 
a mela is held in honour of Mir Muhammad Farrukh. 

41. Majkoi. — One of the confiscated Gujar villages on the Jamuiia. Two large ba?hs record 
the names of Chaina and Serhu, both members of that community. Two melas in honour of Devi 
are held Chait sudi 8 and Kuwar sudi 8. There are alsu two Sati tombs. A police station is 
maintained here, and a district post-otSce. 

42. Mandora. — This village was deserted about 80 years .ago. 

43. Nabi-pur. — This was originally part of Dah-ganw. 

44. I^'agariya. — This villagre was formed by Thiikur Badan Siiih who took two and-a-half 
biewas out of fjham Siuha and two biswas out of Khaira and bestowed them on Purushottam, 
Gautam, and Chura, Ahivasis, of the latter village. 



K) PARGA>TA KOSI. 

Alphahetical List of Villages in (he Kosi Pargana — (continued). 







Population 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 






No. 


Name. 


llindos. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


45 


Pai-ganw 


2,607 


30 


2,637 




Jat 


3,467 


46 


Pakhar-pur ... 


169 


... 


169 


Kusliali Ram, boli- 
ra. 


Ditto 


554 


47 


Plialan cum Garhi 
Kaja,Garlu BJii- 
kha and Supha- 
11 a. 


3,920 


107 


4,027 




Ditto 


5,127 


4b 


Piloli 

Pipal-waia : t li e 
more common 
nameofHalwana. 








Shaikhs of Jalal- 
pur. 




197 


49 


Piithri 


141 


... 


141 


Jat 


Gujar 


4S9 


50 


ham-pur 


261 


... 


261 


Rani Sahib Kun- 
war. 


Ditto 


1,144 


6! 


Rup-nap;ar cum 
Buddha Gavlii. 


47 1 


13 


487 




Jadon 


1,240 


62 


Ruthri 


... 


... 


... 








53 


.-anchauli 


769 


94 


863 




Jat 


1,045 



45. Pai-t/dnw. — On the road from Sher-garh to Kosi. Here is a large tract of woodland known 
as Pai-ban, with a pond called l^ai-ban-kund, where a mela styled the Barasi Naga Ji is iield on 
Kuwar badi 7. The pilgrims, about 1,00 ) in number, are fed by the Mahant of the temple of 
Chatur-bhuj. A balkabandi school and a rest-house on a Rajbaha of the Agra Canal. 

46. ra/;Aar-/3Mr.— Formerly belonged to the State of Bharat-pur. 

47. Phdkin.—A special mcla called the mela Prahlail Ji, is held here at the time of the Iloli, 
on the full moon of Phalgun, when the hherapal, or hereditary Panda, after bathing in the 
Prahlad-kuT\d, jumps into the blazing lloli hon-flrc and always comes out unscorohed. For per- 
forming this ceremony, which is ordinarily witnessed by some 15,000 spectators, he enjoys a 
small piece of land rent-free and has all the oiferiiigs made at tlie shrine The name Phalan is 
supposed to be connected with the word ^jAdr ddlna, ' to tear in pieces, ' in allusion to the legend 
of ar Siiilia and Iliranya-Ivasipu, I'rahlad's isithi.Y (See page 85) There is a weekly market on 
Monday, and a halkabandi school. Tlie three hamlets are named after their respective founders : 
at Suphana, there is a temple of Baladeva, and a bagli planted by a Brahman, Sawai. 

48. Piloli — Tiic real name of this village is Chacholi, but in the last settlement papers' the 
nanv was accidentally mis-spelt, and the mistake has been perpetuated. It was formerly part 
of Jalal-pur. 

49. Pidhri.—TiW about a century ago, this was included in the Rajput Chaurasi of Kama in 
Bharat-pur. It for some time remained uninhabited. The name is derived from tlie sand-hills, 
puth. 

51. Bup-nmar was founded by Riip Siiih, a relative of the Bharat-pur Raja. A bagh bears 
the name of Medda, JaJon. 

63. Sdnchdiili. — Here is a temple of Sanclii Devi at which two annual melas are held, Chait 
sudi 7 and Kuwar sudi7. Mewatis and Biahmanb are also part proprietors. 



PARGANA KOSI. 17 

Alpliabetical List of Villages in the Kosi Pargana — (concluded). 





Name, 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
turs. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
maii. 


Total. 


Acreage, 


54 


Sliah-pur ; 4 ma- 
hals. 


1,341 


1£05 


2,546 




Biluchis ... 


3,577 


55 


Shahzad-pur 


586 


69 


655 




.Tadon ... 


1,071 


66 


Sher-nagar 


686 


75 


761 




Ditto 


2,018 


57 


Sirthala 


683 


25 


708 




Jat 


1,378 


58 


Sujauli 


338 


... 


338 




JarJon ... 


500 


69 


Surwari ; 2 malials 


243 


... 


243 




Jat 


540 


CO 


Tumaala 


1,755 


25 


1,760 


Jat and Brahman. 


Ditto 


2,501 


61 


Umraura 


353 


5 


358 




Ditto 


605 



54. S/idh-pur. — Sec page 192. 

55. Shdhzdd-pur once formed part of Majhoi. 

56. Sher-nagar, originally called Khairal, derives its present name from its founder, Sher 
Khan. Here are four biighs, planted by Maha-ram, Indra and Maharaj, Gopal, and Pita. 

68, Sujduli. — Named after Sujan, a Jat of Khairal. 

69. Surwari. — The two new mahals are]reepectively 18| and I j biswas. 

60. Tumdida. — Hal!<abandi schoal, canal brtd;je. Just above the bridge the canal has been 
carried through a very large tank, which iu tlie e mrse of centuries had been partially filled up. 
Wiien the excavations were in progress, a life-size statue was discovered, much deface! and 
with the head severed from the body. It has no very distinctive attributes, but might be in- 
tended to represent the god Kama, or the Haja who constructed the tank. The antif|uity of 
the work is attested by the enormous size of the bricks used in the foundations. The site of 
the reservoir was so well selected that the Canal Engineers will probably have some difBculty 
iu keeping up their embankments against the large body of water which collects on the spot in 
the rains, 

61. Vmrdura — Separated from Dah-gauw by the zaminddrs of that village and given to one 
Umrao, after whom it is named. 



II.— PARGANA CHHATA. 

The Pargaua of Cliluita, Avliich lies immediately to the south of KosI, has the 
same boundaries as it to the west and east, viz., the State of Bhavat-pur and the 
river Jamiina,and further resembles its northern neighbour in most of its social 
and physical characteristics. Being the very centre of Braj, it includes within 
its limits many of the groves held sacred by the votaries of Krishna ; but, with 
the exception of these bits of wild Avoodland, it is but indifferently stocked with 
timber, and the orchards of fruit trees are small and few in number. The prin- 
cipal crops are joar and ehand; there being 63,000 acres under the former, and 
20,000 grown with chand, out of a total area of 160,433. A large amount of 
cotton is also raised, the ordinaiy out-turn being about 20,000 mans. But the cro]-) 
varies greatly according to the season; and it is calculated that this year (1873) 
it will not exceed 1,500 mans, in consequence of the very lieavj^ and continuous 
rains at the beginning of the monsoon, which prevented the seed from being 
sown till it was too late for the pod to ripen. The coarse limestone which can 
be obtained in any quantity from the hills of Nand-ganw and Barsana, is not 
now used to any extent for building purposes ; but it is the material out of 
which the imperial saraes at Chhata and Kosi were constructed, and is there 
shown to be both durable and architecturally eflFectivo. The western side of the 
pargana is liable to inundation in exceptionally rainy seasons from the over- 
flowing of a large j/t/Z near Kama in Bharat-pur territory; its waters being aug- 
mented in their subsequent course by junction with the natural line of drainage 
extending down from Hodal, as shown in the sketch at page 186. In 1861, 
and again in the present year, the flood passed through Uncha-ganw, Barsana, 
Chaksauli, and Hatliiya, and extended as far even as Grobardhan ; but no great 
damage was caused, and the deposit left on the surface of the land is beneficial 
rather than otherwise. 

The first assessment, made in 1809, was for Rs. 1,02,906, which has been 
gradually increased to E,s. 1,77,876, and will certainly be further enhanced at 
the close of the settlement now pending. For much land, as yet lying waste for 
want of water, will bo brought under cultivation when the Agra Canal has 
been completed. This will have a total length of 11 miles in the pargana, from 
Bhadiival to Little Bharna, with bridges at each of those places and also at 
Eahera and Sahar. 

Till 1838, Sher-garh and Saliar were two separate parganas, subordinate 
to the Aring Tahsili ; but in that year Sahar was constituted the head-quarters of 



PAEGAXA CHHATA. 19 

a Talisildar, and so remained till tlie mutiny, wlien Lis office was transferred to 
Chhata. The latter place has the advantage of being on the high-road, and is 
tolerably equi-distant from east and west, the only points necessary to be con- 
sidered, on account of the extreme narrowness of the pargana from north to south. 
Thus, its close proximity to the town of Kosi — only seven miles off — is rather a 
fanciful than a real objection to the maintenance of Chhata as a local capital. 

The predominant classes in the population are Jats, Jadons, and Gaurua 
Thakurs of the Bachhal sub-division ; while several villages are occupied almost 
exclusively by the exceptional tribe of Ahivasis (see page 7) who are chiefly 
engaged in the salt trade. A large proportion of the land — though not quite to 
so great an extent as in Kosi — is still owned by the original Bhaiyachari com- 
munities ; and hence agrarian outrage on a serious scale is limited to the com- 
jiaratively small area, where unfortunately alienation has taken place, more by 
improvident private sales, or well-deserved confiscation on account of the gravest 
political oifences, than from any defect in the constitution or administration of the 
law. The two largest estates thus acquired during the present century, are enjoyed 
by non-residents, viz., the heirs of the Lala Babu (see page 134), who are natives 
of Calcutta, and the Rani Sahib Kunvar, whose principal residence is at Hathras, 
though she is now living with the young Raja at Briuda-ban. Of resident land- 
lords, the three largest all belong to the Dhiisar caste, and are as follows : — First, 
Kanhaiya Lai, Sukhvasi Lai, Bhajan Lai, and Bihari Lai, sons of Ram Bakhsh 
of Saluir, where they have jn-operty, as also at Bhai'auli and three other villages, 
yielding an annual profit of Rs. 3,536. Second, Munshi Nathu Lai — who for a 
time was in Government service as Tahsildar — with his son, Sardar Sinh, also 
of Sahar, who have an assessable estate of Rs. 3,874, derived from Astoli, Tatar- 
pur, and shares in nine other villages ; Nathu Lai's father, Girdhar Lai, was 
sometime Munsif of Jalesar, and was descended from one Harsukh Rae, who re- 
ceived from Raja Suraj Mall the grant of Tatar-pur with the title of Muushi, 
by which all the members of the family are still distinguished. Third in the 
list is Lala Syam Suudar Das, son of Shiw Sahay Mall, a man of far greater 
wealth— his annual profits being estimated at a lakh of rupees. He is the 
head of a firm which has branch houses at Kanh-pur, Agra, and Amritsar, and 
other places, and owns the whole of the large village of Naxigama and half of 
Taroli. Though he is thus a considerable landed proprietor, his instincts are 
still entirely those of the money-lender ; as he proves to the cost of the unfor- 
tunate community who are now struggling to retain, as his tenants, the fields 
where once they were masters. As a typical illustration of a state of things 
which unfortmiately is becoming far from uncommon, a detailed description of 
the circumstances of his estate is here given. 

The original village was Taroli, and Naugama exists only from the time 
when (probably to protect themselves from some threatened exaction) one half 



20 P AEG AN A CnnATA. 

of the old Buchlial clan agreed to become Miihammadans and moved to an out- 
lying spot where they formed an independent settlement. Like most Malakanas, 
•svlio have been converted in this summary manner, though they have ceased 
to be Hindus, they have never been taught even the rudiments of their new 
faith, and are thus virtually without any moral restraint whatever ; while their 
social isolation has had such a deadening effect upon their mental faculties that in 
intelligence or acquired information they soarcely rank one step above the level of 
the brute creation. Probably the best of landlords would find them a trouble3om3 
and uninteresting set to deal with, however considerate his treatment of them ; 
certainly no improvement can result from the procedure adopted by their 
present lord. To prevent the possibility of any individual acquiring a fixed 
status, leases are never given but for very short periods ; at the outset an 
advance is freely made to the new tenant, at an usurious rate of interest anl 
without any official record of fchs transaction ; accuiialation of arrears of rent 
is encouraged for the three years that the law allows, when immediate action is 
taken for the recovery of the full amount increased by interest; if any piy- 
nient has been made in the interim, though the tenant intended it to be oi 
account of rent, the landlord maintains that it is absorbei in the clearing o!f 
of the advances; no intimation is given to the patwari of the amount of thes? 
advances, nor, as a rule, is any payment made in his presence ; but after th ; 
lapse of some weeks, when the ignorant boor, who probably did not pay in cash, 
but through the intervention of a baniya, has forgottou what the amount wa-', 
the patwari is ordered to write a receipt for such and such a sum, and this 
document is accepted by the stolid clown without a question — ordinarily 
without even hearing it read— and is at once put away and either lost or eaten 
by white ants ; while the counter-part remains as legal evidence against him. 
To increase the confusion, the rent is collected not only wdthout adequate wit- 
nesses or any written memorandum, but also at any odd time and by a variety 
of different persons, who are ignorant of each others' proceedings ; the agenls 
are changed every six months or so, and (as the patwari can only read Hindi,) 
are by preference people who know only the Persian character. The result is, 
that any adjustment of accounts is absolutely impossible ; the patwari, the 
agents, and the tenants, are all equally at fault, and the latter are solely depend- 
ent on the mercy of the landlord, who at a fortnight's notice can eject every 
single man on the estate. Tims, during one month of the current year moi-o 
than a hundred suits were filed against the people of Naugdma for arrears con- 
tracted in 1870. After the lapse of three yoai*s, the defendants — who are so igno- 
rant that they cannot state the amount of their liability for the present season, 
but depend entirely upon the patwari and the baniya — can only urge that the 9" 
know they have paid in full, but (almost necessarily under the circumstances) 
tl;ey hare no oral witnesses to the fact, while the village account-books, which 



PAP.GANA CHHATA. 21 

constitute the documentary evidence, are so imperfect as to form no basis for a 
judgment. At the same time, in the hope of producing the impression that an 
innocent man was being made the victim of a gigantic conspiracy, actions for 
fraud and corruption were instituted against both agent and patwari, and other 
criminal proceedings were taken against the villagers for petty infringements of 
manoi'ial rights. The scaiidal and the probability of some criminal distur- 
bance are so great that it may probably be thought expedient before long to 
Avithdraw the estate from the direct control of the proprietor and apjjoint a 
manager under the Government. 

The two places of most interest in the pargana, Barsana and Nand-ganw 
have already been fully described in Part I. ; there remain Chaumuha, Chhatd, 
Sabar and Sher-garh, which may each claim a few words of special mention. 

Chaumuha, on the high road to Delhi, 12 miles from Mathura station, was 
included in the home pargana till the year 1816. It has the remains of a large 
brick-built sanie, covering upwards of four bighas of land, said to have been con- 
structed in the reign of the Emperor Sher Shah. It now brings in a rental of 
oidy some Rs. 20 a year, being in a very ruinous state. This fact, combined 
Avith tbe perfect preservation of the parallel buildings at Chhata and Kosi, has 
given rise to a local legend that the work Avas bad in the first instance and 
the architect, being convicted of misappropi'iating the funds at his disposal, Avas 
as a punishment built up alive into one of the AA'alls ; the corpse, hoAA-ever, has 
not been discovered. When iMalho Kao Sindhia Avas the paramount poAA'or, 
he IjestoAA-ed the village as an ondoAA'ment for educational purposes on a panlit 
by name Ganga-dhar; to Avhose sons, Tika-dhar and Murli-dhar, it AA'as confirm- 
ed in 1824. The settlement Avas made AA^ith the zamincUirs at Rs. 5,000, noAv 
Es. 4,974, of A\-hich sum three-quarters, viz., Rs. 3,730, go to the GoA-ernment 
College at Agra; the remaining quarter, after some deductions, to Ganga-dhar's 
heirs, by name Ntig-nath, Badri-nath, and Gopi-nath. In the old topographies 
tlie sarae is described as situate at Akbar-pur, a name now restricted to the 
next village, since the di^^coA'cry of an ancient sculpture sujjposed to represent 
the four-faced (chaumuha) god Brahma. It is in reality tbe circular pedestal 
of a Jaini statue or column, with a liou at each corner and a mule female 
figure in each of the f jur intervening spaces ; the upper border being roughly 
carved Avith the Buddhist rail pattern. The inhabitants are chiefly Gaurua 
Tbakurs. A weekly market is held on Tuesday. There is a primary school, 
and a bungalow occupied by an assistant patrol in the customs ; a small new 
mosque inside the sarde, a temple of Bi'u'iri Ji, built by Kiisi Das, Bai'nigi, 
some 200 years ago and kept in repair by his succssor.^, and two ponds known 
as Bih'iri-kund and Chandokhar. As a punishment for mal-practices during the 
mutiny, the village was burnt down and for one year the Government demand 
Avas raised to half as much a^rain. 



ti2 PAEGANA CHHATA. 

Chhata, since tlic mutiny the capital of the pargana, is on the high road to 
Delhi, 19 miles from Mathurii, and lias a camping ground for troops, about 46 
Lighas in extent. The principal feature of the town is its sarae, covering 20 bigahs 
of laud, which has been noticed at page 17. In 1857, it was occu])ied b_y the 
rebel zamindars and one of the towers (now built up square) had to be blown 
down before an entrance could be effected. The town was subsequently set on 
fire and partially destroyed, and twenty-two of the leading men were shot. It 
was originally intended to confiscate tbe zamindars' Avhole estate, but eventu- 
ally the jama was only raised to half as much again for one year. The popu- 
lation are chiefly Jats, the next most numerous class being Jadons. The name 
is derived by the local pandits from the Chhattra-dhdraaa-Ula, which Krishna is 
said to have held there ; but there is no popular legend regarding such an 
event, nor any very ancient sacred place in its vicinity ; though the Yraja-bhakti- 
vilasa(lo53 A.D.) mentions, it is true, a Chhattra-ban and a Suraj-kund, of which 
the latter is still in existence on the Mathura side of the town, and shows soiue 
traces of an old masonry embankment but lias lost all reputation of sancti^y. 
The word Chhata probably refers to the stone chhaitrls which surmount the sarae 
gateways, and form prominent objects in the landscape from a long distance. 
There is a tahsili school, and a weekly market on Fridays. The Hindus have 
nine small temples and the Muhammadans four mosques. 

Sahar, seven miles from Chhata and nine from Gobai'dhan, was, from 1838 
to 1857, the head-quarters of a tahsili. At the beginning of last century it was a 
])lace of considerable importance under the Jats, being the favourite residence 
of Thukur Badan Sinh, the father of Suraj Mall, tbe first of the Bharat-pur 
Etijas. The handsome house which he built for himself is now unoccupied and 
to a great extent in ruins, and the very large masonry tank which adjoins it was 
left unfinished at his death and has never since been completed. The town- 
ship is divided into two thoh^^hc one of Brahmans, the other of Muhammadans, 
and the latter have four small mosques and a dargah. The Government demand 
under the present settlement is (including nuzul) Rs. 5,392, collected by 1(5 
lumberdiirs. Part of the land has been transferred by the old proprietors to 
the two Dhi'isar families that have been seated here for some generations and 
arc really the principal people in the ])lace. In the town are sev^eral old houses 
with carved stone gateways of some architectural pretension; also a tank with 
two masonry ghats called Mahesar-kund, another known as Manik-Das-wdla- 
kund, and a small ruined temple of Baladeva. There is a police station, post 
office, and a very well attended primary school. A weekly market is held on 
Wednesday. The Agra Canal runs close to the town and is bridged at the point 
where it crosses the Gobardhanroad, In the mutiny there was no disturbance 
here except that the lock-un was brok(mopen, u sn,s[)ected rebel let loose, aud the 
patwdri's papers seized and destroyed. 



PARGANA CHHATA. 23 

Sher-garh, eight miles from Chbatii, with which phxce it is connected by a 
metalled road, derives its name from a large fort, now in rnins, Iniilt by the 
Emperor Slier Shah. The Jamuna, which one washed the foot of its walls, is 
now more than a mile distant from it. The original zamindars were Pathans, 
but in 1859, in execution of a decree held by Kishori Lai, bohra, the whole of 
their estate, excepting 1^ biswa, now enjoyed by Asaf Khan, a descendant of the 
old famil}^, was put up to auction and sold for lis. 16,200 to Muhammad Nur 
Khan of Merath, from whom it was purchased for Rs. 20,000 by Seth Gobind 
Das. It now forms part of the endowment of tbe temple of Dwarakadhis in the 
city of Mathura. In the mutiny considerable alarm was caused to the towns- 
people by the Gujars of the neighbouring villages, who made this their centre, 
and whose estates were afterwards confiscated and bestowed on Raja Gobind 
Sinh of Hathi-as. The Hindus have twelve small temples, the Saraugis one dedi- 
cated to Parsvanath, and the Muhammadans three mosques. The weekly market 
is held on Thursday, There is a police station, a district post-office, a primary 
school for boys and two for girls, one of the latter being supported by Asaf 
Khan. The town is siugularly well supplied with roads, for, in addition to the 
one to Chhata, it has three others (unmetalled) leading direct to Kosi, to Jait, 
and, across a bridge of boats, to Noh-jhil. 



24 



PARGANA CHHATA. 
Alphahetical List of Villages 







1 


'op'ilatiun 




rriiicipal Proprie- 
tors. 






Ko, 


Name. 


Hindus. 


:\Iusal- 
u)aii. 


Totiil. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


1 


Adam -pur, 


580 




580 




Brahman .,. 


979 


2 


Agaryula, 


1,367 


62 


1,429 


... 


Gaurua 


2,917 


3 


Ahori, 


66 


... 


CO 


Anaiid Kislior, 
15niiiman. 


Ditto 


502 


4 


Ajhai, (Great)... 


37 


... 


37 




Ditto (Ka- 
chliwaha ) 


340 


5 


Ajhai, (Little.).. 


2,413 


16 


2,429 


... 


Gaurua 


2,424 


6 


Ajlmokhi 


787 


17 


804 


... 


Jaion 


1,304 


7 


Ajinothi 


381 


2 


383 




B r a h m a n 
(Upadhya.) 


791 


8 


Akbar-pur 


2,424 


60 


2,484 


SahMadhuri Sar- 
au. 


Gaurua (Ba- 
chhal ; 


2,607 



1. Adam-pur .-'On the Ciduita and Sher-garh road. lu the mutiny the villagers joined the 
Giijars in phindering the Shcr-garh Bazar, for which they were fined 10 per cent, on the jama. 
Four lumberdars. Jama Us. 1,583. A temjile of Balmukund. 

2. Agarydld.— A large rakhya with some fine kad.nmb trees and two ponds called Bhushani 
and Tali, two baghs, four small sbrines dedicated to Hihari Ji, Jugal Bihari, and two to Sfta 
Kam. Jama Rs. 3,957. Four lumberdars lu the mutiny the villagers had a fight with the 
Giijars. 

3. Alwri — 'I'he Gaurui zaminddrs in 18.19 sold their estate to Gosain Alblieli Lai for 
Rs 7 10, and his heirs, in 1859, resold it for ]{s. 9iO to Anand-kishor, Brahman. In the mutiny this 
vill.age joined in the attack on the Gaurua Bachhals of Semri. Jama Rs 327. 

4. Ajhai (Great). — Conferred by sanad of Daulat Uao Sindhia on Gosain Mathura Pas for 
support of the temple of Sita Kaui, which grant was confirmed to his chela in 1633. The zamin- 
dars live at Little Ajhai. 

5. Ajhai (Little).— On the Delhi road. For wounding a regimental grass-cutter in the mutiny, 
the village was attacked and .set on fire, 28 men beina killed in the affair, and a fine imposed 
of Rs. 5U0. A kadamb and dhak rakhya. Jama Rs. 2,305. Eight lumberdars. Temple of Bihari Ji. 

6. Ajhnokhi derives its name from the anjan sila and pohhar, otherwise called the Kishori 
kund, where the R:is Lilii is celebrated in Bhadon. .Lama Rs. 2,000. Three lumberdars, 

7. Ajinothi. — Temple of Bihari Ji. Jama Rs. 1,000. Five lumberdars. 

8. Ahhirpur. — On the Delhi road. In the mutiny the ziniindars plundered the travellers 
on the high-way and attacked the Jadons uf Seniri, in which affair they lost two men. For this, 
the jama of one year was raised to half as much again. Since the feud with the men of Semri 
the people of Akbar-pur have a nielaof their own every year, (^haitsudi 8, instead of going there, 
as before. Part of the village has been purchased by Sah Madhuri Saran. Jama Rs. 2,700. 
Five lumberdars. Ilalkabandi school. By the roadside is a large and very deep bauli ap- 
proached by a flight of 76 steps, once cased with stone, which has now been almost all stripped off 
and applied by the villagers to other purposes. Immediately adjoining, arc the ruins of a 
luosque and tomb, and a masonry tank 12 bighas in extent. The boundary walls of the latter are 
now for the most part broken down, and of the eight kiosques that crowned the extremities of 
the ghats only one remains. These extensive works are said to have been constructed some 
two centuries ago by a converted Tliakur named Dhakmal. A rajbaha of the Agra Canal passes 
through the village lands, and a rest-house is being built at the poiut where it crosses the high- 
road. 



PARGANA CHHATA. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Population. 


Priucipal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 

caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


9 


Alwai 


541 


11 


652 




Jadon ... 


910 


10 


Astuli 


310 


22 


332 


Nathu Lai, Dhu- 
sar, of Sahar. 


Cbamar 


955 


11 


Badan-ga^h ... 


709 


4 


713 


... 


Jafc 


1,505 


12 


Badavali 


78 


71 


149 


... 


Malakana ... 


448 


13 


Bahja 


882 


112 


994 


Sardar Sinh, Dhu- 
sar, of Sahar. 


Gauraa „. 


1,912 


U 


Rajana 


55 


... 


65 


Bhakt Kunwar ... 


n\ 


364 


15 


Bajhera 


735 


27 


762 


•>• 


Gujar „ 


1,263 


16 


Barahra ... 


399 


... 


399 


Muhr-pal Brahman, 


Gaurua (Ba- 
chhal.) 


1,290 


17 


Baroli 


503 


4 


607 


... 


Ditto 


756 


18 


Barsana 


2,598 


182 


2,780 


Heira of Lala Babu.Gaurua 

1 


2,140 



9. Alwdi. — On Chhata and Gobardhan road. Temple of Eadha-ballabh. Jama Ks. 1,160. 
Two lumberdars. 

10. Astoli.—Oia. Jait and Sher-gai;h road. Bought by present zamindar from the Gujars, 
Jama Ks. I,18S. 

11. Badan-garli. — So called after ThakurBadan Sinh of Sahar. Jama Rs, 2,550. Six lumber- 
dars. 

12, BnddvaU, now in two raahals, of 5 biawas and 15 biswas respectively, was muaS till 
1836. A dbak rakhya 62 bighas in extent. Jama Ks, 470. 

13 Bahta. — On the Janiuna. Tlie village passed first from the Gaurua proprietors through 
a Kayath mortgagee to a Baniya of Sher garh, who has still three biswas, while seven are held by 
Mewatis and ten by Sardar Sinh. There is a bagli of fruit trees. Jama Rs. 2,131. 

14. Bdjana.—ThQ oldzamindars were Gaurua Eachhals. After changing hands several times, 
the estate was sold in 1856 to Fatih Kunwar aud Bhakt Kunwar, daughters of Raja Syam Sinh of 
Bikanir. Jama Rs. 325. 

15. Bajhera. — On Jait and Sahar road. Was given by Al.a-ud-din to a fraternity of Jogis, of 
whose descendants a moiety, in tlie lime of Muliammad Shah, became converted to Muhamniadan- 
isra. Nearly half the estate is now owned by Gujars. There is a dharm-sala, also two small tem- 
ples, and a rakhya of chhonkar trees. 

16. Barahra.— Ta.xt has been recently sold by the Gauruas. There is an old temple of Gopi- 
nath and a chhonkar rakhya. Jama Ks. 905. Two lumberdars, 

17. BaroU. — Two thoks of ten biswas each. Jama Rs. 775. Three lumbc'vlars. In the 
mutiny the villagers joined in the attack on bemri, and were in turn attacked by Chhata and 
Semri combined. 

18. Bar^dna. — See page 177. Jama Rs. 3,109. Halkabandi school, police station, and district 
post-office. 



2(5 



PARC. ANA CHniTA. 
Alphaheticcd List of Villafies—{QO\-\\m\\Q([). 





Name. 




PopiilafioTi 


. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


19 


Basai(Sher-garli,) 


266 


6 


271 


Rani Sahib Kun- 
war. 


Gujar 


1,367 


20 


Basai ("Great) ... 


611 


... 


611 


Madan Gopal, Ktl- 
yath. 


Brahman ... 


695 


21 


Basai (Little) ... 


167 


... 


167 


Muna Lai, mort- 
gagee. 


Gaurna 


725 


22 


Bazid-pur ... 


88 


... 


88 


... 


Brahman (Sa- 
nadh) 


206 


23 


BhacUval 


1,119 


11 


1,1S0 




Ahivasi ... 


1,824 


24 


Bharauli 


4(52 


33 


495 


Sukhvasi Lai, and 
brother, Dhusars. 


Gujar 


1,574 


25 


EharnaCGreat)... 


1,459 


35 


1,494 




Ahivasi ... 


2,179 


26 


Bharna (Little)... 


1,954 


38 


1,992 


... 


Ditto 


2,900 


27 


Bhayokar 


479 


21 


495 


Hira Siiih, Jat ... 


u, ... 


1,130 



19. Basai hi/ Sher-garh. — On the Kosi and Shcr-garh ro.ad, and adjoining the .Tamunii. One 
of the confiscated Giijar villages. A small rakliyaof babul and cbhonkar trees. The name 'Basai,' 
so common in this district, corresponds precisely to the English ' Thorpe.' 

20. Basal (Great).^The original proprietoi-a were Gaurua Bachhals, who now own only eight 
biswas, and Kayaths the other 12. Jama lis. 1,051. 

21. Basai (Li If It).— On the Janmtui. A muiifi village granted by 'Miidho Rao Sindhia .and 
confirmed by order ot 1843 in favour of the Pnjaris of the temple of Atal Biluiri. The Gaurua 
zamindars have sold three biswas to Bralmians and mortgaged other 15 to the nuiafidars. 

22 Bdzid-pur.— -On the Jamuna. .Tama Rg. 199. Two luniberdars, 

23. Bhniluval. — This was a miiafi grant on the part of Daulat Rao Sindhia to Diwan Champa 
Ram, but was resumed by Government in the time of his son 8n rb-Sukh, and the jama fixed at 
Ra. 2,8()9. Dhir Sarwar, the anocstir of the Bajravat clan of Ahivasia, and sole zamindar, gave 16 
bNwas to the Sanadhs, his purohits. Of tlie four biswas that he retained, part has passed out of 
the hands of his descendants. There are eleven lumberdars. A bridge here on the Agra Canal 
and fiist-class rest house. 

24. Bhnrduli. — On the Chhata aixl Sher-garh road. The original Gujar proprietors sold or 
mortgigcd almost all their estate to Ram Bakhsh, Dhusar, whose sons are the present proprietors. 
Jama lis. ),698. Two lumberdars. Shrine of Gopal Ji. A small rakhy.a of pasendu trees. 

25. Bhnrnrt( Great). — More commonly called 3farna in supposed allusion to a demon 'slain'by 
Krishna. Jama Rs. 3,056. Fourteen lumberdars. In the mutiny the people, being members of tlio 
J a Ion guhur, or eonfeder.acy, joined the Jadons in their fight with tlie Gauruas. Three temples 
and two tanks called NaUha and Murari. 

20. Bharna ( Little.) — Or., as best known by the people, Mama Lohra. On the Agra Canal 
with abridge. Jama Hs. 4,800. Twelve luniberdars. The mel.-i of the Phul-dol is held here Chait 
bndi 2. near h pond called the 8uraj-kund, whure is an old temple of Suraj Narayan, refounded by 
Rup Ham, 1 he Kaliira. Tliis kund has two masonry ghats ; there is another called Karahla. Hal- 
kubandi schoul. 

27. Bkaroliar, in the muliny joined the Kamar guhar in an attack on Nand-g;inw. Jama 
Rs, 1,736. live lumberdurs. 



tAEGANA CHHATA 
Alphabetical List of Vilkiges — (Gontinued). 



27 





Name. 


/ 


'op Illation 




Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predomiuaut 
casto. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
luan. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


28 


Bhartjya 


364 


9 


873 


Lachhman Siuh, 
Kachhwaha. 


Gaurua (Ba- 
chhal ) 


535 


29 


Bhau-gaaw 


5S3 


12 


575 


Sail Madhuri Saran. 


Ditto 


869 


30 


BJ'iwari 


728 




728 




Ahivasi ... 


632 


31 


Biloncja 


28 


140 


168 


Sukhvasi Lai, Dhu- 
sar. 


Malakana, 


418 


32 


Bilothi 


379 




379 


Muafi 


Mina ... 


545 


33 


Chaksauli 


503 


,.. 


503 


J Brahman (Gaur) 
4 JadoB. 


Jadun ... 


1,142 


34 


Chamar-gatlii ... 


70 


... 


70 


Heirs of Laid 
Babu. 


Dliiuiar ... 


226 


35 


Cliaumuha „. 


2,648 


219 


2,867 


Gosain Giridbari, 


Gaurua ... 


4,970 


36 


Ciihata 


5,654 


1,070 


6,724 


... 


Jat and Ja- 
don. 


... 



28. Z?Aarf»>cs. — The origiual zamindars were Gaurua Bachhals of 15 biswas and Sana Ihy of 
five bi.swas : but the whole estate was bought for Rs. 860 by Baladeva Siuh, Gaurua Ivachhwaiia, 
of Brinda-bau, whose son is the preseut proprietor. Jama Ks. 750. 

29. Bhau-ijanw.- — On the Janiuna and liable to diluvian. It is divided into two thoks of tr/ii 
hiswas fach. Part has been sold and Dther part mortgaged to the Sah. Present jama lis l,»31. 
Kand-gbat -with its temple of Nand Kai, is one of the stations in the Ban-jatra, a:ul the uame is 
popularly derived from the terror (bluiy) felt by the iuhabitauta when Nuuda was swept away by 
the flood while batbiug. 



30, Bijwdri. — Seven lumberdars. Jama Rs. 1,125. 

31. BilonJa. — The old zamindars were Gaurua Malakanas. 



m. nuonaa. — j.iie om zamuiuars were uaurua iviaiaKanas. Their estate passed in 1847 to 
Kanhaiya Lai, Dhusar, wbo sold it to Lachhman Siuh, Hrahiuan, of Gobardhan,f(,r Ra. 200, and he 
resold it, in 1860, for lis. 991, to Sukhvasi Lai and Bihari Lai, brothers of Kauliaiya Liil. Jamn 
Ks. 700. 

32. Bihihu'-On tb-e Mathuri and Delhi road. This was a grant from Nawab Najaf Khan to 
one Premuand, to wbose grandsons, Bal-mukund and Bihari Lill, it was confirmed iu 1819. In 1827 
they sold the property for Rs. 5,600 to Sukh-deva Das, and Baladeva Das ; the latter being uony 
succeeded by his son Harideva Das. 

33. Chaksauli. — At the foot of the BarsMia hill, and separated from that town by the narrow 
pass called the ' Saukari khor.' Two raelas are held here, Bhadon audi 9 and 13, at the .Mor-kutli, 
a pavilion on the ridge overlooking the gorge. There are two thoks of teu biswas each. Four 
lumberdars. Jama Rs. 1,425. 

34. Cliamar-garhi — The original zamindars were Giijars, but after being farmed by differ- 
ent people for many years, the estate was at last purchased by the widow of the Lala Babii iu 
1854. Jama Rs. 350. 

35. Chaumuhd. — See page 21. Italkabaudi school. Customs Buugalow. 

36. CAAaVa.— See page 22. Talisili, police station, post office, tahsili school, girla' sciiool, 
district bungalow available as a rest-house. 



28 



PAROANA CHHATA. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



No, 



Name, 



Population, 



37 


Dahroli 


38 


Dalota 


39 


Darauli 


40 


Dera-pura 


41 


Dhimri 



Dibhala 
Gangroli 



44 Garlii 



Ghazi-pur 



46 Gora 



Hindus. ; ^^^.^^^ Total. 



607 
790 

558 
4J5 
409 



645 



46 



607 
790 

559 
445 

425 



Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


... 


Aliivasi ... 


931 


... 


G a u r n a 

(Bachhal). 


1,035 


... 


Jadon ... 


848 


... 


Ditto ... 


7iO 


Heirs of Lalti 
Cabu. 


Gujar 


827 


... 


Ditto ... 


1,534 

1,185 


Ditto 


Ditto ... 


234 


... 


Jadon 


634 


Udha, Malakana, 


Gaurua ... 


624 



37. Dahroli. — Two thoks of three biswa* each Three lumberdars Jama Rs. 1,090. The 
Pliul-ddl mela is kept Chait badi parivva. Im the mutiny the Ahivasi proprietors, who belong to 
the Jadon (juhdr, joined that confederacy in t,<eir attack on the Gauruas of Pali. 

38. /?6( /o^a.— .Tama Es. 1,150. Six lumberdars, 

39. Darauli.— Ts^n ihoks. Six lumberdars. .Fama Rs. 1,084. Two temples of Radha Kriahan 
and Ram Lala, and a large tank. 

40. Deva-pura. — Two thoks. Three lumberdars. Jama Rs. 1,020, A temple of Gopal and a 
Kachahri, built by Muhkam Siuh, the ancestor of the present Jadon proprietors. 

41. Dhimri, near the Jamuna, was sold by the old Gujar proprietors in 1S09 A. D. to tho 
Lala Eiihu. The jama is now Us. 1,050. After the mutiny, m whi;^h the villagers had taken pare 
vith tlieir hrotlier Gujars at L'jhani, three of the ringleaders were h'ntjfil. There are two 
ponds and groves of kadamb trees, called Bhukhan-bau and Niwar-ban, both visited in the Bau- 
jatra. 

42. Dihhdhi. — Three lumbavdars. Jama Rs. 950. Here is Ratn-kund, a station in the Ban- 
jatra, with an old temple and ti'.rdi-i, and tl:e chattri of a b ihra's wife. The village is ou the hill 
range which reaches from Uucha-gaiiw and Barsana to Nahra. 

43. Gdnffroli. — Given at the end of last century by JIadho Rao Sindhia to IMohau Diis, 
Baird'^i, and eonlirmed in 1838 to Kiim Ratn, still living, for the use of the temple of KaiUui- 
kaiit at Brindil-ban. The zamindars, who are Gaurua Bachhals, are allowed Ra. 7-8-0 per cent, 
ou the muaiidar's rental. There is also a jama of Ks. 18 ou laud lately reco-vcrcd from the river. 

44. Gr/r//j.— Sold in 1812 A.D. to the Laid Bdbu for Ra. 50O. The yearly jama is now 
Rs. 1,460. In the mutiny five ot the Gujar community were hanged. 

45. Ghdzi-pur by Barsana. — Two thoks of ten bisw.as each ; owned, the one by nrahmans, the 
other by .liidcns. Jama Rs 650. Five lumberdars. Here ir( the sacrtd pond oLPrem Sarovar. 
faced with sioue by liup lUini, Katara ; with three temples dedicated to Kishori Balbibh, Lalita 
M(dian, and Gopal Ji,tlie two latter being foundations of blip Ham's, Opposite is a walled -iarden 
viih a handsome stone chattri m memory of liis brother Uem-raj. lu the adjoining ralJiydis 
celebrated the Has Lid Bhudon sudi 12. 

46. Gora.— The old Uaolih.al zamindars have sold 13.^ bis was f o Udha, Malakana, of Undi, and 
Mohan Das, Bairiigi, of Brinud ban. There is a rakliya of chhonkar trees. Jama Ra. CUO. Three 
lumberdars. 



PABGANA CHHATA. 

Jlphahetical List of Villages— (continned). 



29 





Name. 


Populaiion. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


47 


Gu!al-pur 


203 


59 


262 


Heirs of LalaBabd. 


Gujar ... 


1,417 


48 


Hathija 


1,329 


796 


2,125 


Ditto, muafidiirs. 


Mewati ... 


4,466 


49 


Hazara 


430 


22 


452 


Kayath mortga- 
gees, Brdlmian 
mortgagdrs. 


Mdli 


689 


50 


Husaini 


401 


49 


450 


Edni Sahib Kun- 
war. 


Gujar ... 


1,794 


51 


Jalt-pur 


441 


... 


441 




GauruaCFia- 
chlial). 


373 


62 


Jamal-pur 


15 


... 


15 


Dhusars 


Garariya 


950 


63 


Jatwari 


790 


28 


818 


Uani Sahib Kun- 
war. 


Gujar ... 


1,496 


64 


Javali 


534 


4 


538 


Gaurua(nachhal), 


Gaurua and 
Bralimaix. 


798 


55 


Kajiroth 


390 


25 


415 


Rajput3 


Gaurua o.. 


814 



to the Laid Edbu, The jama, which 



47. Guldl-piir, on the Jamund. Sold by the Guj i 
used to be iucluded with that of Garhi, is now Rs. 900. 

49. Hdthit/a.— Given with Rup-nagar in 1792 A.D. by MdHlio Rao Sindhia, to Kripd Sankar, 
Jotishi, and sold by his hur Goi)ind Lai for Rs. 2I,0^H) to the Lala lidhii iu 1814, who appropriated 
it to the use of liis temple of Krishna Cliandramd at Drinda-ban. After his death, in 1829, it 
was confirmed to his son Sri Nardyan. Of the zamindari, (inurnas had U biswas, Jalons and 
Brahmans five, and Mewdiis one, and they received a maliUana of 5 i)er cent, on the miiattdar's 
rental ; but now i7i bis was have passed into the hands of tiie La!a Babiis lieirs. There is a large 
mango grove, and a new mosque. 

49. Hazdm on the Jamund, was held mudfi by one Chand Siromani, and afterwards farmed 
by hiB chela ("haran Das, whose heirs have mortg:ii:cd it to Laraiti Ldl, Kayath. Jama Rs. 960. 
Tlie old zaminddrs were Baclihals. There are two ba^hs 

50, Husaini, on the Kosi and Sher-garh road, derives its name from a Saiyid'a dargah. A 
rakhyd of Icadamb trees. Jama Rs. 1,890. One of the confiscated (iiijar villages. 

61. JajY-/j«r, on the Jamund. Jama Rs. 776. Four lumberdars. 

52. Jamdl-pur, in Akbar's time, was part of the jasrir of Nawab Fatih Khan and Rahraat Khan, 
and ^yas called Fatih-pur. The Dhusar zamindars live at S ilidr. Three th<)ks. live lumberdars. 
Jama Rs. 1,300. There is a kadamb-khaadi and a pond called Chandan-kuad. 

53. Ja/wa/-t.— Four biswas were sold by the Gujars before the mutiny to Lachhman Dag, 
Baniya, Sita Uam Ahir, and some Brahmans, and after the mutiny the other 16 biswas were con- 
ferred on iiaja Gtjbind Sinh, who has also bought, for Rs. 1,190, the baniya's 1^ biswa. Jama 
Es. 1,412. There is a mango grove. 

54. Jdvali. — A muafi grant of Aurangzeh's, confirmed by Sindhia, and subsequently by the 
English Government. The present Bairdgi muafidars are Lachhman Das, Bhagawan Das, and Bala- 
deva Las. Jama Rs. 1,050. Four thoks. 

55. Kdjiroth. — On the Jamund. Given by the old Eachhal zaminddrs to their purohits, 
Sanddhs ; whi.ise descendants have gradually transferred all but one biswa, held by Gopal, Sana ih. to 
Eajputs. These latter, about the year 1800 A. D,, divided tiie village into two thoks called Kdnha 
and Harsukh. Tliere are three lumberdars. Jama &a, 1,126. A temple of Sita Ram, and a tree 
called Akhai-bat are visited iu the Ban-jatra. 



30 



PARGANA CIIHATA. 

Alpliahetical List of Villages — (coutiuued). 





Name. 


Fopulation. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
Caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


56 


Kamai 


2,416 


49 


2,464 




Jalon „. 


3,979 


67 


Karahla 


1,587 


28 


1,615 


Heirs of Lala Babu. 


Jadon 


J,540 


68 


Karahri 


176 


29 


205 


Rani Sahib Kun- 
war. 


Gujar ... 


718 


59 


Khaira 


2,927 


100 


3,027 


... 


Ahivasi ... 


4,054 


60 


Khan-pur 


776 


9 


785 


... 


Ditto ... 


1,046 


61 


Khandwai ,., 


161 


••• 


161 


Nathu Lai, Dhu- 
sar, of Sahar. 


Gujar ... 


412 


62 


Khursi ... 


164 


... 


164 


Rani Sahib Kun- 
war- 


Ditto 


272 


63 


Konkera 


449 


... 


449 


... 


Jat 


338 



56. Kamai.— In the mutiny three of the Jadon zaraindars were killed fightinp^ with their 
clansmen against the Gauruas There is aii unusually substantial and commodious village school 
recently built, chiefly at the cost of the inhabitants. This is one of the stations in the Ban-jatra, 
and the Ras Lilais celebrated, Bhadou sudi 6 The mela of the Thiil-dol is also kept, Chait badi 5, 
but this latter is of modern institution. There are four small temples and three sacred ponds 
called Hari-kuad, Baladeva-kund and Piri-pokhar. The jama is Ks. 5,383, Fourteen lumber- 
dars, 

57. Karahla was sold by the Jadons in 1811 A. D., to the Lahi Rabu for Rs. 500, The 
yearly jama is Rs. 1,900. Tliere is a very extensive kadamb-khandi, with a pond called Krishan- 
kund, where the Ras Lila is celebrated, Bha.;lou sudi 7. Threo teuiples. A halkabandi 
school. 

58- Karahri, till 1836, used to be assessed with Pingari. The separate jama is now Rg. 535. 

69. Khaira consists of 18 biswas only, the other two having been cut off about 150 years 
ago to form the village of Nagariya in the Kosi Pargana. The name Khaira is derived from the 
Khadira-ban, where is a pond called Krishaii-kund, the s 'cne of an annual mehi, and on its margin 
a temple of Baladeva with rather a handsome chattri in memory of one Riip Ram, Bohra, built 
by his widow 30 or 40 years ago. A temple with the title of Gopi-nath is said to have been 
founded by the famous Todar Mall of Akbar's time Three other small temples are dedicated 
respectively to Madan Mohan, Darsau Bihari, and Mahaprabhu, and two ponds bear the names of 
Bhawaiii and Chiuta-khori. There is a halkabandi school, and a weekly market on Saturday. 

60. Khdn-pur. — On the Agra Canal. Two thoks. Five lumberdars. Jama Rs. 1,80'1. There 
is a pond called Syain-kund with a temple of Hihari Ji, near which the Phul-dol is held, Phalgua 
sudi 12, and is attended by all the people of the five or six adjoining villages. As in most places 
where there is a cunsiderable Ahivasi population, there are several largo brick-built houses. 

61. Khandwdi. — On the Kosi and Sher-garh road. After being mortgaged for some years, 
the whole village has now been tran.«ferred outrigiU — 7J biswas to Jamuua Das, 12J to Nathu 
Lai, Dhiisar. Jama Rs. 497. A garden of mango and jamau trees. 

62. Khursi.— Oa the Chhata and Shcr-gayh road. Oue of the confiscated Giijar villages. 
Jama Rs. 493. 

63. Konkera.— ^omc Kuntel Jajs from Sonkh were settled here by Thakur I'adan Sinh, and 
held the village first as a jagir, but were afterwards constituted by Nizaru KLa:i joint zamiudara 
with the former Thakur proprietorB. Jama Rs. 560. Three lumberdars. 



PAKGANA CHHATA. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



31 





Name. 




'Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 

caste. 




No. 


Hindu s. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


64 


Lahrwari 


245 


... 


245 


... 


Gujar ... 


573 


65 


Lar-pur 


892 


37 


929 


Kalua, Gujar ... 


Litto ... 


1,680 


66 


Lodhauli 


215 


... 


215 


... 


Jadon ... 


410 


67 


Mahrana ,., 


2,336 


103 


2,4.39 


... 


Jdt 


1,732 


68 


Mai 


337 


8 


345 


Godha, Gaurua ... 


Gaurua 

(Bachhal). 


1,400 


69 


Man^oi 


214 


... 


214 


Bundle Lai, Brah- 
man. 


Jadon 


452 


70 


Mungroli ^ 


118 




118 


Nathu Lai, Dhu- 
sar, of Sahar. 


Gaurua 
(Bachhal). 


368 


71 


Man -pur 


210 


7 


217 


... 


R a j p u t 
(Kachh- 
waha). 


481 


72 


Nahra 


241 


7 


248 


... 


Gaurua (Ja- 
Bavat). 


815 



64. Lahrwari.— Some 500 years apro the then Gujar proprietor had four sons Bhum, Patain, 
Rasnial and Shora, who divided the village into as many thoks of five biswas each. About the 
year 1700 A.D., Shera's descendants removed to Maha-ban, and their lands were divided between 
the three other thoks Jama Rs. 750, Three lumberdars. 

65. Lar-pur.— Tvro thoks, often biswas each, called Purbaira and Pachhaija. the latter sub- 
dividedinto four bahris, tho fornierinto two, called Ganga Bishan ('mortgaged in 1860 for Rs. 1,000) 
and Kalua. Jama Rs. ) 949. Eight lumberdars. In the mutiny the villagers joining the Bachhals 
and other Gauruas against the Jadons lost two men. A small temple of Uihari Ji built about a 
century and half ago. 



66. Lodhduli.- 
Three lumberdars. 



-A rakhya of kadamb trees with pond called Lalita-kund. Jama R-s. 650. 



67. Mahrana belongs to the Kamar confederacy. A rakhya of chhonfcar trees. Jama 
Rs. 3,300. Seven thoks. Fourteen lumberdars. 

68. Mai. — Part sold and part mortgaged to Baijnath, Kunj Bihari Lai, Kayaths of Brinda- 
ban, and Godha, one of the original baehhal proprietors. Jama Rs. 1,063. Three lumberdars. 

69. A/an(/oj.— .Jama Rs. 558. Three lumberdars. Part has been sold to Brahmans. A bagb, 
planted by Jasi, hasdhari, and a pond called .Acharya-kund. 

71. Mdn-pur by Barsana. Here is the temple called Man-ma ndir, lately restored by Ram 
Dayal, of Khurja, where the Alan-lila is held Bhadon sudi 12, and Gahvar ban and kund ("see 
page 179) Jama Rs. 270. 

72. A^d^ra.— At the end of the Barsana ridge. In 1839 the Jasavat zamindara mortgaged 
their estate for Rs. 425 ; and some years later the sole surviving mortgagee, Ganga-dhar, sofd his 
interest for the same sum to Bboja, Baniya. This latter was murdered in 186-.i by Nand-kishor 
and Bani Sinh, Brahmans, hereditary purohits of the old Jasavat family. Bhoja's three sons are 
now absolute proprietors of the whole village, but the feud continues, and an affray having occur- 
red this year (1873) when they happened to meet at a mela at Barsana, all parties have been 
bound over to keep the peace : before the twelve months had elapsed they forfeited their recogni- 
zances. The jama is Rs. 448. There ia a rakhya of kadamb trees. 



32 



PARGANA CHHATA. 

Alphabetical Lixl of Villages — (continued). 





Name, 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
turs. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Miis.ll- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


73 


Xand-ganW ... 


3,887 


129 


4,016 


Heirs of Ldla Bd- 
bii. 


Jdt 


5,236 


74 


Nari 


1,462 


30 


1,492 


Jadons and Sa- 
nadha 


Jddon ,^ 


2,020 


76 


Nau-gama 


729 


1,306 


2,035 


Sjani S u u d a r, 
Dliusar. 


Malakana, 


3,584 


76 


Pali 


674 


10 


684 




Jddon ... 


690 


77 


Parkham 


725 


21 


746 


... 


Gujar ... 


1,616 


78 


Pasoli 


746 




746 


Chnudhari Daulat 
Siiih of Kdl. 


Gaurua .. 


1,408 


79 


Pelkhu 


1,418 


38 


1,456 




Ahivdsi ... 


1,968 


80 


Pilhora 


264 




264 


Chandhavi Daulat 
Sinh of Kal. 


Gaurua 
(Bdchhal) 


655 


81 


Pingari 


39 


7 


46 


Clilu'tar Mai, Ba- 
niya. 


Garariya... 


464 



73. Nand-gdnw.—^GC page l&O. 

74. IS/ari was the jdgir of a Begara till 1830, in which year it was first assessed. The jama 
is now Rs. 2,650. There are four thoks, each sub-divided into two pattis. and eight lumberdars. 
A halkabaiidi school, two small tcniiJJes, and three pouds called Bisokhar, Suraj-kund and Lai 
Meo, from the name of the Mewati wlio dug it. 

75. Nau-qdma. — (i. e , New-ton) On the Jait and Sher-garh road Bought at auction from the 
Bachhal Malaka.ia zauiinrlars in 1840 by Shiw Sahay, Dhii^ar, whose sou Syam Sundar Das is tlie 
present proprirtor. A temple of Mai Rihari, built a century and half ago. Two baghs. Jama 
lis. 4,976. This village was part of Tdroli, till separated by those of the zamindara who adopted 
the faith of Islam. 

76. T'dli on the Chhata and Gobardhan road, was held ranafi by Mahant Pitanihar Das 
and his chela Sdlagiam till ,839, when it was settled with Miihant I dl .Viukinid at lis. 950. The 
■whiile has now been sold to Jadons and others. A temple of Murli Manohar and a rakhya of 
karil and chhonkar trees. 

77. P:irkhnm was in the Mathura Pargana till 1334. There are three thoks, called Brah- 
manan 5 biswas, Bakhshi 7i and Cliura 7^ biswas. The jama is Ks. 1,50 ). Stveu lumberdars. 
There are fuur pouds called Pokhar, I'okhar Kalan Kund, and Samokhar. 

78. Pasoli, oil the Jait and Sher-garh road, was first put up to auction in 1840, and sold for 
Rfi. 1,031; but the purchaser fell into arrears and absconded; and, after being farmed for some 
years, the estate was conferred on Chnudhari Daulat Siiih. Jama Us. 1,139. There is a pond 
called Mauasa-kund, where a mtla is held IJhddon audi 6. 

79. FeMAu.— About the year 1700 A.D., the Giijars sold 2i biswas to Ahivasis, since 
which time there have been two thoks. Jama, Ks. 2,200. Seven lumberdars. A rakhya of kadamb 
trees. A halkabandi school. 

80. Pilhora.— In 1831 mortgaged by the Bachhals to Nand-kishor, Bhat, of Brinda-ban, who 
re-mortgaged to Babu Pdrbati Charan, a Bengali. On the tatter's .absconding, the estate was 
bought in by Government and finally conferred on Chaudhari Daulat Siiih. Jama its. 900, 

81. Pinrjari used to he assessed with Kardhri. The separate jama is now Rs 380. The za- 
mindars, Gaur Brahmans of Seuwa, liave mortgaged the village to Chhitar Mall, Bauiya, of Chhata. 



PARGANA CHHATA. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



33 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Mu.snl- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


82 


Pir-pur 


140 




141 


Heirs of Ldia Ba- 
bu. 


Giijar ... 


1,028 


83 


Pisayo 


961 


20 


981 


... 


Jadon 


1,384 


84 


Bahera 


1,384 


22 


1,406 




Ditto ... 


2,000 


85 


Eanera 


],481 


12 


1,493 




Gaurua ... 


2,575 


86 


Rankoli 


560 


16 


579 




Giijar ... 


810 


87 


Ranwari 


918 


16 


934 




.Tadon ... 


1,536 


f8 


Ei'thora 


654 


8 


662 


... 


Brahman, 


1,356 


89 


Hup-nagar 


180 




180 


Araar Lai, Brah- 
man. 


J.it 


280 



8y. Pir-pur, on the .Tamuna near Sher-garh, is so called from a Saiyid's tomb. It waa 
bought in 1841 for Rs. 300 by the widow of the Lala IJalju of one Gur Das, wlio had acquired it 
from the old Oujar proprietors. The jama is now Rs. 1,049 Here is Bih.-ir-ban, in which is a 
tank with one tlight of masomy steps, and a temple of Bihari Ji, built abuut 1830 by a Bulira'a 
widow, of Chha:iiri. 

83. Pisdj/o. — The Rakhya, called in the Sanskrit topographies Pipda-vana, is one of the 
most picturesque spots in the whole district. It is of very tjreat extent, and in the centre con- 
sists of a series of open glades, leading one into the other, each encircled with a deep belt of mag- 
nificent hudamh tre^s, interspersed with a few specimens of the pfz/jri, ;jrtseHf/M, c///a^ and sa/iora, 
of lower growth These glades, with are often of such regular ouiline that they scarcely seem to 
be of natural formation, are poptilarly known as the /«/ya« cAawA, or ' 52 courts,' thousjh they 
are not really so many. They all swarm with troops of monkej-s. On the eastern border, the 
jungle is of mi.re ordinary character, with ragged pdu and reiija tret s ani karil bushes ; but to the 
west, wiiere a pretty view is oiitained of the temple-crowned heights of bar.^aiia in the distance, 
almost every tree is accompanied by a stem of the ami, which here grows to a considerable 
height, and scents the whole air with its masses of flower, which both in perfume and appearance 
much resemble the English honey-suckle. Adjoining the village is a pond called Kishori-kund 
and two temples, visited by the B m-ja:ra pilgrims, Bhadon sudi 9. Jama Rs. 1,950. Three 
tboks. Eight lumberdars. 

84. Ruhera, on the Agra Canal with a bridge. There is a small rakhya, where the Ras Lila 
is celebrated, Bhadon sudi 6. Jama, Rs. 2,739. Six thoks. Nine lumberdars. A halkabaudi 
school. 

85. Bdnpra, on the Chhata and Sher-jjarh road. Founded by one Param Sukh from Jay- 
pur, whose three sons are commemorated by the tlirce still existing tlioks, called Arami, Kidu, and 
Amar-chand. The village was granted nuiaf by Madho Raj Siudhia to Gopinath, Bhat, and con- 
firmed in 18.38 to bis heir Raghu-nath, Jama Rs. 3,120. 

86. Bdnkoli, on the Barsana range, is in the Gaurua guhdr or confederacy. Jama Rs. 660. 
Four lumberdars. 

87. Ranwdn, on the Chhata and Gobardhan road, is iu the J a Ion guhdr. Jama Rs. 2,350. 
Two thoks. Five lumberdars. 

88. Bithora, by Nand-ganw. Jama Rs. 1,850. Four thoks. Five lumberdars. A rakhya of 
Dim and chhonkar trees. 

89. Pup-nngrtr .—Were is a fine masonry tank constructed by Riip R.am of Barsana. who 
founded and named the village. It was granted muaf with Ilathiya by Malho Rao Sindhia to 
Kripa Sankar, Jotishi, whcse present representative, Amar Lai is both muatidar and zamindar. 



34 



PARC ANA CHHATA. 

Alphaheiical List of Villages — (continned). 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Eindus. 


Mnsal. 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


90 


Sahar 


3,375 


912 


4,297 


Bralimaii and 
Musalnian. 


Bralimans, 


4,109 


91 


Saiy id-pur 


111 


11 


122 


... 


Gaiirua ... 


288 


S2 


Sanket 


965 


17 


9^2 


Heirs of Lala Ba- 
bu. 


Jaion 


1,174 


93 


Saiikhl 


782 


7 


789 


... 


Ditto ... 


1,607 


94 


Sawal 


1,241 


20 


l,26i 




Gujar „. 


2,276 


95 


SeM 


2,343 


206 


2,549 


SvvamiRangacharya 


G a u r u a , 
(Bachhal.) 


4936 


96 


Semri 


!,131 


38 


1.169 


... 


JaJon 


2,750 


97 


Senwa 


1,413 


6 


1,4 !9 


... 


Brahman 
CSanadh.; 


1,499 


98 


Sher-garh 


3,560 


1,741 


5,301 


Seth Haglumath Das 


Path an 


3,424: 


99 


Sihaoa 


1 ....: 


15 


1,172 


Biliari Lai, Brah- 
man. 


G a u r u a , 
(Bachhal.) 


1,601 



Police station, branch poat-ufEce. The old tahsili has an upper 



90. Sahdr.—See p igc 22. 
story available as a rest-house. 

92. S«nZ'e<.— 'The place of nssignatioii,' between Nand-ganw and Barsana, was sold in 1812 
for Rs. .301 to the Lala Babu, The jama is now Rs. 1,G42. There is a large temple dedicated to 
Badlia Raman, which was huilt by Riip l^am, of Barsana, and two others fonndcd respectively- 
by the Rajii of Bardwan and the Maharaja of Gwaliar. Two sacred ponds are called Kishau-kund 
and Bimala kund. 



The Ras Lila is kept here on the full 



Seven lumberdars. 



93. Sdnfihi, on the Chhata and Gobardhan road, 
moon of BhaJon. Jama, Rs. 1,680. Two thoks. 

94. Satcdl, on the Jait and Sahar road. Jama Rs, 2,594- Four thoks. 
A rakhya of kadamb trees. 

95 Schi was, in 1842, put up to auction for arrears and bought in by Government. After 
being farmed for some years by Kunwar Faiz Ali Khan, it was sold in 1862 for Rs. 4,800 to Seth 
Gobind Das, who in the following year sold it to Svanii Rangacluirya for Rs. 10,000. Jama 
Rs. 6,100. There are two temples and a mosque built 200 years ago by the ancestor of llahini Khau, 
Paihan. 

96. Semri, on the Delhi road, was part of the jagir of the Begam Sahib till 1836. The jama 
is now Rs. 2,930. Eleven lumberdars. About lOO years ago two hamlets were formed, Hirja and 
Devi Sinh, and somewhat later a third, Garhi Dadhi. In the mutiny the Ja Ion zamindars and 
their clansmen had a pitched battle with the Gauruas. Besides several small modern temples, 
their is an ancient shrine of Devi of much hical repute, where two annual melas, each lasting for 
B fortnight, are held, the one in the light Iialf of I aisakh, the other and much the larger one in 
the light half of Chait. There is a rakhya of dhak trees. .1^. '■' m'-^.i-^^i^'. lu. 

97. Sennui. — Four thoks separately assessed; 18 lumberdars ; jama, Rs. 2,800. A sacred 
pond called Sya.n-kund indicates the probablo derivation of tlie name. A hulkabandi school. 

98. S/uT-ya?/*.— See page 23. 

99. Sthuna, on the Jait and Sahar road. Given by IMadho Rao Sindhia to Mahant Gobardhan 
Dkd for the use of the temple of Rasik Bihari I.al at Uriuda-ban and cuuiirmcd in i84i to his b«ir. 



PARGANA CHHATA. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



35 





Name. 




Population. 








No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 

ttrs. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


100 


Si^ara 


10-5 


10 


1,0»5 


Bhulanath B ahman 
mortgagee. 


G a u r 11 a 
(Eachhai; 


1,827 


iol 


Taroli 


3,170 


228 


3,398 


Syam Siindar Das 
and Durgii Prasad. 


G a u r u a 

(Bachbal). 


4,514 


102 


Tatar-pur 


a53 


... 


253 


Sundar Lai, Dim- 
sar. 


Ahivasi ... 


608 


103 


Uba 


373 




373 


Kishori Lai ... 


Jadon ... 


880 


104 


Ujhani 


491 


12 


503 


Eaci Saliib Kun- 
war. 


Gujar ... 


1,667 


103 


Umrao 


5S4 


30 


614 


... 


Jadon ... 


1,304 



Niruttam Das, who has now been succeded by Mahant Banmali Saran. Jama, Rs. 2,20.». A mango 
orchard and a large brick house bear the name of Ham Bal, a Bh Tat-pur Jat, who lived about two 
centuries ago. Two ponds are called respectively Kshir-Sagar and Dhanokhar. A halkabandi 
school. 

1 00. Siydrd, on the Jamuna, which is crossed by a ferry, was held muifl by Bihari Lai, 
Braliman till his death in 1841, when it was first assessed. The present jamais Rs. 1,474. Five 
lunibtniars. Tliere are two thoks of ten biswas each, called Siyara Khas and Nagariya ; the far- 
mer is still held by the old Bachhal zamindars ; the latter has been purtly sold to Seth Roshau 
L:il, and the remainder mortgaged for Hs. 1,150 to Bholanath, Brahman. A bagh of Randhir, 
Thikur. Tliere are three small temples, one built by Madho Hao Sindhia ; and the Chir Ghat on 
the rivi-r bank is one of the most noted stations in the Ban-jatra. The Phul-dol is kept Phalgun 
Budi II. 

101. Td'oU, for Tira-puri, is a very extensive pvrish a little oft the Jait and Sher-garh 
road. Having been put up t > auction for arrears on the part of the old Baehhal zamindars, it was 
first fnrmcd for some years and eventually, in 1862, sold for Rs. 5,7''0 to Syam Sundar Das and 
Har Narayan, Dhiisars, whose sen and daughter had married. Ear ^'a.raya"n■s son sold his half 
for Us l.T,< Oil to Babii Durga Prasal of Brinda-ban, and, in 1867, there was a complete separation 
of the two estates. Jama, Rs. 5, .38-2. A halkabandi school. A market on Jlonday. There is 
an annual me'a on the full moon of Kartik and the two preceding days in honour of one Swami 
Biira Babu, who is supposed to be panicula'iy efBcacious in the cure of skin diseases, lu the 
village is a large temple dedicated to Kadha Gobind, recently built out of subscriptions collected 
by a Bairagi, which has a front of carved sti/ne ; and there are several substantial shOiO and 
houses belonging to well-to-do Baniyas. The old zamindars state that their ancestor came from 
Chitor some 7U0 years ago, and that they have borne the inferior title of Gauruas only of lato 
years since some of their number adopted the practice of kirm or kiroya, that is, of marriage 
with the widuvv of a deceased elder brother. For their treatment by the new landlord see paga 
20. 

103. U(ja, on the Jamuna, given by Madho Rao Sindhia to Sesh Mall, Misr, for Saddvrat, 
i. e., for the perpetual maintenance of a dole-house, and confirmed to his heirs for the same use 
in 183S. The muafidars' jama is Rs. 875 ; the Government a'so receiving a jama of i^s. 130 for 
alluvial and resumed land. The zamindars were originally Gautam Brahmans of one moiety, 
J4 Ions of the (jther ; but now the former hold only 8| biswas and all the remainder nf the village 
has been transferred to Kishori Lai. On the river is a temple of Baladeva, built by Riip Ram of 
Barsana, where two annual fairs are held ; the Phiil-dol, Chait badi 5, and the Hiudol, Sawau sudi 
6. A mango grove perpetuates the name of its planter, Mohan:i, Brdhman, 



One of the couSscated Gi'ijar villages. Jama, Rs. 1,44J. A 
ndhia to Bal Kishan, Shastri, and 



104. Ujhani, on the Jamun 
mango orchard. 

105. Umrao, on the Agra Canai, given by Madho Rao sinania to JtSal Kishan, Shastri, and 
in 1C62 confirmed to his heirs. The original zamindars were Gujars^ who sold 12^ biswas to 



36 



PARGANA CHHATA. 

AJphahetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Same. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


I'rcdominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musnl- 
iiiau. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


106 


Unclia-g;'mw 


823 


13 


830 




Guj^ir .. 


1,742 


107 


Undi 


376 


550 


926 




:\[alakaua, 


895 


108 


Haji-pnr liy Basai 
(Great). 






... 


Mndau G o p a 1, 
Kayath, Dull 
Rain, Gaurua. 


... 


278 


109 


Kama 1-pur, by 
Nand-gauw. 








Jats. 


... 


179 


no 


Khor by Barsaiia, 


... 






Temple of Liirli Ji 
at Barsatia. 




292 


111 


Lohrari by Basai 
(Great). 


... 


... 


... 


Bralimaus 


... 


234 



Kayaths ; but both the old and new proprietors fell into difficulties and to a great extent aban- 
domd the village, whereupon it was occupied by a Jadon from Dig, named Parsa. Subse- 
quently the Gi'ijars returned, partially dispossts^ed the Jadous and gave some of the land to 
Earn Bal, a Jat of Undi. There are now three tlioks, one for each of the specified castes A 
hamlet called Umar-pur is occupied by the zamindars of Kanwari, who have 6 per cent on the 
EQuafidar's rental ; the zamindars of Umrao have 7 per cent. There is a rakhya of chhunkar 
trees, an ancient temple of Bihari and a pond called Kisliori-kun(J. 

106. Unchd-i/dnw, by Barsana. Here is a temple of Baladeva, built by Eaja Todar Mall. 
Khfltri, Akbar's minister, and a pond called Deva-kund, where a fair is held on tlie forenoo)i of 
Hhadon sudi 12 by the pilgrims of the Han-jatra on their way to Barsana. Jama, lis. 1,325. 
Four lumberdars. 

107. Undi. — Given by Madho Kati Sindhia to the temple of Ke«ava Deva at Mathura. 
There are four thoks of five biswas each. Jama, Ks. |,00(). A s.cred pond is called Prem-kuud. 
In the mutiny, the villagers fighting with the Chliata people had two men killed. 

108. Hdji-pur, was formerly assessed with Lohrari. The separate jama is now Rs. 10). The 
old zamindars wore Bachhals ; now Daulat Kam, Gaurua of Bhau-gaaw, has eight bibw.is, and 
J^ladan Gopal, Kayath of Mathura, the other 12. 

109. Kdmdl-pur is held by the Jats of Nand-ga iw. Jama, Rs. QIO. 

110. Khor ({. e., khol, an ' opening' between the hills ) lies under the Barsana range. It was 
given by Madho Pa) Sindhia to the temple of Larli Ji and confirmed in 1S43. The zamindars 
have an annual allowance of Ks. 20, 

111. Lohrari used to be united with Haji-pnr. The separate jama is now Rs. 250. The Brah- 
mans of Basai havo 12^ biswas ; Moti Paiu and Baladeva, sous of Maiuisa Raui, tlie other 7i. 



III.— PARGANA MATHURA. 

The Mathura Pargana is the last of the three lying to the west of tho 
Jamuna. Towards the south it abuts on the Farrah Pargana of the Agra Dis- 
trict, and at some places the border is only five or six miles distant from the 
cnpital. A suggestion has therefore been made in an influential quarter that if 
Jalesar were attached, not to Eta (as has ordinarily been proposed), but to Agra, 
the Farrah Pargana would form tiie readiest compensation. This would be a 
partial return to tho old arrangement, as several of the villages now in Mathura. 
were once under Farrah ; and it seems to satisfy every local requirement and to 
be in all respects most desirable. 

With the sole exception of Jalesar, with which it corresponds very closely 
in extent, the pargana is the largest in the district; having an area of 183,233 
acres, with 163 villages and townships and 194 separate estates, of which 23 
are held rent-free. Under the Jat and Mahratta Governments of last century 
it was in four divisions, Aring, Sonkh, Sonsa, and Gobardhan; A ring being the 
jdgir of Baji Bai, the queen of Daulat Rao Sindhia, who (if local traditions are 
to be believed) inherited all the ferocious qualities of her infamous father, 
Ghatgay Shirzi Rao, tho perpetrator of the massacre of Piina. In 1803, after its 
cession to the Company, it was formed into two parganas, Matlumi and Ari'ng, 
under a Tahsildar whose head-quarters were fixed at the latter place, and so 
continued till 1868, when they were transferred to their present more appro- 
priate location at the capital. 

The first settlement was assessed at Rs. 5,149 for Mathura and Rs. 98,885 
for Aring, making a total of Rs. 1,04,034, which was gradually increased to 
Rs. 2,14,336 ; the actual area also having undergone considerable change. 
For, in 1828, after the conclusion of the war with Durjan Sal, 15 villages on 
the Bharat-pur border were annexed, and about the same time several mudfi 
estates in the neighbourhood of Mathura were resumed. The first contractor 
for the Government revenue was a local magnate, whose name is still occasion- 
ally quoted, Chaube Rudra-man, who after one year was succeeded by Khattri 
Beni Ram. 

In addition to the city, it includes within its limits some of the most notable 
places in the district, as Brinda-ban, Gobardhan, and Radha-kund, as also 
several large and populous villages of modern growth and no special charac- 
teristic beyond their mere size, as Palson, Phondar, Usphar and others, each 
with two or three thousand inhabitants. The principal landed proprietors are 



38 PARGANA MATHURA. 

Swdmi Rangik'liarya, as head of the Setli's temple at Briufla-ban ; Gosain 
Purusliottam Lai of Gokul ; Raja Pritbi Sinh of Awa ; the heirs of the Lala 
Babii, in Calcutta; and Seths Ghansyam Das and Gobardhan Dils ofMathura; 
not one of -whom resides immediately upon his estate. 

The predominant classes of the population are Juts, Brahmans and Gaunia 
Kachhwahas. The ancestor of all the latter, by name Jasraj, is traditionally 
reported to have come at some remote, but unspecified, period from Amber, 
and to have established his family at the village of Kota, whence it spread 
on the one side to Jait, and on the other to Satoha, Giridhar-pur, Piili-kherd, 
Maholi, Nahrauli, Naugama, NawaJa, and Tarsi; which at that time must 
have formed a continuous tract of country, as the villages which now intervene 
are of much more modern foundation. The estates continued for the most 
part with his descendants till the beginning of the present century ; but seventy 
years of British legislation have sufficed to alienate them almost entirely. 

The most common indigenous trees are the oiim, babiU, remja and kadamb: 
and the principal crops tobacco, sugar-cane, chand, cotton, and barley ; hajra 
and jodr being also largely grown, though not ordinarily to such an extent as 
the varieties first named. Wheat, which in the adjoining parganas is scarcely 
to be seen at all, here forms an average crop. The cold-weather instalment of 
the Government demand is realized principally from the outturn of cotton. An 
average yield per acre is calculated as one man of cotton, seven of jodv, three 
of bdjrd, six of wheat, eight of barley, five of chand, eight of tobacco, and ten 
and a half of gur, the extract of the sugar-cane. The cost of cultivation 
per acre is put at Rs. 7 for the kharif and Rs. 10 for rabi crops. The 
river is of little or no use for irrigation pui'poses ; but after the abatement of 
the rains it is navigated by country boats, which are always brought to anchor 
at night. Water is generally found at a depth of 49 feet below the surface of 
the soil ; and it is thus a matter of considerable expense to sink a well, more 
especially as the sandiness of the soil ordinarily necessitates the construction of 
a masonry cylinder. The Agra Canal, when opeucd, will be a great boon to 
the agriculturist : it will have a length of 16 miles in the pargaiia from Konai 
to Sonoth, with bridges at Basonti, Aring, Sonsa, Lal-pur and Little Kosi. 

Ar/ng, nine miles from Mathura, on the high road to Dig, was, from 1803 to 
1868, the head of a Tahsili, removed in the latter year to the Civil Station. Till 
1818 the town was a jagir of a Kashmir Pandit, by name Baba Bisvanath. On 
his death it was resumed and assessed at Rs. 6,447, Avhich sum has subsequently 
been raised to Rs. 10,000. In 1852, the old Gaurua zamindars' estate wag 
transferred at auction to Scth Gobind Das, who has made it part of the endow- 
ment of his temple at Brinda-bau. In the mutiny the rebels marched upon the 
place with the intention of plundering the trcasuxy, but were stoutly opposed 
by the zemindars and resident officials, and driven back after a few shots had 



PARGANA MATHURA. 39 

been fired. Lala Earn Baklish, the hereditary patwari, Avho also acted as the 
Seth's agent, was conspicuous for his loyalty, and subsequently received from 
the Government a grant of Rs. 1,000 and the quarter jama of the village of 
Kothra, which he still enjoys. The Tahsildar, Munshi Bhajan Lai, also had a 
grant of Rs. 1,200, and smaller donations were conferred upon several other 
inhabitants of the town, chiefly Bvahmans. It is much to be regretted that a 
misunderstanding with regard to the management of the estate has arisen within 
the last year or two between the Seth and his agent, the Lala, which threatens 
to sever entirely the latter's connection with the place. Aring is generally 
counted as one of the 24 upabans, and has a sacred pond called Kilol-kund, but 
no vestige of any grove. Various mythological etymologies for the name are 
assigned by the local pandits; but, as usual, they are very unsound ; and probably 
the word was originally written Arang, which means ' a mart,' in allusion to the 
trading capabilities of the town, situate as it is on the great throughfare between 
Matliura and Dig. There is a school of the tashi'li class (which hitherto has 
been liberally supported by Lala Rum Bakhsh), a post-office, and a police-station 
in charge of a Sub-Lispector. Three small temples are dedicated respectively 
to Baladeva, Bibari Ji and Pipale^var Mahadeva ; and the ruins of a fort con- 
structed last century preserve the name of Phunda Ram, a Jat, who held a large 
tract of territory here as ajdgir under Raja Siiraj i\lall of Bharat-pur. The Agra 
Canal passes close to the town and is bridged at the point where it crosses the 
main road. The market day is Sunday. The avenue of trees extending from 
Mathura through Aring to Gobardhan was mainly planted by Seth Sukhauand, 
AuRANGABAD, four miles from Mathura on the Agra road, derives its name from 
the Emperor Aurangzeb, who is said to have made a grant of it to one Bhim 
Bhoj, a Tomar Thakur, with whose descendants it continued for many years. For 
some time previously to 1861 it was however held rent-free by a Fakir, commonly 
called Bottle Shah, from his bibulous propensities, a grantee of Daulat Rao 
Sindhia. 0(i his death it was assessed at Rs. 601, AA^hich has since been raised to 
Rs. 898. The place is frequently, but incorrectly, called Naurangabad. It also 
has the subsidiary name of Mohanpur, from one Mohan Lai, a Sanadh, a man 
of some importance, AA'ho came from Mat and settled there last century. On 
the bank of the Jamuna is an extensive garden, and beside the high road the 
ruins of a handsome red-sandstone mosque. The weekly market is held on 
Friday and is chiefly for the sale of thread and cotton. The GoAernment in- 
stitutions consist of a police-station and a primary school ; the latter for some 
years past bearing an exceptionally high character. A reach of sandy and broken 
ground extends from the town to the river, Avhere a bridge-of-boats affords 
means of communication Avith Gokul and Mahaban on the opposite bank. Aur- 
angabad is the chief place for the manufacture of wicker chairs and couches, 
Avhich find a ready sale among the English residents of the adjoining station. 

■> ^ y ^ ^ ^ ' ' 

^ / ' / f 



40 



PAROANA MATnURA. 
Alphabetical List of Villages. 





Nftme. 




Papilla f tor 


. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


]\rusal- 
uiaii. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


, 


Ahalvii-ginj ... 


318 


7 


325 


Bijay Lal.Saraugi, 


Chamdr ... 


964 


2 


Ahmal (Great) ... 


847 


26 


873 




J at. (Kun- 

tei;. 


723 


S 


Ahmal (Little) ... 


472 




472 




Ditto ... 


7C9 


4 


Ajal 


195 




195 




Ditto ... 


SOS 


5 


Aji't Va\ii 

Akrur: a hamlet 
of Uhauiera. 


471 


... 


471 




Ditto ... 


1,035 


6 


Alha-pur 


80 




80 


ChunniLal, .Jaf .. 


Brah 111 a n, 
(Gautam.) 


390 


7 


Anyor 


871 


7(59 


1,6)3 


MilnUiinas and 
Biaiiiaans. 


Malakana, 


2,034 


8 


Ar.lzi Shamilat ... 


4 


... 


4 


Jats 


Bairagi ... 


40 


9 


Arhera, or Arahra, 


245 


86 


331 


Balarieva Siiih, 
Brah in an, of 

Gokul. 


Malak ana 
andCharaar. 


90 4 



1. Akali/d-genij, on the road to Brinda-ban, was so named by Tuka Ji Holkar (who died 1795 
A. D.,) after his" wife Alialya. A Hairagi by name Ham Das held it with the neighbouring village 
of Dhaurera as a free grant from Simlhia for s;>mi.' years but it was resumed before the mutiny. 
The original zamindars were Kaclih«aias ; but now one l)i-!wa is held by (Jautain Brahmins, tlie 
remainder by Bijay Lai, Sa;aiigi, son of I'iwan Sirb-sukli, whose ancestors were DiA-aas to the 
Maharaja of Jay-pur. There is s >uie kha lar land, but no irrigation from wells. 

2. Ahmal ( Great) is so called after the village founder, Ahmil, who carae from Sonkh. 

3. A/ini'd (Little) was fiunded from Great Ahmal by one Si^ Ram. After the mutiny it 
was conferred for a time upon Ctiaudhari Daubit SinU >f liiil, wli > transfered it to St;th Gobind 
JJa^ ; but it was eventually restored to the old proprietv)rs. 

4. yl/aZ. — See Sonkh. Jama, Rs. 575. 

5. 4/i< raWi'. — Sec Mangotla. Jama, Rs. 2, 100. 

6. Alha-pur, on the Dehli road, was settled some 201 years ago by one Lahnan, Oautam, Avho 
named it after his son Alkha His descendants have now parted with almost all the estate to Jat» 
and Khattris. The village is held muafi by the Gautama of thy temple of Lakshooi Naiayan at 
lirinda-ban. Present jama, Hh. 40u. 

7. Anj/or, on the Giri-raj, but 'at the other end* f^ny or) from Gobardhan. Here are two 
ancient temples deilicated to Gobind Dova and Baliidova, and a sacred tank, called Gobiud kund, as- 
aacribed to Uani Padmavati, the waters of which are supposed to be very efficacious in the cure 
of leprosy. The Pind-dan, or offerings to the dead, in the ceremonial of the Sra Idh, have as much 
virtue here .as even .at (iaya. There arc 4» acres of m'o idlaml. Tiie original occupants are snid 
to have been Kirars. After the mutiny the village was conferred for a time on Chaudhari Daulat 
Sinh, but eventually restored to the existing zamindars. Jama, lis. 2,653. 

8. Ardzi Shdmildt —One of the eleven mahiils into which the origin.al village of Nainu Vn\^i 
has been divided ; the other ten being Saida, Nagara Kalan, Nagara Bhau, Nagara Bhiiuchha, 
Nagara Ghaniya, Nagara Chauthaiya, Daum-pura, Jangali Bari, Khilu, and Nagara Kanku. 

9. Arhera vras f o\inded some 300 years ago by Bhoja, Malakana, and the family of Ram Chand, 
Giijar, from the neiglibuuring village of Kota. Their descendants continued to be the proprie- 



PARGANA MATHURA. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



41 







PopnlatioT 










No. 


Name, 


Hindus. 


^lusal- 
man. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage, 


,0 


Aymg 


3,9 1.1 


190 


4,171 


Swami R a n g a- 
cliarya 


Ganrua, Jat, 
and Brah- 
man. 


5.503 


11 


ArukiMiimin-pur, 


1,203 


28 


1,231 


Ganes Panda, 
Gujarati. 


Chamar ... 


1,489 


12 


Ks& 


880 


... 


380 




Jat, (KuQ' 
tel.) 


470 


13 


Altas 


854 


353 


1,207 


AkalanandjGosaiu, 


Malakana... 


3,612 


14 


Aurang-abiid Mo- 
hau-pur. 


1,745 


541 


2,286 


Brahmana 


Baniya and 
Musaloian. 


916 


15 


Azam-abad Sarae, 


534 


9 


343 




G a u r u a, 
CKachh- 
waha.) 


135 


16 


Azam-pnr 


96 


... 


96 




Gujar 


255 



tora till recfnMy,when thoir e.-;tate was put up to auction for arrera, and has finally passed into 
the hands of BaUulova Siilli, Hrahman, of Gokul, Thy jama, now lis. 1,500, was for some years 
previous to 1811 enjoyed as a free grant. 

10. Aring. — See page 38. 

11. Aruki Mumin-pur, founded some 600 years aoto by Nizsim, Gujar; Maluk, Brahman Sanadh, 
and Daya lllm Gaurua, who came from across the Ganges and dispossessed the former occupants, 
who were KaUils The founders' descendants have now sold part of the village to a Gujarati 
Panda, livmg at Mathura, by name Ganes. The jama CUa. 1,949) was granted by Sindhia to 
Chanbes Kesava Deva, Su'ich Deva, and Ratn Lai, of whom the last-meutiuued only survives, and 
his interest, which ia only for lite, has been transferred to Sah Kundan Lai. 

12. J^s^ — See Sonkh. Jama, Rs 1,073. 

\^. Atas, on the hank of the Jamuna, is divided into three Nagara-?, — Atas Afiyan, Atas 
Hindu, and Atas Devi. Tlie founder, Mahta, Tomar. who expelled the Kirarsfrom the place, had 
two sons, Makhu and Samar, of whom the former turned Muharamadan and took as his share the 
lialf of the estate thence called Atas Miyan, while his brother and his descendants kept Atas 
Hindu. 2§ biswiis known as Atas Devi, on account of a temple that bears that name, were origin- 
ally conferred on one Ciiiira, a Gujar servant, but have passed through various hands to Akala- 
nand, Gosain of the temple of Sringar Bat at Brinda-ban, who is also the muafidar. 

14. Aurang dbdd Mohcm-pur.—See page 39. 

15. Azam-dhdd Sarde, outside the city of Mathura, on the Delhi road, derives its name from 
a very large sarae ascribed to Azam Shah, son of the Emperor Aurangzeb (seepage 18). It 
covered a wider area even than the one at Chhata, and was most substantially built, the founda- 
tions being sunk to an enormous deptli, but there was little or no architectural decoration. It 
is now a ruin, and the materials have been largely employed in paving the streets of the city. 
As it stands at some distance from tiie new road, it had ceased to be of any use to travellers. 
The land was taken from the adjoining villages of Jay-Sinh-pur and Gobind-pur, and conferred on 
Madho Sinh, whose descendants still retain the greater part, though three biswas have passed 
to Durga Prasad, Khattri. Jama Rs., 359. 

16. Azam-piir, near Anraug-dbad, was founded in the reign of Aurangzeb by Azam Khan, 
the Governor of Mathura from 1642 to 1615 A.D., who gave it to a servant, Gulab, Gujar. After 
the mutiny it was temporarily conferred on Seth Rusbau Lai. Jama, Rs, 316. 



4» 



PARGANA MATHURA. 

Alphabetical List of ]"///o(/fc«— (continued). 





Name. 


Vopuhition. 


rrincqial proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
tiistc. 




No. 


IliiKlus 


Musal- 
luaii. 


Total 


Acreage. 


17 


Baburi 


1'5 


77 


262 


Gosain Purushot- 
tam Lai. 


Malakaia, 


640 


J8 


Bachh-ganw 


2,0-24 


20 


2,044 




J at. (Klin- 
tel.) 


3,694 


19 


Bajana 


373 


12 


385 


Seth G h ansyarn 
Da^, mortgagee. 


Gujsr, and 
Chaniar. 


419 


20 


Bakir-pur 


209 


4 


213 


Gosain Purusliot- 
tam Lai. 


Sanadh ... 


686 


21 


Bavhota 


750 


27 


777 




G a n rti a , 
CKachli. 
waha ) 


1,739 


22 


Basai 


140 


... 


140 




Gujar ... 


307 


23 


Basonti 


540 


23 


663 


Raja Prithi Sinh 
of Awa. 


Gauriia, (Ja- 
siivat.) 


1,2U 



17. Baburi, 'the halul grove,' near the Agra road, was origin.ally occupied hy K:ilal9, who 
were ejected by one Mai, a Tarkan Gaiuua. One of his descendants turned Muharam,ad:iu, adopt- 
ing the name of Fatih Mubarak, ami is the ancestor of the present Malakaiia family. The village 
has been divided into two mahals, called Pachhwaiya and Purwaiya, of seven and three biswas, 
respectively ; the latter was sold to Pachauri ballabh Sinh of Mahii-ban, and has passed from 
him to Gosain I'urushottam Lai. Baburi was part of the ja^ir of Baija Bai, wife of Daulat Rao 
Sindhia, and was originally included in the Sonsa, and later in the Aring, Pargana. Atter the 
mutiny the Malakana mahal was coniiscated for a time and conferred on Seth Roshan Lai. The 
jama is Rs. 686. 

18. Bachh-gdnw, on the Bharat-pnr border. The predecessors of the present Ja| zamindara 
were Kirara. 'J'he place is said to derive its name from, and to have been the scene of, a famous 
incident in Krishna's life, who, when the jealous god Brahma took away the calves (tiachhe) from 
his herd, at once created others to supply their place. The legend, however, has no ancient 
connection with the locality, and is referred to it simply in explanation of the village name. 
There is a weekly market on Monday, a halkabaodi school, and four small temples. Jama, 
lis. 6,800. 

19. Bajana was founded by tw) Gujars, Mohan and Eaka, whose descendants transferred it 
toChaubes, by whom it has been mortgaged to Gaur Sahay Mall (deceased) and Ghansyam Dag. 
The jama (now Ks. 548) was enjoyed by Hakim Nam-dar Khau till 1817, when it was resumed. 

•iO. Bdkir-ptir is so called after Azam Khan Mir Muhammad Bakir governor of Mathura, 
■who changed its name fr:)m Kaly.an-pur and bestowed it upon two Bra mians, named Lahnan and 
L )rha, that were in his service. It is now divi<led into five mahals, of which tiie largest one — ■ 
beitiL,' eleven biswas — ^is ;jwned by Gosain Purushoitam Lai; in the smaller the old Sanadh family 
still retain some interest. Jama, Rs„ 727. Close to the junction of the boundaries of Uakir-pur, 
(iiridhar-pur, and Mathura, may be traced a large aacieut tauk with a number of Buddhist stupas 
on its margin. 

21. Barhoti. — The predecessors of the present Gaurua zamindars were Kirara. There is a 
hadamh-hkandi of 166 bighas with a temple of Buddlianaud Lakshmi Narayan, built by Maugal Das, 
liairagi, about a century ago. Jama, Rs. 1,600. 



In 1868 it was divided into two equal 



22. Basdi was settled by Giijars in Akbar's rei 
nialals called Uda and Kauha. 

23. Basonti, on the Agra Canal, with a bridge and rest-house. The old Jasavat family 
now uvti. only 2^ biswas, the Maja of Awa 15, and Brahmans the remaining 2^. Jama, Hs. 1,350. 



PATIGANA MATHURA. 
Alphabetical Lut of Villages — (continued). 



43 





Name. 


Populatim. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
nian. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


24 


Batlii 


1,759 


139 


1,89S 


Mahaut Gob--iid 
Diis. 


G a u r u a , 
(Kac b h- 
Avaha.) 


2,990 


25 


Berka 


283 


6 


289 




Ditto and 
Jat. 


235 


26 


Bhadal 


853 


21 


874 




Sauadh ... 


1,670 


27 


Bhadar ... 


264 


... 


2C4 




u\ 


520 


?8 


Bhagosa 


617 




617 




Sanadh ... 


1,637 


29 


Bhavau-pura ... 


9H3 


• 


979 




Jat, (Ktin- 
tel.) 


383 


31) 


Bija-pur 


459 


26 


485 


Prasad! L.al, 

Cbaube. 


Chamar ... 


815 


31 


Boripa 


728 


50 


778 




Jat CKuntel), 


1,493 


32 


Brinda-ban 


20,160 


836 


20,996 






2,027 



24. Bdthi, en the customs line between Satoba and Chaumuba, bus long been held rauafi 
by tbe Gurus of the Raja of Bharat-pur for the use of the temple c,f Si: a liain, of which they are 
the berrditary mabants. The shrine stands within the walls of the villasje fort, built by Mahant 
Kani Kidun Das in tbe time of Siiraj Mall. The first zamindars were Kaliils, then Gauruas, and 
tbe latter have sold eiglit hiswas to the mnafilar, Gobind Das. In the Siicred t;rove of Bahnla- 
ban, from which the plice derives its name, are several small shrines, and a mela is held at it, as 
one of the atati.ms in the Ban jatra, on Bbadon badi 12. 

25. Berka, 'the ber tree grove,' was originally held by Kirars, but re-founded by one Balaram, 
the ancestor of the present zamindars. Jama Ks. .097. 

26. Bhaddl was divide 1 in 1851 into two mabals, the one of llf, tbe otiier 8| biswas, and 
this latter has been again subdividert int > f ur. Both were 1 >ng mortgiged to Jngal Das, Bairagi, 
and ISi a Ran Kliattri, but have nov^ been .-edeemed with tbe exceptiou of a small share, of which 
the Bairagis have acquired absolute possession. Jama, Us. 1,900 

27. Bhadar . fouivled by Indra and Ltilman, Bhadauriya Thakurs, whence the name. There 
19 a fort built by Man ^Sinh. Jat, and a nnsonry tank due to Incha, zainindar. 224 bighas are 
Ciccnpied by a. da liar, ov w)od. Jama, Ks. 710. In the mutiny the zamindars were attacked by 
the people of Singa and had to flee to Phenehri. 

28. Bhagosa. — The jama (Hs. 1,659_) is appropriated to the maintenance of the temple of 
Harideva at Gobardhan (see page 173). The old zamindars were Kirars ; are now Sanadhs. 

29. Bhavan-pura. — One of the villages conferred for a time after tbe mutiny on Chaudhari 
Daulat Sinh. Jama, Rs. 1,009. Brabmans are now shareholders to a small extent. 

30. Bijd-pur, founded 250 years aso, by Bijay Sinh, R:ijpr.t, who took half of tbe villaoeof 
Narhauli and called it after his own name. Till 1841 it was all minifl, an. I 4o;? li Im^ nr^ so 
still, held by a Cbaube who also owns 15 biswas of the zamiuoaii. The Gjvernment jama is 
Ks. 203 

31. Boripa. — The old zamindars were Kirars, the present are Jafs and Dlmsars. Jama, 
Ks. 2,107. 

32. ^ri»f/d-6a?«.— See page 113. For some unexplained and inexplicable reason the official 
designatioQ of this town is declared to be Bindrabun .' 



44 



PARGANA MATHURA. 
Alphaletical List of Villages — (continned). 







Population. 








No. 


Name. 


Hindus. 


]\rusal- 
luan. 


Total. 


I'l'incipal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 

caste. 


Acreage. 


83 


Chhatikra 


667 


23 


690 


Baiiinali Charan 
Das, Maliant. 


Gaurua 


1,364 


84 


Chhirora 


.394 


13 


407 


... 


Lodha 


746 


85 


Datij-a, 5 biswas 


7J 


... 


71 


Brahmane. 


Sanadh 


160 


86 


Ditto 15 biswas, 


258 


29 


287 


Ditto 


Gaurua and 
Jat. 


502 


37 


Daulat-pur 


151 


279 


430 




Mewati ... 


403 


88 


Daum-pura 


158 


... 


158 




Jat (Kuntel), 


68 


S9 


Dhan-ganw 


1,047 


28 


1,075 


GujaratiBrahmans 


Gaurua 


1,522 


40 


Dhaurera 


96 




96 


Gosain Purushot- 
tam Lai. 


Brahman ... 


1,267 


41 


Dyoseras 


1,132 


494 


1,626 




Ditto and Me- 
wati. 


2,804 


42 


Ganesara 


745 


3 


748 




Brahman ... 


1,145 



33. ChhaUkra, on the Delhi road, was founded by Manu, .lama, and Kor, three Kaehwa'ias 
from Kal. Their descendants now retain only 1| biswa, the rest liaving been sold to the mahant of 
the temple of Syum Sundar at Brinda-ban, who is also muafidar. Tnere is n jhdri, or wood, with a 
email shrine dedicated to Garur Gobind, which is reputed to be of great antiquity, and is highly 
venerated. On bawan sudi 8, during what is called the pilnch tirith-ka-mela it ia visited 
by a large number of pilgnm.s ; the other four holy places being Maithu ban at Maholi, l^'alltallU- 
kund at Satoha, Gokarnesvar at Mathura, and the Brahm-kund, at Brinda-ban. 

34. Chhirura, (Chhitara-pura), founded by Man and Manoliar, two Lodhas, who came with 
Eaja Jasaraj, Kaclihw aha, from Amber, and settled tirst i>t Kofa, and thence removed to Chhinira, 

which they named after a relative Chhitar. The zamindars are now Bairagis, Khattris, Baiiiy;i8, 
and Dhusars. The jama (Hs, 1,420) till 1817 was enjoyed by a Chaube named Nand Lai. Tin re 
is a stone bduli dating tn-ni tHe time of the Dellii Emperors. lu the present map of the distiict 
this place is spelt Juhrewruh ! 

37. Dnulat-pur derives its present name from Daulat Sinh, Mewati, to whom it was given 
by Raja Suraj Mall. The old name was Lechoia, and the zamindars Jasavats. Jama, 1\8.550. 

35. Daum-pura. — See Niiinu Patti. 

39. Dhan-ydnw, founded by Ati-bal, a Tarkan G.iurua, who came from Sarsa and expelled 
the Ivirars. Till »826 the village was included in the Larrah pargana of the Agra District. 
Jama, lis. 2,199. 

40. Dhaurera, on the Jamuna, between Mathura and Brinda-ban, was also called Shah-al>atl. 
The village founders were Kachhwahas, from whom the estate bus passed to Gosain Purusholtuni 
Lai. At the small hamltt of Akrur, which is populated entirely by Gosaiiis, is the ancient tem- 
ple of Biiiari Ji, better known by the name Bhatrund, where a meld is held on the iull moon of 
Kartik. (See page 114.) Jama, lis. 1,000. 

41. Di/nscras.— The name is said to be derivid from the Hish.i Durvasas and the pond is 
shown where he is said to have practised penance : but the derivation does not, appcHr very- 
probable. The olfl zainindiirs were Bralimana and Jasavats ; the present proprietor is liadha, 
■widow of Har Prasad, the purohit of the Baja of Bharat-pur. Jama, Ks. 3,000. 

42. Ganesara, founded by one Gur Deva from Rasiya in Bliarat-pur, whose descendants 
still retain 16 biswas. With the exception of 316 bighas 18 biswas, assessed in 1854 at Ks. 290 



TARGANA MATHUHA. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



45 





Name, 


Population 








No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


i'redominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


43 


Ganthauli 


1,467 


23 


1,490 


HarPhul,Brilhman, 
Roshan Lai, 
Kbattri. 


Sanadh 


2,360 


44 


Ghatam Patti ... 


228 


2 


230 




Jat (Kuntel), 


572 


45 


Giridhar-pur ... 


210 


... 


210 


Mall ant Kishan- 
Das. 


Gaurua 


435 


46 


Gobardhan (Brali- 
man:in). 


1,750 


8 


1,758 








47 


Gobardhan ("Gau- 
nia.) 


2,244 


195 


2,439 








48 


Gobind-pur 


66 


1 


57 


Brahmans 


Chamar ... 


455 


49 


Gopal-pur 


17 


... 


17 


Rani Rakhsh and 
Zahiriya, Bani- 


Jat (Kuntel), 


208 


50 


Hakim-pur 


4)6 


12 


428 


yas. 


Jat 


501 


51 


Iiidau 


1,227 


... 


1,227 




Ditto 


1,319 


52 


Jachaundba ... 


873 


2 


875 


SwaraiRangaclia- 
rya. 


Gaurua (Ka- 
chhwalial. 


1,640 


53 


Jait 


1,743 


89 


1.832 


Heirs of Lala Ba- 
hu 


Gaurua 


3,925 



and called Maliai Ramhba Chaubin. after the name of the htsc grantee, the v\ liole village is 
enjoyed muaf by Raghu-uath, Bhiit There is a,jhdri of 31 bighas. 

43. Gd'ilhduli, on the road to Df^. Here is a sacred pond called Gu!a!-kund, with a temple 
and dhanu-sala. Tiie old zaminJars were Gujars, Jasav^ats, and Braiinians, of whom the last 
named still remain, while the others have been superseded by Khattria. Jama, Rb. 2,987, 

44. Ghdt.im Palti.—See Mangotla. Jama, Rs. 1,730. 

45. Giridhar-pur, s) called from Giridhir, a Kichhwa'ia. who came fram Satoha. His 
descendants have sold the greater pirt to the maailar, the mahant of the temple of Dan Rae 
at Brindri-ban. There is an old temple of Devi. 

46-47. Gobardhan.— See -page \ 60. 

48. Gobind-pur has never been assessed, being held muaf by the heirs of Jacannath, Bhat 
who are at the present time Gobardhan- nath, Mathura-nath, Gopi-nath, and Som-nath. ' ' 

50. Hahim-pnr.' — So called after the founder, a p'lvsici.an at the Rmpcror's court. The old 
zamindars were Kirars, are now Pachandra and Kudar Jats and Baniyas. Here is a dharm-sala 
built by Sabha, Chaube. The village, divided by recpnt Batwara into three raahals, of 19 6, and 
2 biswas respectively, was after the mutiny confiscated for a time and bestowed on Chaudhari 
Daulat Sinh. 

51. Indaii. — So called after the founder, a .Tat, from Bachh-ganw, who expelled the old oc- 
cupants, Kirars Seven of his descendants have given their names to as many nagaras, Sabala 

Deviya, Sherd, Gulal, Maruf, Ilarpal, and Shafi. Jama, Rs. 2,200. 

52. Jachaunda, on the road to Dig. Purchased from the Gauruas by Saiyid Imdad Ali 
Deputy Collector, and sold by him to Swami Rangacharya. Jama, lis. 2,300. 

53. Jait. — On tlie Delhi road. Police station, district post oilice, and halkahandi school. 
Was founded by Raja Jasaraj, Kachhwaha, from Kota, and transferred by his descendants in 18 H 



46 



PARGANA MATnURA. 

Alpliahetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 




rojiulution 




Principal Pruprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Uiudus. 


Miisal- 
luali. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


64 


Jajan Patfi 


1.461 


41 


1,505 




JaKKuntel), 


1,241 


55 


Jakhin-ganw ... 


785 


35 


820 


Raja Prithi Sinh 
of A^va. 


Gaiirua 


1,760 


£6 


Jamal-pur Sarao, 


451 


7 


458 


Gobardlian an d 
Bhavani Sinh, 
Toniare. 


Cliamar 


656 


57 


Jamunauta 


324 


4 


328 


Swiimi Hangaclia- 
rya. 


Ganrua (Ja- 
.avat). 


1,125 


68 


Jangali Bayi 


909 


4 


913 




Jat (Kuntel) 


586 


69 


Janu 


1,617 


48 


1,665 




Ganrua (Ja- 
savat). 


3,162 


60 


Jati-jiura 


725 


121 


846 


Sii Giridliari Ji, 
Gosain, 


Malakana & 
Bralinian. 


841 



A. D , witliout any written agreement or definite consideration to tiie La la Babii Till I808, tho 
village was part of the ja^ir of Baija R:ii, and included in the Sonsa Pargaua ; then was attach- 
ed to the Farrah, and in 1834, to the Mathura Pargana. Jami, Ks. 4,952. 

54. Jdjan Patti.—See Mangotla. Jama, Rb. 2,829. 

55. Jahhin-gdnw. — Sold to the Raja of Awa by Keso-nand, Gosain of the temple of Srinear- 
bat at Brinda-bau This is one of tlie stations in the Ban-jatra ; and there is a temple of Bala- 
deva built by Rup Ram of Bars-ana. The Agra Canal passes through the village lands. Jama, 
Ks. 1,800. 

56. Jamdl-pur Sarde, in the Mathura Civil Lines, is said to have been first founded by a 
Tomar from Mai Mirza-pur, but derives its present name from the Sarae, now used as the Police 
Damdama, built by Khwaja Itibar Khan, governor of Delhi, in Akhar's reign, who also built the 
Sarae at Kosi. In the mutiny the Tomar zamindars, Scrhu and Man Sinh, pillaged and burned 
the houses in the station, in return for which they were flogged almost to death, and their village 
destroyed. It has been rebuilt on another spot, but the old .site is occupied by the Magistrate's 
Court-house. The jama is Rs. 280 ; part has been mortgaged to Rati, Garariya, of Nagara Baha- 
dur. 

57. Jamunauta is said to have been once on the river-bank. Jama, Rs. 2,006. On the road- 
eide north of the village is a dharm-siila built by Majlis Rao, Baniya, of Bharat-pur. 

58. Janyali Ban.— See Nainu Pat^i. 

59. Jdau.—On the Bharatpur border. The former zamindars were Kirars: a part is now 
owned by Baniyas. There is a dttdk trc^ jungle of 21 bighas, in which is the hut of a fakir, Ram- 
zaii Shall, with a piind. Four small tenii)k'8. Jama, Rs.2,s00. This was one of the villages tem- 
porarily confiscated after the mutiny and bestowed on Chaudhari Daulat Sinh. 

60. Jati-pura, on the Gobardhan range, was first so called by Gosain Bitthal-nath, alias 
Jati Ji: its older name was Gopal-pur. The original zamindars were Gaiiruas, but tlieir estate 
has passed into the hands of (he muafldar, the Gosain of the temple of Navanit-priya at Gokul. 
There has never been a Government assessment. There is a kuciamb-khandi of 273 bi«has, where 
the Raslila i;- celebrated, Bhadon sudi 11; and on the day after the new moon of Iviirtik the Anii- 
kut mela is held at the temple of Gokul-nath. On every full moon throughout the year, people 
will be seen perforuiing the pari-krania. On the summit of the ridge are the remains of the old 
temple of Sii-nath, built by liallabhacliarj'a, and in the village many other temples and tanks — 
Navanit-prya, Bitthal-nath, Mathura-nath, and Sukta-kund constructed by Gosain Bitthal-nath; 
Bijay-iiath, built by Raja Jay Sinh ; Udliokund, Airavati-kund constructed by Raja jNahar Sijih 
oi Bliarat-pur, aud Ilari Ji-kund by Seth Lajja Ram of liharol. 



PARGANA MATHURA. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



47 





Nauie. 




Popuhitio 


.. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus 


Musal- 
uiaa. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


61 


Jay-siuh-pura ... 


M35 


116 


1,251 


Kishori Lai, Dlm- 
sar. 


Chamar and 
Musalman, 


1,001 


C2 


Jhapra 


176 


1 


»77 




Jdt 


322 


63 


Jonai 


286 




286 


BrahnianBandTha- 
kurs. 


Brahman, 


592 


64 


Junedi 


637 


14 


651 


P.aja Prithi Siuh 
of Awa. 


Ditto 


1,178 


65 


Junsujhl 


1,118 


76 


1,194 


S e t h Gobardhan 
Daa 


G a u r u a 

(Kachhwa- 
ha). 


1,720 


66 


Kaniaul 


298 


22 


320 


Gopain Piirushot- 
tam Lai. 


Tar!< ar Tha 
kurs and 
Chamars. 


900 


67 


Keso-pur 


14 


... 


14 


Lodhas 


Mali 


170 



61. Jay-sinh-pura, on the Brinda-han road, was originally known as Daiid-pur, subsequent- 
ly as Hae-pur after K:le Rana one of Akbar's nobles, and derives its present name from the foun- 
der of Jay-pur. He gave it to certain Muhammadans and Giijars ; and the former are still zamiu- 
dars of 16 biswas, while the remaininsr 4, constituted into a separate estate, are owned by Kishori 
Lai, Dhusar. Jama, Ks. 517. On a hill overlooking the Jamuna are the remains of Jay Sinh's 
mansion, now commonly called Mihal Dudliadhari. Before the mutiny the Nana of Bithor had 
a house and garden of 17 bighas here The former was razed to the ground and the materials 
sold to iJurga Prasad, Kfcattri, wlio has built shops on the site ; the garden was given to Pandit 
Durga Prasad, Deputy Collector, in district Aligarh. On Kartik sudi 9 the mela of the Jugadi 
Navarai is held, and every fortniglit, from Asarh sudi 11 to the stme date in Kartik, perambula- 
tions of Muthura are made, starting from the Sarasvati-kund. There is a shrine of Chamun4a 
Devi aud a Saraugi temple. 

62. Jhaprd. —The Jat zamindars belong to the Pachandara clan. Jama, Es. 468. This was 
one of the villages given temporarily after the mutmy to Chaudhari Daul.it Siuh. 

6-^. Ji<7i«i was founded by Gopal Sinh, Rajput, whose descendants still rttiin 10 biswas; 
the other 10 have passtd to Brahniaus. In |8U7, Jonai was part of the j:igir of Baija Bai iu par- 
gana Sonsa, and was included iu the Sahar Tahsili till 1843, \yheu it was first assessed at Rs. 425. 
The present jama is Ks. 666. 

64. J"uHet/i was sold to the Raja by Kesavanand, Gosaiu of the temple of Sringar-bat at 
Briuda-ban. Jama, Rs. 1,400. 



65. Junauthi. — The Katchhwahas have sold 19 biswi 
J is held by Jafs. Jama, Rs. 2,662. 



to Seth Gobardhan Das, the remaininc 



66. Karndul is said to derive its name from Raja Kama, is certainly named after some 
Kama or other. 800 years ago it was re-settled by Angan, Tarkar, fromTartora, and Chaud, Ahir, 
from Maha-ban, who.se descendants partly told, partly mortgaged, tlie estate to Seth Rup Chand, 
■whose sou Gobardhan Das made a gift of it to Gosains Bittlial-nach and Purushottam Lai. The 
latter now enjoys it with hilthal-nalli's two sous, Kalyan Kae and Braj-riath. Till 1817, it was 
held muafl by one Ram Kishan, but resumed on his death iu that year. Jatna, Rs. 1,363, 

67. Keso-pur, so called after the famous temple of Kesava Deva, comprises the city 
suburbs about the Katra, Here is a Jaiui temple built by Mani Ram the father of Seth Lakhmi 
Chand. Jama, Rs. 131. 



48 



PAR G AN A MAT nun A, 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 







Population. 








iNo. 


Name. 


Hindus. 


IMnsal- 
niau. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


68 


Klianiiui 


047 


ae 


716 


Tuisi Kaiu, Baniya 


Gujar 


846 


69 


Khilu 


753 


12 


767 




Jat(Kuutel) 


623 


70 


Koila, 'Ali-pur ... 


667 


n 


6S4 




Brahman 
Chamar. 


1,638 


71 


Konai 


954 


21 


975 


Raja Prithi Sinli 
of Awa. 


Jadun 


1,894 


72 


Kosi (Little) ... 


737 


30 


767 


S w ii m i Ranga- 
charya. 


G a u r u a 
(Tarkars). 


1,874 


73 


Kota 


486 


14 


600 


Janaki PrasaJ of 
Raya. 


Gaurua and 
Chamar. 


1,316 



68. Khdmini, on the road to Gobardlian, originally belonged to Kachhwahas and Gujars, from 
whom it has passed to Tuisi Ram, modi of the Raja of Bharat-pur. Jama, lis. 1,500. 

69. Khila.—'&eQ Naitiu Patti. 

70. Koila 'Ali-piir, on the .Tamnna opposite Gokul, was held muafi by IVIunawar Ali Shah of 
Agra, till his death in 1831, when it was resumed. The jama is now Hs. 1,617. It was nnce two 
distinct villages, Sinalh Upalhj'as beim? the znmindars of Kaila and Guiruas of 'Ali-pur. Part 
is now owned by Gosain Purushottam Lai. There are a sarae and mosque, built by Bhuri Begain 
in the time of the Mughal Emperors. 

71. Konai, on the Agra Cunal, was sold to the Haja by Kcsavanand, Gosain of the temple of 
Sringar-bat at Brinda-ban. Jama, lis. 1,550. Thtre is a rahhyu of very cimsiderable extent, with 
a fine group of kadanib trees in tlie centre, on the margin of a large i)ond; the whole furuiing a 
very pitturesque spot. On the outskirts of this hudamb-khnndi, in addition to the usual bushes 
of hins and kuril, and many chlionkar, renja, and Libera trees, there are several of the rarer akol 
and the sahora, and also by a second pond one venerablf sptcimen of the ptlu/i/uin, a variety of 
the fig genus, scarcely fcmnd anywhere else in the district, with foliage resembling that of the 
pi/ja/ and fruit like tile ^rt/rty. Tliere is a temple of Devi, a substantial iniclv-built pyramidal 
tower, partly in ruins, with elaborately carved jambs and lintel to its doorway and many frag- 
ments of sculpture of a somewhat earlier date. Also a small stone clihatti in memory of Jasu, 
an officer in the service of the bharat-pur Raj, whose grandson, Pitambar, is still living in the 
village. Adjoining it is a very large and deep well, tiie water of which is so brackish that it 
is impossible to use it for any purpi se whatever. The want of good water is general through- 
out the whole of the village, and in consequeace 1,418 biglias of land are now lying waste, out of a 
total aica of 3,308. The canal will probably cause a great part of this to be brought under 
cultivation : but there is some difficulty in tiie matter, for 750 liighas, including 575 of 
waste, lie west of the canal, and can only IJe readied after going round either by the Basoiati or 
Bharna bridge, eacii being more tiian two miles distant from the vilinge, The oljjectiou to 
founding a subordinate liamlet across the canal is tiiat no water fit for drinking purposes can be 
obtained there. The inhaljitauts are petitioning for the coustructioa of an additional bridge. 

72. Kosi (Lilile), on the Bharat-pur road, has a bridge over the Agra Canal and rest- 
house, a temple of Hihari Ji, and an old mud-built sarao. There is a market on Saturday. 
Jama, Rs. 3,000. The masonry wells, of Avhich one occurs here and others at intervals along the 
road were suuk at the expense of a Rani of the present Bharat-pur Ciiief, a daughter of the Raja 
of Pattiala. 

73. Kola, on the Delhi road, is said to have been once called K;itak-ban. Tlie ancestor of 
the old Kaciibwalia zamiiulars was one Jasraj from Amber, wiio.so descendants sold tlie estate to 
Hardcva Das and Baladova Das the heirs of Sarang Das, who bad been mmifidar till his death in 
1850. The Government assessment is now Rs. 1,815. Janaki Prasad, Baniya of Raya, now owns 
19| biswas, the rtmiining ;} biswa being administered by tho Court of Wards on behalf of Har- 
deva Prasad, grandson of Durga Prasad. 



PARGANA MATHURA. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



49 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
Caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


:\rusai- 

man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


74 


Kothra 


329 


... 


329 


Earn BakhBh of 
Ariog. 


Jat (Kuntel) 


612 


75 


Kunjera 


704 


25 


729 


... 


Jadon ... 


1,627 


76 


Lal-pur 


670 


6 


675 


Katara Brahmans. 


Jogi, 


1,664 


7" 


Ldi^-pur 


282 


66 


348 


Sridhar, Chaube, 


Brahman and 
Malakaaa. 


1,127 


78 


LoTha PatU 


1,534 


46 


1,580 




Jat (Kuntel) 


1,563 


79 


Madan-pura 


108 


5 


113 


Mir Madad Ali, 
road contractor. 


Ahir, ... 


392 


80 


Madho-pur 


227 


16 


243 


Mahamai, sister of 
Syama Prasad, 
Tahsildar. 


Mallah, ... 


223 


81 


Madhuri-kund ... 


1,112 


221 


1,333 




Gaurua, ... 


1,545 



74. Kothra.— The Jama is Rs 1,000; but since the mutiny only Ks. 750 are paid to Go- 
vernment, the balance being a grant to the lumberdar for his good services. 

75. Kunjera, or Kunj-ban, has a sacred pond called Baladeva-kund, with a small temple 
bearing the same title. Jama, Rs. 2,271. The old zamindars were Jasavats ; are now Jadons. 

76. Ldlpur, on the Sonkh road, with a bridge over the Agra Canal, founded by one Lain, 
Gaurua, was in the time of Thakur Chura-raani of Bharat-pur held as a jagir by Mumrez, J;i{. 
It was subsequently resumed, but the zamindari was confirmed to his heirs, who transferred it 
to a family of Katara Brahmans. One of the latter, by name Khumani, purohit of the Rana of 
Dhol-pur, was killed by the Jats in the mutiny. 

77. Ldr-pur, was founded by a Tarkar named Laram, who came from across the Ganges. Of 
his descendants, Ganga, the owner of 5 biswas, turned Muhammadan ; other 5 biswas have been 
sold to Sarwar and Fancham, Brahmans ; the remainder continued with the Hindu portion of 
the old family till recently, when the entire village was purchased by Sridhara, Chaube. He 
also owns 7^ biawas of the hamlet of Mani Ram, while the other 12,^ biswas arc held as a separ- 
ate niahal by Brahmans of a different family. Lar-pur was held mudf by Baladeva, Gosaiii, a 
disciple of Swami Haribans, by grant of Madho Rao Sindhia, till 1856, when it was assessed at 
Rs. 850. 

78. Lirha-Patti, on the Sjnkh road, is so called after its founder. The original zamindars 
•were Kirars. Jama, Rs. 3,?00. 

79. Madan-pura, on the Jamuna and liable to diluvion, was founded by an Ahir from the 
neighbouring village of Karnaul. His descendants have transferred it to Contractor Mir Madad 
Ali. Till 8161 it was part of the jaglr of Fakir Bottle Shah of Aurangabad. Jama, Ra. 350. 

80. Mddho-pur, on the Jamuna, adjoining the cantonments, was formed out of Mathur:i, Ja- 
malpur, and May Mirza-pur by Salim Sliah some 300 years ago, who gave it to a Mallah, Chaina. 
It was confiscated after the mutiny, and conferred, first on Seth Roshan Lai, but finally on Pandit 
Durga Prasad, Deputy Collector. In consequence of diluvian, the jama has been reduced from 
Rs. 382 to Rs. 250. 

81. Mddkuri-khund, on the Agra. Canal, is now divided into three mahala called Ram-bal, 
Purbal, and Magol. The kund is said to be named after one of Radha's companions ; and bathing 
in it on a Wednesday is thought to be sure to bring as much good luck as a visit to 68 places of 
l)i1grimase. There ;s a temple of Mohan-ji and a nameless Chhattri in a garden. The old zamindars 
vwe Kirara, are now Kaclihwahas. For tlieir good ctmdiict in the m'ltiny they received a dona- 
tio* of lis, 400, and one year's jama, Rs. 1,337, was remitted. 



50 



PABGANA MATnTTRA. 

AlpJiahetical List of Villa ges^ — (continued). 





Name. 


/ 


Population 




Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Mnsal- 
luan. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


S2 


Magbera 


7S8 


3 


791 




Brahman 
(Gautam) 


1,290 


83 


Maholi 


1,113 


54 


1,167 


Heirs of Lala 
Eabu. 


Gaurua ... 


2,37S 


84 


Mahrauli ... 


1,507 


46 


1,553 


Riidha, widow of 
Har Prasad, 
Purohit. 


G a u r u a 
(Jasavat), 


2,901 


85 


May Mirza-pur... 


624 


4 


628 


Seth Mangi Lai „. 


Gaurua 
Chamar. 


296 


86 


Malhu 


977 


14 


991 




Jat (Kuntel) 


992 


87 


jMalsariie 
Mangotla 


60O 


I 


601 




Jat 


645 


88 


Marora ... 


335 


324 


659 


... 


Mewati ... 


1,253 


89 


Miisiim-nagar ... 


209 


5 


214 


Param-anand, Misr, 


Gil jar 


390 



The zamindara were 



82. Mag/wra is held muaf by Nand Kuuwar, Bhat, of Brinda ban. 
formerly Kuars ; are now Ahivasis. 

83 Mnhnli, i. e, Afadhupuri, was refounded by two Kachhwahas, ndj-deva and Bhoj-deva, 
the sons of Jasraj of Kota. The estate continued with their descendants till 1812, wlieu it vf»a 
6' Id for the insignificant sum of Rs. 900 to the l.a!a Eabu. The jama is now Ks. 3,23'.). Though 
only a few uiilet? from Matiuira, tlie village was long tlic heail of a pargana and subsequently was 
included in Arfng till 1833. By the sacred grove of Madhu-ban is a masonry tank called Madhu 
kund, with a temple of Chafur-bhuj where a mc'a is held by the Ban-jatra pilgrims, Bhadou badi 
11. There is a halkabandi school. For further particulars see page 54. 

84. Mdhrdnii, probably a corruption of Mahidhara-puri, has a kadamb-khandi of 18 bisjhas 
and two small temples. The oM zaraindars were Jasavats ; tlie present proprietor is the widow of 
Har Prasad the Purohit of the Eajaof Bharat-pur. Jama, lis. 3,600. 

85. May Mirza-pur, on the Jarauna, adjoining the cantonments, was founded by Rana Baha- 
dur, a Tomar from Delhi, wlio named it after his son Maya Ram. From his heirs it has passed to 
S( th Mangi Liil. For a few years it was held inuaf by HaUiiu Nam-dar Kbau, The present jama, 
liable to revision, as the stream aft'ects the area, is Rs. 287. 

86. Malhu and the village of Singa were founded by the two sons of one Mahta, who called 
them after their own names. On the road to Mat'nira is a dharm-sala, built by Manasa Ram 
Sahukar, of Kumbhir, about 35 years ago, Jatna, Us. 2,200. 

87. Malsarde has passed from the old Kirar zamlndars to Sinsinw.ar Jata. Jama, Rs. 1,287. 

Mangotla, more commonly written and pronounced Magora, on the road to Bharat-pur, was, 
both under the Muharamadans and the Jilts, the head of a local division, and is reputed a place 
of great antiquity. After being long deserted, it was re-settled by a family of , Tomar Tbakurs, 
who divided it into four estates, which they called after their own names, Ghatam, Kain, Ajit and 
.TaJMH. These four pattis are now to all intents and purpo.ses distinct villages with the Mangotla 
ba>.ar as a common centre. There is a weekly market on Thur.^day and a halkabandi school. 

88. Marora, held muaf by Nand-kishor and Z;ihiriya, Biahmans. The old zamindars were 
Kiraru, are now .Tasavats and Chaurasiya Bi alunans, these latter being a branch of the Gaur 
tribe, from Mewat. A pond be.irs the name of Barokhar. 

b9. Md.ium-vngnr, originally culled Flaidar-pur, derives its later name fmm Ma^um Ali, 
Amil of Malhura under N.ij.af Kliau. It was founded in the first instance by bhoj-deva and 



PARGANA MATHURA. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



51 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predoniinanl 
caste. 




Ko. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total, 


Acreage. 


90 


Mathura (City) ... 


45,03.3 


8,291 

1 


54,324 


Heirs of Lala 
Biibu. 




3,234 


91 


Mora 


927 


21 


948 


... 


Gaurua ... 


1,628 


92 


Muhammadpur 


613 


... 


613 


... 


Brahman... 


563 


93 


Mukuud-pur 


420 


23 


413 


ScthMangiLal,.. 


Jat 


492 


94 


Mukharai 


582 


9 


691 




Sanalh ... 


9?1 


95 


Murcsi 


751 


5 


756 


... 


Bra'.mian... 


964 


96 


Murseraa ... 


1,041 


18 


1,059 


Gohardhan SiiLh, 
Jit. 


Gaurua (.Fa- 
fa'.' a t ) 
aud ,Iat. 


2,200 


97 


Mursliid-pur ... 


73 




73 


... 


Brdliaian... 


168 


98 


Nabi-pur 


283 


16 


299 


Heirs of Lai a 
Babu, 


Gaurua and 
Cliamar, 


1,176 



Kaj-deva, sons of Jasraj, Kachhwaha, from Kota, who gave it to their foster-fatlur, Buddha a 
Gujar. With his descendants it continued till 1810, when it was bought by Gujar Mall, sou of 
Dayanand :Mi8r, and father of the present proprietor. It was part of the jagir cf Baija Bai till 
1805, when it was fir.st assessed at Rs. 450. 

91. Mora, given muaf by Sindhia to Gn\ al, Bliat, whose heirs retained the half jama till 
1841, when it was settled with the Kachhwaha zamindars at l\s. 1.600. It hss now passed to 
Seth Gobardhan Das. In the mutiny one of the old zamindars, Chhitar, took a prominent part 
looting all the adjoining villages : he died in jail. ' 

92. Muhammad -pur, known on the spot only by its older name of Parsoli, is so cnlled after 
Muhammad Shah, in whose time it was resettled by si, me Bralimans from the neighbouriiifi town 
of Gobardhan. Here is the Chandra-Satovar, a fine octagonal tank with a temple of Lachhman 
both constructed by Kaja Nahar Siuh of Bharat-pur. Jama, Rs. 1,001. ' ' 

93. Mukund-pur, so called from the founder, a Mahnitta. Subsequently it wns occupied 
by some Jats from Kamar, named Gulah Lai, Sisa, Bhoja, and Jawahir, with Avhose descendanta 
it continued till after the mutiny. Jama, Rs. 1,047. 

94. A/i/^7irtra?, is held muaf by Mahant Ram Bakhsh. The old zamirdars were Kirars are 
now Sanadhs, Dhusars and Bairagis. In 1868 it was divided into three mahals. Jama, Hs. l'360. 

95. Muresi, on the Bharat-pur ro^id, is held muaf by the temple of Gaues, at Jay-sinb-pura. 
The founder was a Brahman from Kumbhir, named Bas. 



Rs. 1,900. 



Murseras, bought by the Jats from the old Gujar and Jasavat zemindars. 



Jama, 



97. Murshid-pur, on the Jamuna, adj. lining the city, derives its name from the local gover- 
nor, Mursliid Kuli Khan. It was first as-^essed in 1841. The jama, which varies accordino-'to the 
course of the river, is n w Rs. 430. The descendants of Sat ham, Sanadh, the village f'^.undcr 
still hold 7^ biswas ; Syam Lai and Madho Lai, sons of Shankar Lai, the old mukaddam (,f 
the city, 5 biswas ; Nand-kishor, Baniya, other 5, and Hardeva Frasad, Khattri, the reuiaining 2.'. 

98. Nahi-pvr derives its name from Abd-ul-nabi, the founder of the mosque in the centre of 
the city. It was s<dd by the Kachhwaha zamindars to the Hani Kaitani, the widow of the Lal£ 
Babii. Jama, Us. l.ruo, 



52 



PARGANA MATIIUKA. 

AJphahetical List of Villages — (continued). 







Population. 








No. 


Name. 


II Indus. 


Mu sal- 
man. 


Total 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


99 


Nagara Bbaa ,.. 


41 


... 


44 


Baladeva Misr and 
Lhagirath. 


Jat (Kun- 
tel). 


252 


100 


„ Bliunchba, 


227 




227 


... 


Ditto .„ 


120 


101 


„ Chauthai- 
ya. 


83 




83 


... 


Ditto ... 


272 


102 


Nagara Chhinga... 


407 


21 


428 




Ditto ... 


678 


103 


„ Gaju ... 


413 


4 


417 




Sanadh ... 


239 


104 


„ Ghaniya, 


262 


4 


266 




Jat (Kna - 
lel). 


92 


105 


„ Kalaa ... 


418 




418 




Ditto ... 


231 


106 


„ Kanku ... 


144 


... 


144 




Ditto ... 


211 


107 


„ Kdsi ... 


396 


1 


397 


S e t h Ghansyam 
Dai. 


G a u r u a 
(Kachh - 
waha). 


920 


108 


„ Neta ... 


163 


... 


163 




Jat 


280 


109 


„ Sa m a n t 
Nainu Patti. 


96 




S6 




Jat (Kun- 
tel). 


208 



93, 100, 101. JSagaras Blidn, Bltuachha, Chauthaii/a.—See Nainu Patti. 

102, IVagarti Chhinga.— In the time ot Tha'.iur Clmra-mani of Thun in Bharat-pur, a Kuntel 
Jat, by name Banarasi, "luld part of Sonsa and Boripa as jagir. His grandson fouudtd this ham- 
let, which he called after his own nanii'. Jama, Ks. 1,109. 

103, Nagara Gaju was first called Nagara Brahman, after the caste of its founders, who 
came from JuuButhi. Jama, Ks. 594. 

104, 105, 1U6, Nagaras Ghaniija, Kaldn, and Kanku.— See Nainu Patti. 

107. Nagara Kdsi, so called after its founder, who came from Junsuthi, was sold by the 
Kachhwahai to Seth Ghansyam Das, son of Gur Sahay Mall. Jama, Rs. 1,204. 

108. Nagara JSela was settled by J iUs from Barhota, with whose descendants it still con- 
tinues. Jama, Ks. 325. 

109. Nagara Sdmant, near Lal-pur on the Agra Canal, in the time of Thakur Chura-mani, 
of Thun, was held muaf by one of his Ivinsmeu named Muiurcz. The settlement was subsequent- 
ly made with the Jajs, but now they have only five biswas and Brahmans the other 15. Jama, 
Its. 215. 

Nainu i'w^/j consists of 11 distinct mahals «;?«., Arazi Shamilat, Daum-pura, Jangali Bari, 
Khilu, Saida ; and Nagaras Bhau, Bliu.icliha, Chautlia'ya, Ghaniya, Kalan and Kanku. These 
were formed by tlie sons and relations of the original Jiit proj)rietjr, Nainu, viz., Jangali Biiri, 
Kiulu and Saida, by his three sons so named; Nagaras Bhuehh i, Ghaniya, Kalan and Kanku, by the 
children of his fourth s jh Kirat ; and Nagaras Lihau and Chauthaiya and Daum-pura by his kins- 
men. A bainigi I'riya D:ls held 70 bighas 7 biawas miiAt, and this land wlien resumed waa 
c instituted the Arazi bhiimilat. The older zamiudars were Ivirars. There is a small temple of 
liiaj-bhulihau. 



PARGANA MATHURA. 
Alphahetical List of Villages — (continued). 



53 







Population. 








No. 


Name, 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


1 

Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage, 


110 


Nahrauli 


685 


38 


723 




Chamar and 
Gaurua. 


705 


111 


Naugama ... 


563 


21 


684 


Baglichi Bohra, 
mortgagee. 


Gaurua ... 


1,265 


112 


Naugama Mahal... 


3 


... 


3 


Harideva Das, 
Bairagi. 


Ditto ... 


... 


113 


Nawada 


211 


... 


211 


Ealyan Lumber- 
dar. 


Ditto ... 


€50 


114 


Nim-gauw 


917 


21 


938 


... 


Gaurua 
(Jasavat) 


2,159 


115 


Paitha 


1,614 


98 


1,712 


... 


Sanadh ... 


3,080 


116 


Pali (Brahmanan), 


195 




195 


... 


Ditto ... 


242 


117 


„ (Gaurua) ... 


48 


... 


48 


Nathu Sinh, Kachh- 
waha. 


Mali 


243 



110. Nahrduli, on the Bharat-pur road, was founded by Jasraj, Kachhwaha, and named 
after Nahar, one of his relatives. His descendants still retain one-third, while Palti 13aladeva has 
been acquired by Bhau and Pratap of Mat, and Patti t'awdi by Keval and others of Maholi. 
Jama, Ks. 1,079. To punish the people for the part they had taken in pillaging the Civil Station, 
their village was burnt down after the mutiny, and for a time given to Seth Eoshaa Lai. On a 
chabutara by the roadside is an ancient Mabadeva, sculptured with a head in relief. 

111. Nangdma is said to derive its name from one Nag, a Kachhwaha, who came from 
Maholi and ejected the Kalars : in which case the original form of tiie name must have been 
Nagama. Part has been mortgaged to Biighchi, Bohra; and part sold to .Janaki Prasad of Paya. 
The jama, Rs. 1,942, is enjoyed mudf by Anand Lai and Madho Lai, Baidjas, a gift from Sindhia. 

112. T^augdma Mahal was held muaf by Prahlad Das, Bairagi, and formed into a separate 
estate on his death, when it was settled at Es. 35 with his chela, Chhabiia Das, who has now been 
succeeded by Harideva Das. This latter has mortgaged it to Kundan Lai, Baniya, agent for two 
Mahratta ladies, Tapi Bai and Jamuna Bai. 

113. Nau-dda, like Naugama, was formed by Nag, Kachhwaha, the son of Sarang, and grand- 
son of Jasraj, who came from Satoha and and took 400 bighas out of each of the four adjoining 
villages, Aurangabad, Bija-pur, Aruki, and Tartora. His descendants are still in part possession. 
Jama, Rs. 872. 

114. Mm-jrdnw, on the Chhata and Gobardhan road, is so called after Gosain Manohar Das, 
of the Nimbarak Sampradaya, who built a small temple, still standing. Jama, Rs. 2,307. 

115. Pai/Aa, near Gobardhan (.Jama, Rs. 3,166), is held muaf by Misrs Baladeva Lai and 
Ganga Ram of Mathura, of whom the former is accounted the most learned astronomer and astro- 
logist in this part of India. The zamindars of old were Kirars ; are now Brahmans and Gujars. 
There is a masonry tank called Narayan Sarovar, and by it a small temple, of great reputed 
antiquity, dedicated to Chaturbhuj, with a curiously twisted tree known as the A'lntha kadamb, and 
a natural cave believed to reach the whole way to Gobardhan, and to be the one that the people of 
Braj went into to save themselves from the wrath of Indra. There are also two other small tem- 
ples, and, on the load to Gobardhan, a Mahaleva called Muhari that is said to be sunk an im- 
mense depth in the ground, and will never allow itself to be covered over. Several attempts have 
been made to build a temple over it -, but whenever the roof began to be put on, the walls were 
sure to fall in. This and several other of the sacred sites in the neighbourhood are marked by 
inscribed tablets set up last ceutury by an officer under Sindhia. 

116, 117. Pali, divided before the mutiny into two Mahals, in one of which Brahmaus from 
Bayhota; io the other Gaurua Jasavats are zimiadars. The jama of each is Rs. 330. 



54 



PARGANA MATHURA. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


118 


„ CDungara) ... 


149 


... 


149 




Jat (Kun- 
tel.) 


196 


119 


„ Khera 


481 


... 


481 




Ditto ... 


650 


120 


„ Malita 


413 


27 


440 




Ditto ... 


528 


121 


Panua-pur 






... 


Madho Lai Chau- 
be. 


Ditto ... 


398 


122 


Paral 


683 


64 


647 




Sanadli ... 


1,861 


123 


Parson 


2,416 


29 


2,445 


Raja Prithi Siuh 
of Kishan-garh. 


Ahivasi ... 


3,712 


124 


Phenchri 


335 


4 


339 


Zalim Sinh and 
Ram C h a n d, 
Lumberdars. 


Jat (Kun- 
tel). 


693 


125 


Phondar 


2,989 


81 


3,070 




Ditto ... 


3,242 


125 


Pura 


452 


6 


458 




Ditto ... 


1,240 


127 


Piifua 


868 


236 


1,104 




Ditto ... 


508 



118 and 120. rdli, on the road to Sonkh, ia said to have been named in honour of Anang 
Pal of Delhi, by a Tliakur, three of whose descendants, Dungara, Lorha, and Mahta formed it into 
as many separate mahals, Lorha, which is uninhabited, has a jama of lis. 310, Dungara, Ks. 420, 
and Mahta, Rs. 150. 

119. Pali Kherd was founded by the sons of Jasraj, Rachhwiihas from Maholi, who named 
it after their sovereign lord, Anang Pal of Delhi. It continued witli their descendants till above 
100 years ago, when Nagaru and Dalua sold 174 biswas to Dhan Sinh, Gujar, and Kripa, Jat. 
The remaining 2i biswas were acquired by Gujars in 1813. Jama, Ks. 479. 

121. Pavna-pur, founded about the year 1725, by Pajina, Khwaja, in the service of 
Sawai Jay Sinh, who took 200 biglias from Mathura and as many from Nahrauli and Maholi. 
It was made over to Tuisi, Gujar, his foster-tather, who bestowed five biswas of it on Hrah- 
tnans. The present zamindars are Chaubes, Gujars and Bairagis. Jama, Ks. 273. It is uuia- 
habited. 

122. Pdral, on the Chhata and Gobardhan road, was made into two mahals in 1842; Brah- 
mans having 12J, and Khattris 7i biswas. Jama, Ks. 1,936. 

123. Parson, the present Ahivasi zamindars acquired from the Kirars. The Raja of 
Kiahangarh is muafidar. Two small temijles and a halkabandi school. 

124. PAencAn.— The prepcnt Pahchandra, Dliusar, and Brahman zamindars acquired from 
the Kachhw alias. Jama, Ks. 1,093. Eamchand, Brahman, is only a fictitious owner ou behalf 
of liabii Parvati Prasad. 

125. Phondar, on the Bharat-pur border, has a kadamh-khandi of 20^ bi'gahs, with a pond, 
from the flowering lotuses in which the name is supposed to be derived. 

126. Pura is said to have been originally called Jogi-pura, The old zamindars were Ravat 
2 ats. Jama, Ks. ] ,800. 

127. Puma. See Sonkh. Jama, Rs. 1,215. 



PAnGANA MATHURA. 
Alphabdrical List of Villages. — (continuofl). 



55 





Name. 


Po) ulatinn. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Mnsal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


128 


Kadhakun^ .». 


2,255 


73 


2,328 


Raja Prithi Sin'i 
and.">wamiRan- 
gacharya. 


... 


2,778 


129 


Raj-pur 


339 


•• 


339 


Tikam Sinh of 
B rind a- ban. 


Brahman ... 


1,598 


loO 


Ral 


3,302 


123 


3,425 


Raja Prithi Sinh 
of Awa. 


Th ak u r 
Kachhvvalia. 


5,110 


131 


Ram Patti 


3,392 


185 


3,577 




Jat (Kuntel). 


... 


132 


Ram-pur 


898 


60 


948 




Jat (Kunte! 
and Pahch- 
audra). 


784 


133 


Rasul-pur 


912 


14 


926 




Jat (Kuntel), 


1,296 


134 


Ratu 


261 


... 


261 




Ditto 


412 


135 


Raunchi 


59 


16 


75 




Brahman ... 


449 



128. Rddlid-kunJ. — For a description of its famous tanks, sec pages 40 and 133. The old 
zamindars were Gauruas; the present proprietors are Swa ni Rangiicharya, the Guru of the Seth'a 
temple at Brinda ban, and Raja Prithi Sinh of Awa, who hold each in ecpial shares. Here is a 
large colony of Bengals, one of wliom keeps a Sanskrit school Tliere is also a lialkabandi 
school. The Kusum-sarovar and Chliattri of Kaja Suraj Mt.ll are on the extreme border of the 
village land towards Gobardhan (see page 174). 

129. Raj-pur, on the Jamuna, adjoining Brinda-ban, was first so called with reference to 
the Raj-ghat, an old ford and reputed tirtha, by Bhagawan, a Sanadh from Kamar, who came 
and settled here Before, it liad been known as Malhu Khtra, after a Kachh«alia named ll^lhu. 
Part of the village is still held by Gauruas and Bra'imans. descendants of the old stock. Here 
is a fine bauli of red sandstone constructed by Mulhar Ra) Sindhia ; another ma<ie by Gi pal 
Rao ; and two very large walled gardens, the one near the temple of Bhatrond, laid out by 
Parikh Ji, the grandfather of Seth Lakhmi Chaud, the other by BliiU Kuslial, Seth of Gujarac. 
The latter is tenanted by Baira^ia and the village rental, lis. 836, is devoted to their support 
and the maintenance of the garden, 

130. lidl. — The ol i Ganrua zamindars sold their estate to Kesavanand, Gosain of the tem- 
ple of Sringar-lat at B in a ban, from whom it has ben purchased by Raja Prithi 8inh of 
Awa. The principal resident in the town is Ghaudhari Daulat Suih, a descendant of the old 
family. See page II. In a garden outside the town are three chliattris in memory of his ances- 
tors, Maha Sinh, Gopal 8inh and Devi Sinh. The large mud fort wcia built by the last named. 
There are two large tracts of woodland, abounding in game, the one 3-24, the other 566 bij^has in 
extent, a halkabandi school, and three small temples, dedicated respectively to Baladeva, Mohau 
Ji and Kesava Deva. 

131. /?dm Pa^<t.— See Mangotla. 

132. Rdm-pur derives its name from a sacred pond called Ram-tal. It is now divided into 
two mahals, owned, the one by Kuntel, the other by Pahchandra, Jats. Jama, Ks. ^50. 

133. Rasul-pur on the road to Bharat-pur, and on that account made a police station. 
Here is a dhirm-^ala built by Narayan Das, bjhra ; and a temple of baladeva and a masonry tank 
construL-ted by Ram Das, Bairagi. Jama, Rs. 2,4u0. A district post-office. 

134. Rata was formed into a separate village by Ratu, a Jat from Bachh-ganw. Jama, Rs. 700. 

135. Raunchi, on the Jamuna, was founded by Hamir, a Kachhwaba from Pal. Of his two 
sons, Miram and Ganes, the former turned Muhammadan. Sume of their descendants are still 



56 



r-ARGANA MATIIITUA. 

yup/iahetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


r 


ipulation. 




Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
nian. 


1 
Total. 


Acreage, 


136 


Sadr Bazar 


5,G84 


1,873 


7,557 




... 




137 


Sahjua 


1,894 


123 


2,017 


Jat 


Brahman ... 


... 


138 


Saida 


346 


... 


346 




..'at (Kuntel) 


... 


139 


Sakaraya 


972 


6 


977 


Kislian Sab ay, 
Braliniaii,Luni- 
berdiir. 


Ganrua and 
Chamar, 


2,487 


140 


Sakarwa 


1,108 


... 


1,J08 


Si^ami Hangacha- 
rya. 


Mali 


1,599 


141 


Sakitra, 5 biswas, 


241 


... 


241 


Raja Jasavant 
binli of Bharat- 
piir. 


Brahman and 
Gaurua. 


273 


142 


„ 16 biswas 


1,219 


32 


1,251 


Gauriias 


Chamar 


771 


143 


Sakna 


362 


6 


368 


Nand Kishor, Ba- 
il iy a 


Brahman ... 


605 


144 


Salim-pur 


596 


10 


603 




.Jat. 


584 



part proprietors, while other part is held by Seth Roshan Lai and Murli and Tiilsi, B aliman.s, 
of Auranga'-al. The muafi estate has also been acquired by purchase from Gosain Mathura- 
rath by beth Roshan Lai, 

137. Sahjua.' — See Sonkh. Jama, Rs 1,500, 

138. Sflu/a.— See Nainu-Patti. 

139. Sakardi/a, founded by a Ganrua named Santokh, whose descendants still own a small 
share; the rest has been tninsferred to Btahmans. The jama, Rs. 1,404, is an endowment of the 
temple of Ralha-kant at Brinda-ban. Overlooking the Jiimnna is an old mud fort, S.akar-b.an, 
from which the village derives its name — Sakra being a title of Indra — is one of the places visit- 
ed in the Ban-j.-itra, and extends over 340 bighas. A m.iha! of 118 biirhas 6 biswas held nuiaf 
hy (lohardhan Da<( and Ganga Das, Bairagis of Brioda-bau, was resumed in 1855 and settled with 
their heirs at Rs. 63. 

140. Sakarwa also derives its name from Sakra. It was purchased by the Swami from the 
old zamindars, who were Brahmans and Jasavats. Jama, Rs. 2,364. 

141. Sakilra, 5 biswas, comprises part of the town of Gobardhan, including all the most 
famous sites, viz , the Manasi Ganga, the Chhattris of Rajas Ranjit Sinh and Baladeva Sinh, the 
Gwal I'okhar, the temple of Chakresvar Ma'iadeva, built by Su'aj Mall, the temple of Lakshmi 
Niiravan rebuilt by Seth Radha Krishan and Swami Niva.sa-chari, the Chhattris of Ranis Hup 
Kunwar and Amrit Kunwar, and many other small shrines and monuments. The old zamindacs 
were JasaVats, but now the Raja of Bharat-pur is both muatidar and zamindar. There is a 
market on Saturday. 

142. Sakitra, 15 bisiras, has a jhiiri of 81 bighas. Jama, Rs. 1,123. 

143. Saknn has a temple of Baladeva. The zamindars were formerly Br.-ihmans and Ahirs ; 
are now Brahmans, Baniyas, an-l Malakanas. Jama, Rs. 900. 

144. Salim-ptir, was founded by Bhoja, Jiit, an officer of Salim Shah's. The greater part 
of the estate has passed from his descon Innts to Hnniy.as. Thp village was formerly included 
in I'argana Sonsa, and was part of the jajjir of Ba ja "B:ii : later it was attached to Pargana 
Sahar till 1833. Jama, Rs. 1,196. 



PARGANA MATHURA. 
Alphoh<4ical List of Villages — {conii\n\(n\). 



57 





Name. 


J 


Population 




Principal proprie- 
tors. 


L'rc.loiuinant 

caste. 




No. 


Hindus 


Mu?m1. 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


145 


Satoha Askarpur, 


1,494 


24 


1,518 


Kachwaha3 


Gaurua 


1,305 


146 


Sehan 


616 


17 


633 


Daui Kaui 


Jat (Kuntel) 


532 


147 


Sehi 


1,102 


14 


1,116 




Ahivasi 


1,592 


148 


Shah- pur, Chain- 
pur. 


27/ 


" 


288 


Laiji, Chaiibe ... 


Gaurua 


793 


149 


Shah-pur Ja^an... 


251 


7 


258 




Jat 


259 


150 


Siiiga 


1,210 


82 


1,292 




Jat (Kuutel) 


1,214 


151 


Sou 
Sonkh 


l,-'56 


42 


1,298 


Uday Ram 


Ditto ... 
Ditto 


1,502 
2,267 


152 


Sonoth 


434 


3 


437 


Ea'iii Ilavichand- 
raand HuiKllu'r. 


Gaurua 


1,120 



'45. Safoha is on tho road to Gobardhan- For a description of the Santanu-kund see page 
168. The old zaniindars were Kachhwahas, the descendants of Sarang, the son of jasriij, nf 
Maholi ; thiy have now been partially superseded by Haniyas and Dlu'isars There is a halka- 
bindi .-ichool. and by t le tank a bungalow occupied by a Patrol in the Customs Department. 
Two hunilets are called Sadola and Askar-pur : the latter has been purcliased by Selh Ragliu- 
uath Das. 

146. Selid-K also called l!aghunath-pur, on the Agra Canal, ha'! a temple of Bilniri Ji. Tin's 
was one 'f the villages gi.'en temporarily after the mutiny to Chaudhari Daulat Sinh, Jama, 
Rs. 1,150. 



14; 



Sehi was acquired by the Ahi\asis from the Kirars. 



14S-I49 Shdh-pur, on the Agra Canal, with a bridge and bungalow, was founded hy one 
Shahn.an, a Gaurua Kachhwaha from Sonsa ; and Chain-pura, at first a separate village, by one 
Ciiaina tr mi the same pla-e ; this latter is now deserted Some years a'.;o two mahals were 
f< rmtd, the one Shah-pur Chain-]>nra, now owned hy Chaube zamindara, with a jama of Rs. 1,078, 
the other Shah-pur Jatan, held by Pahchaiidra Jals, with a jama of Rs. 432. 

150. Sitigd, on the Sonkh road, is so called after the founder, as the village of Malhu after 
that of his brother. In the mutiny the Jat zamindars plundered the people of Bhadar, for which 
they had to pay Ks. 1,060 compensation. There are seven hamlots. Jama, Ks. 2,7 OD. 

151. Sun, said to have been founded by a Kaja of that name, has been acquired in part by 
Janaki Prasad, Bauiya of Kaya. Jama, Rs. .3,010. 

Sonkh, on the road from Mathui a to Kumbhir, is supposed to derive its name from the demon 
Sankhasur. Under the Jats it was the head of a local division The Jat founder, one Ahlal, 
liad five sons, by name Ase, Ajal, Purna, Tasiha, and Sahjua, who divided the estate into as m:!ny 
pattis, wiiich still exist and are to nil intents and purposes distinct villages, with the Sonkh bazar 
as a common centr3. A police station, a district p st-office, an establishment of town ch-»uki- 
dars umUr Act XX. of 1856, and a halkabandi school. A market at Sahjua on Thursday, at 
Purna on Monday. Tlie latter place has also an old mud fort. 

152. Sonoth is said to derive its name from Sohan Pal, Tomar. It has hren divided into two 
mahals: Jarui.i, held by l:eugali Kayaths, with a jama of Rs. 800; Shiniali, held by Gaurua 
Gdurs, with a jama of Rs. 812. There is an old mud furt, built by one Dabbal, in ruins since 
the time of Najaf Kluia, and a temple of Devi, built by Sinduia, where a mela is held on the 
lull moon of Bais-akh. 

II 



58 



PARGANA MATHURA. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (contimied). 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
mau. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


153 


Sonsa 


934 


34 


968 




Gaurua 


1,145 


164 


Sunrakh 


580 


... 


680 




Brahman ... 


2,446 


156 


Tarsi 


728 


21 


749 


Seth Gobardhan 
Das. 


Ganrua. 


... 


156 


Tasiha 


279 


136 


415 




Jat (Kuntel), 


513 


157 


Tehra 


525 


7 


532 




Lodha 


500 


158 


Ton4 


165 


22 


187 


Kanhay and Pir 
Bakhsh. 


Mewuti 


6 5 


159 


Tosh 


697 


36 


729 


raja Prithi Sinh 
of A wa. 


Jadon 


1,324 


160 


Uncha-ganw ... 


738 


15 


753 


Amar Lai, Jotiahi, 


Gauraa (Ka- 
clihwalui.) 


1,612 


161 


Usphar 


1,032 


1,206 


2,238 


Durga Prasad ... 


Malakaaa ... 


.•• 



153. Sonaa, on the Agra Canal, near the Sonkh road, has a jharl of »8 bighas, an old fort 
built by the Mahrattas, and a temple of Mahadeva built by Manasa Ram, Sahukar of Kumbhir. 
After the mutiny the zamindars received some small rewards for good services doie to the Gov- 
ernment. In the time of the Jats Sonsa was the head of a pargana. There is a halkabandi school. 

]5t. Sunrakh, on the Jamuna between Briiida-ban and Jait, was the original seat of the 
Ahivasis who were expelled some 300 years ago by Jliokman, Kachhwaha from Bathi, and Rai 
Kam a Gautam from Kal, and the present Gautam and Gaurua zamindars are their descendants. 
Thtre is an old fort built by one Hira Sinh of Kal, Jama, Ks. 1,873. 

155. Tarsi, on the Bharat-pur road, was founded by Tura-chand, a Kachhwaha from 
Satoha' From his descendants the estate has passed to Seth Gobardhan Das and Syam Sundar 
Das Dhusar, of whom the first owns two-thirds ami the latter one-third. Jama, Rs. 2,201. Here 
is the sacred' grove of Tal-ban, where a mela is held Bhadon sudi 11. The bungaluw, occupied 
by an assistant patrul in the Customs Department, was destroyed by the villagt-rs in the mutiny, 
for which act they had to pay a compensation of Hs. 800. When the canal is opened, the cus- 
toms line will follow its course and the bungalow will be removed to Little Kosi. 

156. Tasiha.— Ste Sonkh. Jama, Hs. 1,200. 

157 Tehra was founded by Arjun, a Lodha, from Amber, who named it after his son. 
There is a jluiri of 25 bighas. The village was held muaf by Kam Narayan, Chaube, till 1863, 
■when it was assessed at Ks. 915. 

158. Tend. The zamindars were formerly Kolis and Jogis, are now Jats, Baniyas, and 

Mewatis. There is a jhari of of 8 bighas with a shrine of Kanva Deva, where the Kolis hold a 
mela in Bhadon. 

159. Tosh, bought by Thakur Pitambar Sinh of Awa from the Kachhwaha zamindars In 
the mutiny the peopte ranged themselves on the side of the Government under Chaudhari Daulat 
Sinh. Jama, Ks. 1,450. 

160. Unchd-rjdnw, on the Sonkh road, was sold by the old Kachhwaha zamindars to Amar 
Lai, Jotishi, who is also the muafidar. Jama, lis. 1,961. Here is the sacred grove ot Kumud-ban, 
68 i bighas in extent, where a mela is held Bhadon badi 1 1. 

ICl. Uspluir, near the Simkh road, was sold by the old Thakur zamindars to Isvari Sinh, 
Banlya, who resold 15 biswas of it to Murija I'rasad, Bengali. Jama, Rs. 2,804 In the mutmy 
tlic rep'reseutalives of the old proprietor made an attempt to eject their new masters. 



TARGANA MATHUEA. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (concluded). 



59 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


H indue. 


Musal- 
ma n. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


162 
163 


Dhak-pura 
Tartora 




.. 


... 


Seth Roshan Lai .. 


... 


393 
492 



162. Dhah-pura, uninhabited, so called from the number of dlidk trees. Jama, Ra. 750. 

163. Tartora, another uninhabited village, was founded by Padam Slifih, a Tarkar Thakur 
from across the Ganges, whose descendants have sold it to it tu Sith Koshan Lai, Khattri. Jama 
Rs. 751. The old village Kiiera immediately adjoins the regimental racecourse, and by a well a' 
little way beyond, towards Aurangabad, are arranged a number of sculptured stone Iragments, 
some of them ornamented with the pattern known as the Buddhist railing. 



IV.— PARGANA MAT. 

The Pargaiia of Mat is the most nortliern of the four on the oast of the 
Jamuna, and is a lono^j naiTow, strag<2;hn<r tract of country lying between tlio 
river and the Ah'garh border. As it abounds in game of Vnrious kinds — bhick 
buck, wiki boar, and water-fowl — it has considerable attractions for the sports- 
jnan ; but in every other point of view it is a singularly uninviting part of the 
district. There are no large towns, no places of legendary or historical interest, 
no roads, no local trade or manufacture, and no resident fiimilies of any distinc- 
tion. The soil also is generally poor, the water bad, and, except quite at the 
north, there are {"ew groves of trees to relieve the dusty monotony of the land- 
scape. As if to enhance the physical disadvantages of the locality by an artificial 
inconvenience, the tahsili has been fixed at the village of Mat, in the extreme 
south, on the very borders of the Maha-ban pargana ; though the merest glance 
at the map will show that Surir — a place of almost exactly the same size as 
Mat — is the natural centre of the division. Its recognition in that character 
would be an immense boon both to Government officials and to the agriculturist. 
The present arrangement dates from a time when the j)argana was of very 
different extent, and Mat easily accessible from all parts of it. For, till 1860, 
it included the whole of the Raya sub-division to the south; while in the north, 
Noh-jhil formed an entirely separate tahsili. This was more in accordance with 
the division of territory existing in the reign of the Emperor Akbar, when the 
whole of Mat proper came under Maha-ban, and Noh-jhil made part of pargana 
Noll in the Kol Sarkar. Immediately before the cession of 1804, the latter was 
the estate of General Perron ; while Mat, with Maha-ban, Sa'dabad,and Sah-pau, 
was held by General Duboigne. 

As now constituted, the pargana comprises 141 villages, forming 153 se- 
parate estates. Of these, the great majority are Bhaiyachari, and thus it comes 
about that the richest resident landlords are the members of a Brahman family, 
quite of the yeoman class, living at Ohhahiri, a hamlet of Mat. They are by 
name Poia Ram and Parasuram, sons of Radha, and Kalhan, sou of Bal-kishor, 
and have jointly an assessable income of Rs. 9,276 a year, derived from lands 
in Mat, Bijauli, Ilarnaul, Jaiswa, Jawara, Nasithi, and Samauli. They have 
lately been at considerable expense in building a school in their natiA'c place. 
Three other men of substance, of nuich the same social position, are Lachhman, 
Brdhman, of Bliadra-ban ; Serhu, Brahman, of Tenti-kii-ganw, and Lala Ram, 
Baniya, of Jawara. Of non-residents, Bao Abdullah Khdu of Salim-pur in 



PARC ANA MAT. 61 

Aligarh, a connection of the Sa' Jabtid family, has estates about Khanwal and 
Kai ahri, on which the aiuiual Government demand is about Rs. 2,000 ; Eajd 
Tikam Sinh of Mursan enjoys a royalty of Rs. 1,061 from the Dunetiya Circle ; 
and Lalas Mahi Lai and Janaki Prasad own the two large villages of Arua and 
Bhadanwara. 

After the mutiny as many as eighteen villages (eleven in Avhole and seven 
in part), belonging to the rebel leader Umrao Bahadur of Nanak-pur, were 
contiscaterl, and all the proprietary rights conferred on Seth Lakhmi Chand 
rent-free for the term of his natural life. On his death, the grant was further 
extended to his son, Scth Raghunath Das, on payment of the half jama ; but 
the muati estate (being about Rs. 8,000 a year), which alone he retains in his 
own hands, it may be presumed, will lapse entirely on the termination of the 
second life. The zamindari has been transfei-red to his uncle, Seth Gobind 
Das, and by him constituted part of the endowment of the temple of Dwa- 
raka Ihis at Mathura. The original proprietor was a member of a family that 
had always been in opposition to the British Government, and died fighting 
against us at Delhi. Thoir principal seat was at Kumona in Bulandshahr, 
where, in 1807, Dunde Khan, with his eldest son, Ran-mast Klian, who is said to 
have been possessed of perfectly marvellous and herculean strength, held the fort 
for three months, though the garrison consisted of a mere handful of men. After 
the surrender, a pension t)f Rs. 6,000 a year was settled upon Ran-mast Khan, 
which his widow enjoyed till her death, an event which took place about a year 
ago ; but the father's whole estate was declared forfeit and bestowed upon Mar- 
dan Ali Khan of Chitari, a scion of the same stock. Umrao Bahadur was the 
child by adoption of Dunde Khan's second son, Nawab Ashraf Khan of Nanak- 
pur, and, as above mentioned, was killed in the rebel army before Delhi. With 
him fell his youngest brother, Mazhar Ali Khan, who left a sou by name Rahim 
Ali Khan, who is now either dead or at the Andamans ; the sole surviving re- 
presentative of the family being a son of Umrao Baha lur's— Amir Bahadur — 
who vvas too young to be engaged in the rebellion with his father. 

The total population of the pargana according to the census of 1872 was 
100,248 ;* the predominant class to the south being Gaurua Thakurs ; while in the 
north the agricultural community are almost exclusively Jats, mainly of the Noh- 
war sub-division. The principal winter crops a,rejudr, bajra, maize and cotton, the 
latter occupying some 13,000 acres, while til, arhar, and hemp are also grown, 
but ordinarily in the same field with jodr. In the hot weather about 24,000 
acres are un ler chand, 18,000 under wheat, and 13,000 under barley. Thouo-h 
there are indigo factories at four places, viz., Lohi, Karahri, Bhalai and Arua, 
the first named has almost entirely suspended operations, and at the other three 
the plant used is mainly growai in villages across the border in the Aligarh dis- 
• According to the lahbili calculation, 99,823. 



62 PARC AN A MAT. 

trict. The most productive lands are the aUuvial flats, which in the rains form 
part of the river bed ; the high bank that bounds them is generally bare and 
broken, and the soil further inland poor and sandy, where the only trees that 
thrive well are iilm, fards and babul. Coimection with the opposite parganas of 
Kosi, Chhata, and Mathura, is maintained by two bridges-of-boats (the one from 
Chhin-pahari by Noh-jliil to Sher-garh, the other from Dangoli to Brinda-ban,) 
and as many as seven ferries, at Rae-pur, Faridam-pur, Musmina, Surir, Ohawa, 
Iloli Guzar, and Mat. Scarcely any attempt has been made to provide for 
internal communication. In the whole pargana there is not a single yard of 
metalled road except in the Mat bazar, where it has been constructed out of the 
Chaukidari tax ; the only bit of first-class unmetalled road is the four miles from 
Noh-jhil to the Sher-garh bridge^ and all the remaining thoroughfares are nar- 
row, winding cart tracks, sunk so much below the level of the adjoining fields 
that in the rains they assume the appearance of small rivers. In 1856, a strip 
of land was taken up of sufficient width for the construction of a good broad 
road to extend from the Brinda-ban bridge to the town of Noh-jhil, thus tra- 
versing all the southern half of the pargana. But little was done beyond 
marking it out ; and as all the lower part of it for some miles lies across the 
ravines, where it is annually cut away by the rains, it is for at least six months 
in the year all but impassable ; the sum allowed for its maintenance, Rs. 5 a 
mile, being quite inadequate to carry out more than the most superficial repairs. 
The number of bridges and culverts required would undoubtedly render it 
rather a costly undertaking ; but the pargana one per cent, contribution to the 
road cess is out of all proportion to the benefit which it receives in return ; for 
the jama is Rs. 2,37,734, while the road-allotment is only the paltry sum of 
Rs. 405. The claim to more liberal treatment is therefore not unreasonable; 
while the road, in behalf of which the special claim is advanced, is one of the 
most crying wants of the district. It would connect three places of some import- 
ance in the pargana, viz., Mat, Surir and Noh-jhil, at the one end with Sher- 
garh, which is a perfect terminus of roads, and at the other with Brinda-ban and 
Mathura; while a short branch from Mat would bring it in contact with a sta- 
tion on the new line of Railway at Raya, and another from Noh-jhil with the 
market of Bajana. 

Many of the smaller thoroughfares here, as in other parts of the district, 
are rapidly being obliterated, and unless speedy measures are taken for their 
preservation very great inconvenience must eventually result. The occupants 
of the fields through which they pass encroach upon them year by year till at 
last in the less frequented tracts nothing is left but a mere ridge scarcely broad 
enough for a foot-path. When the traffic is too considerable to allow of this 
complete appropriation, the lane is narrowed till it barely admits the passage 
of a single curt ; a high bank is then raised on cither side with earth always 



PAP.GANA MAT. 63 

excavated from the roadway, which thus is sunk several feet below the level 
of the country and in the rains becomes a deep water-course. In the dry sea- 
son of the year it is rendered equally impassable by huge aqueducts carried 
across it at short intervals in order to convey water for irrigation purposes from 
a well on one side to lands forming part of the same farm that happen to lie 
on the other. A small sum is annually allotted for the maintenance of village 
roads, and might be more advantageously expended than has hitherto been the 
custom, in the prevention of encroachments and the construction of an occasional 
syphon drain. 

As a rule, the Bhaiyachari villages have a much more prosperous appearance 
than those which have passed into the hands of some one wealthy proprietor. 
In the former case every shareholder plants the borders and waste corners of 
his fields with quick growing trees, such as the fards, or tamarisk ; which he 
fells from time to time as he wants timber for his well or agricultural implements, 
or for roofing his house ; but immediately stipplies their place by new cuttings. 
Thus the village lands from a little distance often look picturesque and well- 
w^ooded, though possibly there may not be a single grove or orchard on them. 
In a zamindari estate, on the other hand, the absentee landlord is represented on 
the spot only by an agent, whose sole duty it is to secure as large a yearly 
return as possible for his employer. Every manorial right is strictly enforced, 
and trees are felled and sold in large quantities, and never replaced, either by the 
tenant, who is not allowed to cut a single stick, however urgent his requirements, 
and therefore has no object in planting, or by the landlord, who cares nothing 
for the well-being of tiie village which can be sold as soon as its productiveness 
is exhausted. It would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to mention a single in- 
stance in the whole district of one of the new landlords doing anything what- 
ever for the permanent improvement of his estate. It never even occurs to 
them that their tenants have the slightest claim upon their consideration. Hav- 
ing probably amassed their fortune by usury, they are willing to make advances 
at exorbitant rates of interest for any improvements the cultivators may wish to 
carry out themselves ; but their ears are closed to any other application. Thus 
virtually these pseudo-zamiudars refuse to accept the position of landlords ; 
they are mere contractors for the collection of the Imperial revenue, and it 
seems imperative upon the Government to recognize them only in that inferior 
capacity and itself to undertake all the responsibilities of the real landlord. 
Since they have no influence for good, both policy and humanity demand that 
at least their power for evil should be restricted within the narrowest possible 
limits. 

The most noticeable feature of the pargana is the extensive morass from 
which the town of Noh-jhil derives the latter part of its name. Its dimensions 
vary very much at different seasons of the year and according to the heaviness 



64 PARGANA MAT, 

of the raiu-fall, but it not imfrequcntly spreads over an area measuring six miles 
in length hy one in breadth. It is the favourite haunt of hirgo swarms of 
water-fowl, which are caught at night in nets, into which they are frightened 
by torches and fires lit on the opposite bank. They ordinarily sell for about 
Es. 4-8 the hundred. The hinds wliicli have a chance of being left dry by the 
subsidence of the waters in time to be sown with hot-weather crops, bear the 
distinctive name of Ldna, and are formed into 'separate estates which it is a 
matter of no b'ttle difficulty to assess at their average value. When there is 
any harvest at oil, it is exceptionally good ; but not unfrequently the land re- 
mains flooded till seed-time is over, and the only source of profit then left to 
the proprietor is the pasturage. The inundation, though primarily the result 
of the natural low level of the country, has been artificially increased by exca- 
vations made some centuries ago with the express object of laying the approaches 
to the Fort under water : this being one of the special modes of rendering a 
stronghold impregnable laid down in Sanskrit treatises on the art of war. 
An outlet was provided by a winding channel, some five miles in length, called 
the Dhundal Nahi, which passed under Firoz-pur and joined the Jamuna near 
Mangal-khoh ; but its mouth is now completely blocked for a long distance. 
The cost of re-opening it has been estimated at Hs. 2,093 ; an expenditure which 
■would soon be recovered by the settled revenue of the reclaimed land. A 
simpler, but at the same time a less efficient, remoly might be found in the re- 
construction of an embankment ascribed to Nawab Ashraf Khan, which formerly 
existed near the village of Musmina, and was kept in partial repair by the Jat 
zamindars of that place till 1866. In that year, the jbil was entirely dry, and 
the dam being in consequence neglected, the next heavy flood washed it away. 
To provide an exit for the water seems, however, far preferable to blocking its 
entrance; as the temporary submersion has a very beneficial 09*001 on the land, 
and its total prevention might result in rou lering a largo area absolutely un- 
culturablc. A well-devisei scheme of drainage for this part of the country, 
the transfer of the tahsili from Mat to JSurir, and the construction of a good 
serviceable road from Noh-jhil to the Brinda-ban bridge, are the three groat 
requirements of the district which urgently demand a speedy settlement. 

A i'ew words upon local etymology. The formation of a village name by 
simply attaching kd, the sign of the genitive case, to the name of the founder, 
is a peculiarity of which several instances will be found in the alphabetical list 
at the end of this section, though it is of rare occurrence elsewhere. It has an 
exact parallel in some English names of [)laces, as for instajice, ' S. Leonard's.' 
Other more common suffixes have equally close counter-parts : thus, pur, jnira, 
and puri, correspond with 'ton' or 'town,' as in Newton, Canningtown ; (jdin, 
ijdma, or gdmo Avith 'ham' for ' hamo,' as in Oldham ; nngar with ' burgh,' as in 
Edinburgh ; kherd, usually indicative of antiquity, with * Chester,' as iu Winchester ; 



PARGANA MAT, 65 

garh or garhi, with 'castle'; as in Newcastle ; thdna, not often found except in a 
very corrupt and contracted form, with 'stow/ as in Godstow ; guzar with 
*ford' or 'bridge,' as in Oxford or Cambridge ; ganj with ' market,' as in 
Newmarket; ban with 'wood,' as in Norwood ; basdi a,nd bds with 'thorpe,' as in 
"Woodthorpe ; and the more modern abaci with the American ' ville,' as in 
Smithville. In all the earlier names where the termination pur or puri is used, 
it has coalesced with the former part of the compound in such a way as not to 
be readily distinguishable, as in ' Mithauli.' 

Mat, though for some years past it has given a name to a pargana, is 
nothing but an exceptionally mean assemblage of mud hovels, without any bazdr 
or even a single brick-built house. Tliough it str.nds immediately on the high 
bank of the Jamuna, it is separated from the actual bed of the stream by a mile 
of deep sand, and the ferry which connects it with Sakaraya on the opposite 
side is therefore very little used. Four miles lower down the stream is the 
Brinda-ban bridge-of-boats ; but the road which leads to this also, as already 
mentioned, lies across the ravines and is so imperfectly constructed that for a 
great part of the year it is almost impassable. About half-way it skirts the 
margin of an extensive morass, called the Moti-jhil, which though never very- 
broad, sometimes attains a length of nearly two miles. The township (jama 
Es. 8,983) is divided into twothoks. Raja and Mula, and was till recently owned 
entirely by Brahmans and Thakurs, but some Muhammadans are now in part 
possession as mortgagees. The Chaukidari Act is in force, but yields an income 
of only lis. 52 a month, which leaves a very small balance for local improve- 
ments. The school is merely of the primary class, and not so well attended as 
the one in the adjoining hamlet of Chhahiri. There is an old mud fort, and 
within its enclosure stand the tahsili and police-station, the only substantial 
buildings in the place. Though there is no grove of trees to justify the title, it 
is still designated as one of the Upabans, and is a station in the Ban-jatra ; the 
name being derived from 'the milk-pails' (mdf) here upset by Krishna in his 
childish sports. At Chhahiri, a little higher up the stream, is the sacred wood 
of Bhandir-ban, a dense thicket of her, hins, and other low prickly shurbs, with 
a small modern temple, rest-house, and well in an open space in the centre. 
Just outside is an ancient fig-tree (bat) which Krishna and his playmates 
Balaram and Sridama are said to have made their goal when they ran races 
against each each other. (See page 37. ) A large meld, chiefly attended by Bengalis, 
is held here, Chait badi 9, and is called the Gwal-mandala. The temple in the 
grove is dedicated to Bihari, that under the Bhaadir-bat, to Sridama. In the 
village are three other small shrines in honour of Eadha Mohan, Gopdl, and 
Mahadeva. Two mosques have also been recently built by the Muhammadans. 
In the mutiny the only act of violence committed was the seizure of six grain- 
boats passing down the river, for which the zamiudars were subsequently fined. 

I 



QQ PARGANA MAT. 

Bajana, about five miles north-cast of Noh-jliil, has from time immemorial 
been occupied by Jats. Many years ago, the three leading men divided it into 
as many estates, called after their own names, Sultan Patti, Dilu Patti, and Sia 
Patti. These are now to all intents and purposes distinct villages, each with 
several subordinate hamlets, where most of the landed proprietors reside, while 
the old bazdr still remains as a common centre, but is mainly occupied by 
tradespeople. In it are the sarae, police-station, bnilt in 1869, and halkabandi 
school. Here, too, every Saturday, a large market is held; all the dealers 
who attend it having to pay an octroi tax at graduated rates, according to 
the commodities which they have for sale. These duties are farmed out to a 
contractor, Avho in 1865, the year Avhen the last revision of settlement took place, 
paid for the privilege Rs. 340, a sum which has now been increased to 
Rs. 429. This income certainly is not very large, but as the market is a popu- 
lar one, it might, beyond a doubt, be greatly increased, if only the headmen 
would recognize the obligation under which they lie of occasionally devoting 
part of the proceeds to local improvements. Up to the pi^esent tinie they have 
done nothing : the market is held in the main street, which is so densely crowd- 
ed from one end to the other that all through traffic is obstructed ; the sarae is 
too small to accommodate one half the number of visitors, and there is no separate 
yard in which to stall horses and cattle; the clouds of dust that rise from the 
unmetalled roadway make it painfid to see and breathe, and would seriously 
damage any goods of better quality that might be brought; and, in addition to 
all this, an open space at the end of the street, where the crowd is the very 
thickest, has been selected as a convenient spot for depositing all the sweepings 
of the town till they are carted away as manure for the fields Even the two 
substantial masonry wells, which there are in the bazar, have not been con- 
structed by the market trustees, but are the gift of one of the resident shop-keep- 
ers. In the next settlement, when the lumberdars' rights are recorded, some 
mention might also be made of their responsibilities. 

Another market is held on Thursday, but exclusively for the sale of cattle. 
A considei'able amount of business is transacted, though the animals offered 
for sale are generally inferior in quality to those brought to the Kosi market 
on the opposite side of the river. Bajana has also been one of the depots for 
Government stallions since 1856, when the establishment was transferred here 
from the adjoining A'illage of Shankar-garhi. The horses are four in number, 
one Arab, one Turkish, and two country-bred. They are made over to the care 
of the zamindars, who are paid Rs. 8 a month for each horse and further re- 
ceive a fee of Re. 1 for every mare that is brought to be covered. The groom 
on each such occasion expects a gratuity of four anas, which may or may not be 
supplemented by a fixed salary from the zamindars. An inspection is held 
on the spot once a year in the cold weather, by the Stud Committee, when some 



PARGANA MAT. 67 

60 or 70 colts are generally brought up for view, the limit of age being from 
nine months to three years. Some are summarily rejected ; others bought up at 
once ; and the rest returned for further inspection within the limit of age above 
specified. In the hot weather the colts are sent with the brood-mares to be 
inspected by the committee at Ahgarh. 

The two patiis of Sultan and Dilu are watered by a short branch of the 
Ganges Canal, which enters the district at the village of Ahmad-pur, and passes 
also through Shankar-garhi. In Siu Patti the proprietary shares are not 
reckoned by biswas but by wells, which, whether really so or not, are put 
at 36 in number. The jama is Rs. 3,400 and the quota of each ' well ' is 
Rs. 96, making a total of Rs. 3,456 ; the surplus of Rs. 56 going to the 
lumberdars. Similarly in Mat the reckoning is by ploughs and bulls; a 
plough being a share and a bull half a share. Dilu Patti has two hamlets, 
Murliya Jawahir and Murliya Badam ; Sultan Patti five, viz.^ Naya-ba<^, Dal- 
garhi, Prahlad-garhi (of which one biswa was sold 18 years ago to an Athwa- 
raya), Ajnot, and Idalgarhi ; and Siu Patti three, viz., Jareliya, Maha-ram-garhi, 
and Bhiit-garhi. At the time of the mutiny Umrao Bahadur was proprietor of 2^ 
biswas in Dilu Patti, was mortgagee of 10 biswas in Thok Badam and fiirmed as 
much of Thok Hira. This was confiscated with the rest of his estates ; the 2| 
biswas were conferred on Seth Lakhmi Chand, the other parcels of land have 
reverted to their original owners. Half of Thok Kamala was also declared 
forfeit, but eventually returned on payment of a fine ; the zamindars having 
joined in the assault on the Fort of Noh-jhil. One of the number, Khuba, 
who had been specially foi'ward in attempting the life of the Tahsildar, Sukhvasi 
Lai, died in jail before sentence. The Arazi Kasht Sultan Patti and Arazi Dilu 
Patti are lands rccovei'ed from the jhil and separately assessed — the one at 
Rs. 90, the other at Rs. 152. 

Noh-jhil is a decayed town, 30 miles from Mathura, which up to the year 
I860 was the head of a separate tahsili now incorporated with Mat. The 
original proprietors were Chauhdn Thakurs, who were expelled in the thirteenth 
century by some Jats from Narwari near Tappal, and others from Jartiili near 
Khair, in the Aligarh District, who afterwards acquired the name of Nohwar, 
and at the present time are further distinguished by the title of Chaudhari. 
They brought with them as purohits some Gaur Bnihmans of the Pliatak clan, 
who received various grants of land, and at the last settlement their descend- 
ants owned 15 biswas of the township, the remaining five being held by Muham- 
raadan Shaikhs. In the seventeenth century some Biluehis were stationed here 
by the emperor for the express purpose of overawing the Jats ; but their 
occupation did not last above 80 years. On the 4th of June, 1857, the 
Nohwar Jats of the place with their kinsmen from the neighbouring villages of 
Musmina and Parsoli, attacked the fort and plundered all the inhabitants except 



68 PARGANA MAT. 

the Brahmans, with whom, as above shown, they had an hereditary connection. 
The lumberdar, Ghaus Muhammad, was killed, and all the Government officials 
fled to the village of Tehra by Surir, where the Malakana zamindars gave them 
shelter, and in acknowledgment of their loyalty subsequently received a dona- 
tion of Ks. 151 and a remission of Rs. 100 on the yearly jama, which still con- 
tinues. The estate is now held as follows : 12^ biswas by the Brahmans, 3| by 
Shaikhs, and 4^ biswas of alluvial land by the Seths. This latter share had been 
purchased at auction by Umrao Bahadur's father, and was confiscated with the 
rest of his property. Two outlying suburbs ai-e called respectively Toli Shaikhan 
and Toli Khtklim-i-dargab. The Fort, of which incidental mention has been al- 
ready made, is of great extent, covering 31 bighas of land. It was rebuilt 
about the year 1740 by Thakur Devi Siuh, an officer in the service of the Bha- 
rat-pur Raja. It is now all in ruins, but its crumbling bastions command a fine 
view of the extensive lake that spreads for miles beneath it. Within its enclo- 
sure is the old tahsili, built in 1826, now converted into a police-station, and 
a lofty tower, erected in 1836 for the purposes of the Trigonometrical Sur- 
vey : ascent is impossible, as the ladder in the lower story was destroyed in the 
mutiny and has not been replaced. Outside the town is a Muhammadan mak- 
hara, or tomb, called the dargah of Makhdum Sahib Shah Hasan Ghori, tra- 
ditionally ascribed to a Dor Raja of Kol Sarkar who flourished some 300 years 
ago. This is not in itself improbable, for about that time all the Aligarh Dors be- 
came converts to Islam. The buildings are now in a dilapidated condition, but 
include a covered colonnade of 20 pillars which has been constructed out of the 
wreck of a Hindu or Buddhist temple. Each shaft is a single piece of stone 
5| feet long, and is surmounted by a capital which adds an additional foot to 
the height. The latter are sculptured with grotesques, of which the one most 
frequently repeated represents a squat four-armed monster, who with his feet and 
one pair of hands raised above his head supports, as it were, the weight of the 
. architrave. The shafts though almost absolutely plain are characteristic speci- 
mens of an eccentricity of Hindu architecture. (See page 150.) Several other 
columns have been built up into the roof; one carved in low relief with several 
groups of figures, parted from one another by bands of the pattern known as the 
'Buddhist railing,' has been taken out and transported to Mathurd. The statues 
which adorned the temple have probably been buried under ground; but no ex- 
cavations can be made, as the place is used for Muhammadan interments. The 
saint's ?<rs or mela is held on the 14tli of Ramazan, and his tomb is visited hy 
some of the people of the neighbourhood every Thursday evening. There was 
an endowment of 300 bighas of land and a yearly pension of Rs. 100, but the 
latter ceased on the death of Makhdum Bakhsh, the representative of the original 
grantee, and the land was settled at half jama (Rs. 80) in 1837. In the bazar 
are a small mosque and two temples built by the Mahrattas. The proximity of 



PARGANA MAT. fi9 

the jhil renders the town feverish and unhealthy, and the estahhshnient of a 
branch dispensary would be a great boon to the inhabitants. 

SufifR, by its position the natural centre of the pargana, is a small toAvn 
on the high road half-way between Slat and Noh-jhil. It is about a mile from 
the left bank of the Jamuna, where is a ferry to Bahta on the opposite side. 
It is said to have been called at one time Sugriv-khera, after the name of one of 
the different founders ; but this appellation is now quite obsolete. The orio-inal 
occupants were Kalars (the local name, as it would seem, for any aboriginal tribe) 
who were expelled by Dhakaras, and these again by Raja Jitpal, a Jaes Tha- 
kur. His posterity still constitute a large part of the population, but have 
been gradually supplanted in much of the proprietary estate by Baniyas and 
Bairagis. The township (jama, Rs. 9,619) is divided into two thoks, called 
Bija and Kalan, and there are 1 1 subordinate hamlets. Three small temples 
are dedicated respectively to Mahadeva, Lakshmi Narayan, and Baladeva. 
There is a police station, a primary school and a weekly market held on Mon- 
day. At the time of the mutiny, Lachhman, thelumberddr, with 11 others was 
arrested on the charge of being concerned in the disturbances that took place at 
the neighbouring village of Bhadanwara, in which the zamiudar, Kunvar Dildar 
Ali Khan, was murdered, his wife violated, and a large mansion that he was then 
building totally destroyed. He was considerably in the debt of his banker, 
Naud Ram of Raya, who when the estate was put up to auction bought it in 
and has been succeeded as proprietor by his nephew, Janaki Prasad. 



70 



PARGANA MAT- 
Alphahatical List of Villages. 







Population. 








No. 


Name. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominent 
caste. 


Acreage. 


1 


Abhai-pura ... 


137 


... 


137 


SetliRaghunathDa^ 


Brahman ... 


490 


2 


AhmaJ-pur 


694 


... 


694 


Tiwari Brahmans, 


Ditto 


638 


S 


Akbar-pur 


1,025 


7 


1,03'-' 




Ditto 


1,240 


4 


Aman-ullahpur., 


741 


23 


764 




Gaurua 


973 


A 


Arua 


3,o69 


92 


3,461 


Mabi Lai, Baniya. 
and others. 


Jat 


4,708 


6 


Asaf-aba(J 


346 




346 




Brdhman ... 


300 


7 


Awa-khera 


298 




298 




Jat 


329 


8 


Badan-pur 


624 


36 


660 


Naju Khan 


Brahman and 
Gaurua. 


1,068 



1. Abhai-pura, originally founded by Abhai Sinh, a Jat from Kaulana. Some 50 years ago 
the proprietor was a Biahman by name Serlni, who sold 15 biswas to Baiaram, Jat; and in 1854 
the remaining five biswas were bou'j;bt by Nawab Ashraf Khan, and at the time of thu mutiny 
•were held by his son, Umrao Bahaclnr, the whole of whose estate was confiscated and conferred 
on Seth Lakhnii Ohand, whose son Haghunalh Das now holds it at half jama. The other 15 bis- 
•was have been recovered by the Brahmans. 

2. Ahmad-pur has 201 bighas irrigated by the Aligarh branch of the Ganges Canal, A 
halkabandi sch<,ol. 

3. Akbar-pur, on the Mat and Surir road, was by Raja Siiraj Mall re-named Tenti-kaganw 
(from the abundance of the harll plant, the fruit of which is called Tenti), and it is by this latter 
name that it is still most commonly known in the neighbourhood. The old zamindars were Mala- 
kanas, but now are Brahmans, descended from one Sikham. A hamlet is called Nagara Hariya. 

4. Amdn-ullah-pur, also called Mahrand-garhi, after the name of the foimdor, a native of Lohi, 
which it adjoins There are two annual melds held, the one on Bliadon sudi 8, the other on Chait 
badi 1, in honour of Babare Liaba, a local saint. 

8. Arua, between Mat and Raya, includes the deserted village site of Bindrauli. It was re- 
founded by a Jat nained Bijay-pati, whose descendants, some 25 years ago, partly sold and partly 
mortgaged th(-ir estate. At present the largest proprietors are IMahi Lai, Baniya of Raya, who 
has about ISbiswas, and LakhmiDa'^, the Pujari of the temple of Larli Ji by the Man Sarovar, who 
has 2^. Two market days, Monday and Friilay ; and two indigo factories, belonging, the one to 
Mr. O'Brien Saunders, the other t() Mahi Lai and Janmna Prasad. In the mutiny, ijdha, one of the 
zamindars, was put to death by the zam ndars of the next village, Javvara ; whereupon his friends 
at Arua and Ayra-khera assembled a large force for an attack upon Jawara, and in the engage- 
ment many lives were lost on both sides. For this and other acts of depredation Arua was fined 
lis. 10,000. On the village border is the lake of Man Sarovar. There are 12 bubordinate hamlets, 
the largest being called Darwa, where is a halkabandi school. 

6. Asaf-dbdd was founded from Khaira, of which it was formerly a hamlet. Here is a 
block kankar quarry. 

7. Awa-khera, after being long deserted, was rc-peoplcd some 70 years ago from 
Kaulana. In the mutiny the people joined in the attack on the Noh-Jhil Tahsi'l, and were fined 
Rs. 186. 

8. Badaii-pvr, shortly before the mutiny, was purchased from the old Gaurua zamindars for 
Rs. 409 by Khairati Khan of Farrukhabad, who in the disturbances had his estate damaged to an 
amount estimated at Rs. 24,500. On the Jarara border is a dahar of 12 bighas, and near the 
Tillage, a large mango orchard. 



PARGANA MAT. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



71 







Population 






Predominant 
c aste. 




No. 


Name. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Acreage. 


9 


Badauth 


469 


... 


469 




ja 


822 


10 


Eaghai 


487 


21 


508 




Ditto 


649 


11 


Bagharra 


196 




196 


Athwaraya Brah- Ditto 
mans. 


647 


12 


Bahdin 


132 




132 


Brahmans, Ja^, and Ditto 
Banijas. | 


121 


13 


Baikunth-pur ... 


113 


135 


248 


Brahmans ...jMalakana ... 


383 




Bajana made up of 


Dilu Pa 


tti, Siu 


Patti, an 


d Sultan Patti. 






14 


Bakla 


403 


6 


409 




Jat 


263 


15 


Baland-pur 


363 


... 


363 


Lachman, Tliakur, 


Brahman ... 


313 


16 


Bal(-pur 


101 


1 


102 




Ditto 


134 


17 


Baranth 


2,212 


UC 


2,352 


Seth Baghunath 
Das. 


Jat 


844 


18 


BasauD 


86 


... 


86 




Ditto 





9. Badauth, one of the 40 Bajana Tillages, has 200 bighas watered by the Aligayh branch 
of the Ganges Canal. 

10. Bdghai, founded by Man-Sukh, a Jat from Kaulana, is also called Kateliya, There are 
49 bighas oi jhit. 

1 1. Bagharra. — One of the 1 2 Jat villages. The old village site, now deserted, is called Sher- 
k»-khera. The Athwarayaa purchased from the Jats about 25 years ago. 

12. Bahdin. — There is a market on Sunday held on the border of Nagara Humayun. A 
malikana is paid to Raja Tikam Sinh. 

13. Baikunth-pur. — Founded 300 years ago by Surkh-ru, Malakana, by whose name it is still 
most popularly known. His descendants first mortgaged and then sold to Serhu and Ajay Kam, 
Brahmans. 

Bajana. — See page 66. 

14. Bakld, so called after the founder, a grandson of Ram Narayan. The people live 
mostly at Nagara Sham. 

15. Baland-pur. — Founded 200 years ago by Balavant, Jat, and Mukund, Jaes from Harnaul. 
Now Lichhman, Thakur, of Karahri, has 17i biswas, and Lachhman, Bohra, of Bhadra- 
ban 2^. 

16. Bali-pur. — Founded 125 years ago, by Bali, a Jat from Bajana. 

17. Barauth, near the Jamuna, one of the 12 Jat villages. Thok Kida, 1,720 bighas, 
was sold for arrears to Nawab Ashraf Khan of Nanak-pur, and, after passing to his son Umrao 
Bahadur, was confiscated and, with the rest of his estate, bestowed rent-free for life on Seth 
Lakhmi Chand. In the mutiny the zamindars joined with those of Suhag-pur in plundering 
the patwari, Lai Ji ; his brother, Hira Lai, the patwari of Pal-khera, they killed. There are five 



18. Basdun is included with Daulat-pur. The Jat zamindars were fined Rs, 96 for attack- 
ing the Fort at Noh-jhil ia the mutiny. 



72 



PARGANA MAT. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Population 




Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 






Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


AcreBge. 


19 


Regam-pur 


96 


1 


96 


Swami Rangacharya 


Brahman ... 


£87 


20 


Bera 


855 


25 


880 




i)o. and Jaus, 


1,111 


21 


Bhadanwara 


1 488 


102 


1,590 


Janaki Prasad of 
Kaya. 


(Jaurua 


2,741 


22 


Bhadra-bau 


75 i 


1 


752 




Brahman ... 


1,680 


23 


Bhalai 


1,291 


75 


l,.36:i 


Brahmanf3,Baniyap, 
andMuharamaiiane 


Thakur ... 


1,935 


24 


Bhartiya ka 


275 


6 


280 




Jat 


503 


25 


Bherai 


673 


81 


704 




Ditto 


2,166 


26 


Bhidauni 


873 


40 


913 


Kayaths, Tiiakurs, 
and Biahmans. 


Brahman and 
Thakur. 


1,941 


27 


Bliiun 


246 


4 


250 


Diwan Sarb Sukh, 


Chamar 


1,180 



19. Bcfiam pur, opposite Briiida-ban, is so called from the Uegara of the Emptror Jahaiijfir. 
It passed from the old Brahman zaminJars to Zuhur Ali, for Rs, 421, who in 1842 sold it 
for Rs. 935 to Shaikh Jivan, of whom Swami Raugacharj'a has purchased it for Rs. 1,000. 

20. Berd, 'the ber-tree orchard,' was founded 400 years ago by Thakurs from Jarara. 
There is &jhdrl of kadamb trees 10 bighas in extent, called Alakh-ban, with a temple endowed 
■with the singhara crop of the adjoining pond. 

21. Bhridanwdrd was founded by Gauruas from Surir about 300 years ago. There are a 
number of hamlets, viz., Birhal, Naya-bas, Garhi Ham-bal, G;irhi Sisa, Garhi Khuba, Garhi Neta, 
Ramkaran or Jawahir and Garhi Bhuriya. At the time of the nmtiny the estate was farmed by 
Knnwar Dildar Ali Khan, who was attacked by the old proprietors; a large mansion wliich lie 
■was then building was totally wrecked and he himself murdered. Two of the ringUaders were 
hanged and others transported. The property was bouijht up for Rs. 13,800 by Nand Ram, a 
Baniya of Raya, from whom it has passed to his nephew by adoption, Janaki Prasal. A market 
on Friday. A large mango orchard, called the Patwaris'. 

22. Bhadra-ban, on the high bank of the Jamuna, above M.at, with a hamlet called Hhadaura, 
is one of the most noted i>f the .sacred woods of Hraj. It is wrongly named on tlie District Map 
Bahadur-ban. In the ban are shrines of Maksudan and Ranclihor. The old zamindars were Thakurs. 

23. Bhdlai originally belonged to Bhala Thakurs (whence the name). They were dispos- 
sessed by Jaes Thakurs, who gave part of the laud to Biahmans, whose descendunts still re- 
tain a share in the village ; the other sharehoUlers now being Baniyas and Muhammadans. An 
iniligo factory belongs to Gurmukh Rae and Dulichaudof Uathras. There are two hamlets. A 
halkabandi school. 

24. Bhartiya-hd, founded by Bhartiya, a Jat, from Bajana. 

25. Bherai, founded by Rama, Jat, is the parent of eight other settlements. In the mutiny 
the zamindars killed the Patwari Bhagirath with his son and brother-in-law and joined in the 
attack on the fort at Noh-jhil ; for which acts their e8t;»te was confiscated ani sold to Devi 
Shankar, Kayath of Muthura. There are 290 bighas of re ed- jungle and 187 bighas of common. 
Two hamlets. 

26. Bhidiiuni, founded by Puhapa. a Rajput ; butn >w Kayaths have 10 biswas, Jaes Thakurs 
7i, and Athwaraya Brahmaas 2J. There are two temples of Bihari and Layli Lai. There is a 
hamlet called Nahariya. 

27. /?/uurt, bought in 1825 for Rs. 300 by Diwans Bijay Lai (who built a temple here to 
Bijay Bihari) and Jamuna Ram, and now held by Diwan Sarb Sukh, 



Alphabetical List of Villages — (contluued). 



ii 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total, 


Acreage. 


28 


Bhureka 


522 


44 


566 


Kewal Kam Bohra 


Chamilr 


S75 


29 


Bijauli 


257 


70 


327 


Brahma n 3 and 
Thakurs. 


Brahman ... 


1,519 


30 


Birju-garhi 


594 


16 


610 




Jit 


425 


31 


Bulak-pur „, 


43 


... 


43 




B r a h m a n 
and J at. 


288 


32 


Chaiidauli 


214 


... 


214 




Brahman... 


... 


33 


Chaiid-pur (Great,) 


611 


27 


638 




Brahman 
and .Tat. 


1,060 


34 


Chaud-pur CLittle,) 


433 


17 


4.')0 




Jat 


665 


35 


Chaukaia 
Chhahiri : a ham- 
let uf Mat, 


323 


5 


328 


Salagram Ja| ... 


Brahman 
and Jat. 


501 


36 


Chhic-pahari ... 


608 


68 


666 


... 


Jat and 
Mallah. 


70S 



28. Bhureka, on the Aligarh border, founded by Bhnre, Jat, whose descendants between 40 
and 50 years ago sold it to Daalat Ram, Bohra. He was murdered in the mutiny ; the present 
proprietor is his sou, Keval liam, who pays a yearly jama of Ks. 1,279. There is a fine large 
mango orchard, planted by his father, 24 Lijhas in extent, and adjoining it 67 bighas of dhdk 
ghana A halkabandi school with between 20 and 30 pupils. Five biswaa form a separate 
hamlet called Marahla. 

29. Bijdiili, founded by Raja Bijay Sinh. Here are a ghana of 134 bighas called Mekh- 
ban, a temple of Radha M.)han by a sacred pond called Pap-mochan, which is visited in the Bau- 
jatra ; and a dargah of Shah Bilawal. 

30. Birju-garhi, named after its founder, a Jat from Musmina. 

31. Buldk-pur, one of the 12 Jat villages, named after its founder. Half the village has 
been sold to Brahmaus. 

32. ChandduU, first called Chandal-khera, is included in Nabi-pur. 

33. Chdnd-pur (Great), founded by a Barwdr Jat named Himanchal, and given to his son-in- 
law, a Kanjir from iJurseni in Aligarh, Being put up to auction for arrears, it was purohased 
by Khairati Khan, Pathan, who sold it to Omkar, an Athwaraya of Barauth, in 1866. In the muti- 
ny, the latter, who was then mortgagee, had his house plundered, three men being killed in the 
attack. The Jats of Parsauli now own two-thirds and the Athwarayas one-third. A halkabandi 
school. 

84. Chdnd-pur (Little,) was founded by a Jat named Chand from Bherai. In the mutiny 
the zamindars joined in the attack on Noh-jhil and were fined Rs. 637-8. There is a temple of 
Mahadeva with rude stucco images and a well, both constructed by Radlia, a Baniya, in the 
famine year li3". Opposite is an orchard belonging to the Jat zamindars with mango, pipal 
and other trees. A halkabandi school, 

35. Cluaihard, one of the eight Kaulana villages. In 1927 it was put up to auction and pur- 
chased by Salagram, a Jat of Kateliya. There is an orchard with a temple built by Serhu, Bani- 
ya of ilarahla Chiuta, a hamlet of Birju-garhi. 

36, Chhin-pahdri, on the Jamuna opposite Sher-garh, is sometimes spelt Chhin-pharai, and per- 
haps more correctly so, as there is no sign of a hill, or pahdr, anywhere near. The old zamindars 

K 



74 



PAfeGANA MAT. 
Alphcibetical List of Villages — (continued). 







Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 






No. 


Name. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
nuin. 


Total. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage; 


37 


Chinta-garhi 


344 


... 


344 


... 


Jat 


218 


38 


Dandisara 


767 


46 


813 


J w a 1 a Prasad, 
K h a t t r i, and 
others. 


Gaurua ... 


!,429 


39 


Dangauli 

Darwa, a hamlet of 


236 
Arua... 


118 


354 


Swiimi R a n g a- 
charya. 


Malakana... 


979 


40 


Daulat-pur 


713 


17 


730 




Jat 


1,141 


41 


Dedna 


287 


23 


310 


Dhan-raj, Ath- 
waraya. 


Ditto 


78t 


42 


Dilu Patti 


1,148 


215 


1,363 


... 


Ditto 


1,383 


43 


Dunetiya 


202 


6 


208 


J at and Brahman, 


Brahman 
andKachhi. 


410 


44 


Faridam-pur 


144 


... 


144 


J at 


Jat and 
Dliimar. 


939 


45 


riroz-pur 


180 




180 


Seth Raghuuath 
Uas, 


Mall ah ... 


306 



were Thakurs, who about a century ago transferred their rights to Jats from Siu Patti, Bcijana, 
\^ biswa that had been acquired by Umrao Bahadur, was, with the remainder of his estate, confis- 
cated after the mutiny. 

37. Chintd-garhi was founded about 150 years ago by a Jat named Chinta, A halkabandi 
school. 

38. Dandisara. — Here is Narad kund with a temple of Murli-Tilanohar and a Kadamb- 
khandi of 1 >* bigiias. The old zauiind^jrs weie Gauruas, but now Kanhaiya Lai, Kayath, lias live 
blBwap, Jwala i rasad, Khattri, 7^, and Khub Lai, Kayatli, 7^. Two hamlets. 

39. Dangauli (for Danga-puri, ddnya being 'a high bank,') is on the Jamuna opposite 
Brindaban. The old Dluikara zamindars were ejected by one Dhir, a descendant of Chet Pal, 
whose heirs, two years ago, sold the estate to Swami Rangacharya. 

40. Daulat-pur, on the Jamuna, named after its founder, includes Basaun. 

41. Dednd, or Didna, on the Jamuna, was sold by the Jat zamindars 25 years ago to 
Parasu- ram, an Athwaraya, from whom it passed in 18G4 to anotlier Alhwaraya, Dhan-raj of 
Kosi. 

42. Dilu-patti. See Bajana, page 66. 

43. Dunetiya, said to be so named after Dule, the ancestor of the present Jat zamindars, 
who founded it some centuries a<;o. 

44. Faridam-pur, with a ferry across the Jamuna, was founded by Jats from Musmina. It 
had been mortgaged to Muhanmiad Ashraf Khan, and at the time of tlic mutiny was so held by 
his son Umrao Baliadnr, and was confiscated with the remainder of his estate. The mortgagors 
transferred their riglit to Devi Shaukar Sahay, Kayath of Mathura, and the mortgage was paid ofE 
in 1868. 

45. Ftrozpiir was founded some 250 years ago by Jats from Muin-ud-din-pur, and having 
been purchaseil l)y Ashraf Khan was confiscated after the mutiny, and conferred muaf for life 
on fcjcth Lakhmi Chand, whose son Kaghuoath Dsis now holds it at half jama. 



PARGANA MAT. 
AlpTiahetical List of Villages — (continued). 



75 







Population. 








No. 


Name. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


46 


Garhi Kaulahar ... 


295 


... 


295 




Brahman 
and Jat. 


401 


47 


Hamza-pur 


91 


... 


91 




Jat 


432 


48 


Haruaul 


2,103 


113 


2,216 




Ditto 


2,157 


49 


Hasan-pur 


1,788 


122 


1,910 




Ditto and 
Brahman. 


2,232 


50 


Ikhu Fath-garh ... 


1,164 


47 


1,2U 




Brahman ... 


987 


61 


Iloli Guzar 


1,237 


39 


1,276 




T hakur 
(Jdes.) 


1,572 


62 


Iloli Zanardar ... 


804 


12 


816 




Brahman ... 


1,164 


53 


ImlakSawadKasba 
(town-lauds.j 


90 

1 


... 


90 




Ditto 


... 



46. Garhi-Kauldhar has 30 bighas watered by the Canal. 10 biswas are owned by Jats, the 
other 10 by Pathak Bnihraans. 

47. Hamza-pur. The site of the old village founded by Biluchis, is called Chau-khera. The 
present Jat village is otherwise called Mau-garhi. 

48. Hurnaul, or corruptly Tlirnaul, and then by an easy transition Hindol, is said to hare 
been founded by two Jati, Hari Sinh and Naval Sinh, who formed a name for it by combining 
their own names. There is an olJ temple of Murli Manohar and a large mud fort constructed 
by Alraf Khan and YusuE Kliau. Under the Mahrattas, Harnaul was the head of a tahsili with 
24 subor.iinate villages : it has now two hamlets. The weekly market is on Sunday. A halka- 

[bandi school. 

49. Hasan-pur was founded some 250 years ago by Hansa, a Jat from Baranth. There is still 
a gateway called Chaukhat Ilansa, and the name Hasan-pur originates simply with a mistake la 
the Settlement oitice. There are two Nagaras, Jareliya, divided into two mahals, and Maka- 
rand-garhi where is a dhak tree ghana of 88 bigbas. An old Khera bears the name Mahona. A 
halkabandi school. 

50. Ikhu Fafh-garh.— The first name refers to the quantity of ' sugarcane' grown in the 
neighbourhood, the second was added about 125 years ago when the fort and town-walls, now in 
ruius, were constructed by Thakur Devi Sinh, a Kamdar of the Bharat-pur P.aj. The present 
Brahman zatnindara are the descendants of Bishan Pathak, the piirohit of the .Jats who confer- 
red the estate upon hiiu. There is a hamlet called Masnad-garhi, where cheap striped cloths, blue 
and white, called dobaras, are manufactured and exported to places so far distant as Kauh-pur 
and Mirza-pur. 

51. Iloli Guzar, (for Ila-puri) with a 'ferry' across the Jamuna, was in 1791 given muaf by 
Madho Rao Sindhia to Nand Liil, Kas-dhari, for life. The muafidar lived till 1859. The estate, 
•which had previously been mortgaged for many years was theu assessed at Rs. 2,867 ; Seth Bit- 
thai Das, one of the previous mortgagees, having a share in it. Other five biswas are owned by 
Lachhman, Hrahman. There is a temple of Baladeva. Four hamlets. 

52. Jloli Zanardar, as the latter part of the name denotes, is a Brahman estate. There is a 
Kadamb-khandi of eight bitjhas, a sacred pond called Gahvar-kund, and also three small tem- 
ples built by Pran-Sukh, Kayath, 

53. Imldk Saiodd Kasba. The town-lands of Noh-Jbil, were for 300 years held muaf by 
the Kanungos, but were resumed by the English Government and assessed at Rs. 120. Another 
name is Julla-garhi, after a Brahman to whom part of the land was given by Brinda-ban Das, 
Kanuogo, 



70 



PARGANA MAT. 
Alphahdlcal List of Villages— {cowiinwcxV). 





Name. 


Population. 


rrincipal proprie- 
tors. 


1 

Predominant 
caste. 




No, 


Hindus 


Mnsal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


54 


Inayat-garh 


184 


n 


195 




J^t 


901) 


55 


Inayat-pxir 


32 


... 


32 


BrahmaDS 


Ditto 


284 


56 


Jafar-pur ... 


242 


10 


252 


Seth Raghunath 
Das. 


Ditto 


900 


67 


Jahangir-p«r 


TOO 


4 


704 


Temple of Sringgr 
Bat. 


Thakurand 
Mallah. 


l,91S 


58 


Jaiswa 


516 


15 


531 




Jat 


922 


69 


Jarara 


1,530 


153 


1,683 


Brahmana 


T h a k u r 
(Jics.) 


2,080 


60 


Jat-pura ... 


£23 


6 


229 




Jat 


694 


61 


Jawara ... 

[ 


4,231 


206 


4,440 




Brahman 
and jAt. 


4,383 



54. Inaydt-Garh, on the Jaimm.a. In 1867 five biswas were sold by the Jata to Radha 
Gobiud, and If biswas in 1871, to Jaysi Rain, Jat of Chiuta-garhi. 

55. Jndi/at-puy.^The old family of Brahman zaraindars now hold only nine bi&was, while H 
hare been acquired by other Brahmans of Ahmad-pur. 

56. Jdfar-pur, one of the eight Bhcrai villages, was about the year 1800 acquired by a Jatnf 
Knuhina, and soon after sold to Mazhar Ali Khan of Kumona in Bulandshahr, brother of Nawab 
Ashraf Khan. After the mutiny it was confiscated and given rent-fee for life to Seth Lakhmi 
Chand. There are 401 bighas that form part of the jhil, and 501 bighas of reed-jungle, the pro- 
duce of which goes to the zamindars, 

67. Jahdngir-pur, on the Jamuna, opposite Erinda-bnn, was founded by Jaes Gauruas from 
Miit. In the time of Nawab Najaf Khau, it was giv«n mnaf to Gokulanand, Gosain of the temple 
of Sringar-bat at Brinda-ban, to whose succcss:)r in the same office it has been confirmed by the 
English Government. Here is Bel-ban, one of the most noted of the woods of Braj, with a temple 
of Lachhmi and Gop:iI. There are six hamlets, i-i's, Nagara, Adda Moti, Adda Serhu, Adda 
Eupa, Adda Chaina, and Nagara Chamaran, 

68. Jaiswa wais reH5ettlcd hy Jaisi, Jat, some forty years ago, and has now been partly ac- 
quired by Athwaraya Bnihmans. 

69. Jardrd, founded by Jait Sinh some centuries ago, whose descendants have now solct or 
mortgaged almost all, chiefly to Bralnnans, but a small share to Muhammadans. There is an 
ancient temple of Ram Gopal, and there are four dahars, covering in all nearly 100 bighas. Two 
hamlets. 

60. Jat-pura was founded by Jats, from the adjoining village of Shal. There is a small 
jhdri oipilu, Iter, ehhonkar and karil with a few large ma/iua trees. 

61. Jdivara — The older name was Jlmna-garli. Here is the pacred grove of Chandra-ban 
named after the Sakhi, Chandravati, 65 bighas in extent, with a Bairaai's cell under the tutelage 
of Bal-mukimd. Also a dargah of Mir Sahib Shaikh Saddu, where people assemble every Wednes- 
day and Saturday. The trees in ilie Ban arc chiefly pila, babul and pascndu, with a few large 
and venerable hadambs. The leaves of the latter often grow in the shape of perfect imps, 
which in the summer attain to a coiisideraljlc size. This curious formation is said to have origi- 
nated tor Krishna's convenience ; who one day in his rambles through the woods found the supply 
of cups and platters that he hnd with him in.adequatc for the requirements of all his companions. 
Similar leaves are found in tlie Maiia-garhi ghnnd i these are of a lighter colour than the ordi- 
nary foliage and are esteemed sufficient curiosities for Hindus to send as presents to their friend* 
at a distance, lu the mutiny there was a pitched battle between the zamiudars here and those 



fARGANA MAT. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



77 





1 

Name. 


Population. 


Principal Troprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Mnsal- 
maii. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


62 


Kane-ka 


10-t 




104 




Jit 


... 


63 


Kankar-garhi 


289 


27 


316 




Ditto 


282 


€4 


Karahri 


2,5 U 


219 


2,730 


Jaes, Thakurs, and 
liao Abdullah 
of Sa'.im pur. 


Tiiakur ... 


2,666 


65 


Kaulahar 


1,301 


37 


1,338 


... 


Jat 


966 


66 


Ivaulana ... 


846 


71 


917 


Seth Raghunath 
Das, 


Ditto ... 


1,340 


67 


Khaira 


806 


50 


856 




Jaes 


1,322 


68 


Khan-pur 


92 


... 


92 




Jat 


... 


69 


Khanwal 


1,749 


106 


1,855 




Erahmfinand 
Thakur. 


2,120 



of Pachahra and Ayra-khera, in which as many as 450 lives are said to have been lost. There 
are two market days every week, Monday and Friday. The subordinate hamlets including eight 
Bairagis' stations (sthala) number as many as 28. There is a halkabandi school. 

62, Kdne-kd, so called from the Jat founder, is included in Nabi-pur. 

63. Kankar-garhi, so called from the nature of the soil, was settled from Barauth. The 
Jats bare sold two biswas to Brahmans. 

6i. Karahri. — The zamindars were once Dhakaras ; but now Jaes Thakurs have 12 biswas, 
aBhal Thakur two, and Rao Abdullah Khan, of Salim-pnr in the Aligarh district, six. There 
are two temples in honour of Gopal and the Salagrain. There is a miscellaneous market ou 
Tuesday and another for the sale of cattle on Friday. A sarae, a halkabandi school, and an 
indigo factory belonging to Mr. Saunders. Two hamlets. A large orchard of mango, Jdmaw, 
dmla, Jahera, and other trees, belonging to the Thakur zamind.ars, forms one of the pleasantest 
camping-places in the pargana ; though, for want of watering, the trees have been greatly thinned. 

€5. Kaulahar. — The old zamindars were Tiwari Brjihmans, but now they have only one 
thok at a jama of Ks. 428, while Jats have the remainder at Rs. 2,571. Here is a limestone 
quarry. Market-day is Tuesday. There are two hamlets called Udiya-garhi and Garhi Gyasiya : 
the former is occupied solely by cldpis, who get sale for their goods at Bajana. A halkabandi 
school. 

66. Kauldna is the parent of eight other villages. 40O bighas are in the jhil. In 1846 it was 
purchased by Kahim Ali Khan, a son of Mazhar Ali Kh.an of Kuraona, and, with the other possess- 
ions of that family was conti.scated after the mutiny and bestowed rent-free on Seth Lakhmi 
Chand. A halkabandi school. 

67. Khdira. Near the village pond (pokhar) are the remains of a small shrine massively 
constructed of block kankar. 

68. Khdn-pur is included in Nabi-pur, 

69. Klidnwul was founded by Khumaui, a Thakur of Rhadanwara, whose descendants are still 
part zamindars, though, in J 851, they disposed of the greater part of the estate to Brahmans, 
Khattris and Hao Abdullah Khan of Salim-pur. The latter's estates in this p.argana pay a mal- 
guzari of Rs. 2,000. There is a Kadamb-khandi of 14 bighas, with a temple of l^adha Krishan ; 
also another temple dedicated to Murii M.anohar and a Garhi. There are three hamlets, called 
Garhi Uaja, Garhi Tula, and Garhi Sudama. Jiva, the lumberdarof the latter, was implicated in 
the murder of Kunwar Dildar Ali Khuu at Bhadanwara, but died pending trial. A halkabandi 
Buhool. 



78 



t'AKGANA MAI*. 
Ali'^hahetical List of Villages — (continued.) 





1 


Popvhition. 








No. 


Xanie. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


70 


Khwaja-pur ... 


406 


8 


414 


Seth Eaghunath 
Das. 


Jat 


836 


71 


Kheriya 


67 


13 


80 




Ditto ... 


102 


72 


Kurauli 


32 


... 


32 


Ilrahmans „. 


Ditto ... 


... 


73 


Kunvara 


834 


34 


868 




Jat and 
Br ah man. 


1,009 


74 


Lal-garhi 


24S 


8 


256 




Jat 


248 


75 


Lal-pur 


193 


... 


193 




Ditto 


422 


76 


Lamtauri 


350 


6 


356 




Brahman ... 


331 


77 


Lana Kasba Noli- 
jhil. 


24 


9 


33 


Sardar Sinh, Dhii- 
sar. 


..« 


672 


78 


Lina Maklidum- 
pur. 


277 


... 


277 


Seth Raghunatli 
Uas. 


Baniya ... 


929 


79 


Lohi 


1,661 


299 


],9C0 




Jaes 


1,773 



70. Khwdja-pur,9,o called from possessing the tomb of one KhwajaPir, was founded by Jata 
from Bhcrai. and having been sold to Ashraf Khan, was confiscated with his other estates and con- 
ferred rent-free for life on Seth Lakhmi Chand. The Jat residents were among the ring leaders 
in the attack on Noh-jliil. 

71. Kkerii/a wna founded by Sar-taj, a Jat fromDunctiya. A malikana of Rs. 50 is paid 
; to Raja Tikaui Siuli of Mursan. 

72. Kurduli, included in Muin-ud-din-pur, was sold by the Jats in 1843 to Athwaraya Briih- 
mans. 

73. Kurwdra. Part has been acquired from the Jats by Magni Ram, Baniya, and Dulichacd, 
Bohra. 

74. Ldl (jarhi, founded by Lalji, a Jat from Ilarnaul. 

75. Ldl-pnr, founded by Lai Siiih, a Jat from Parsauli. 

76. Lamtauri, founded 150 years ago by Durji, a Sarasvat Brahman. 

77. Ldna Kasha was first recovered from the jhil in 1814, and then assessed at Rs. 1,400. 
When the floods are not excessive, excellent crops are produced ; but in some years only 200 bighas 
dry up sufficiently to allow of cultivation. In 1854 the Brahman zamindars of Kasba Noh-jhil had 
l.^biswas, and Shaikh Hakfm-uilah the other 7 ; but of the 13 hisw.os 2 were subsequently sold to 
Umrao Baliadur and confiscated with the rest of liis estate ; and now the Shaikhs have little more 
than two biswas, while the remainder of the village has been transferred by them and the Brah- 
mans to Sardar Sinh, Dhilsar, of Sahar. 

78. Ldna Makhdum-pur, the only one of the four Lanas never under water, was part of the 
estate of Nawab Ashraf Kliaii, which wns confiscated and bestowed muaf on Seth Laklmii Chand. 
The two other lanas of Musmina and Kaulahar amount together to 957 acres, but arc uninhabited. 

79. Zo/((.— Here is an indigo factory belonging to Knsera, Baniya, and on the side of the vil- 
lage pond a Daigah of I'ir Bakhsh, built by Bhai-irath and Chain-sukh L;it. There is a halka- 
bandi school, antl a market held on Saturday. 'J he old Kalar occupants of the place were ejected 
by Dhiikaras and they in turn by the Tliakurs under Uajii Chet Tal of Kanauj. There are two 
hamlets oposite each other, V)oth called J.ay-sinha, and near them a garden of the Pat waris planted 
with jjuaTa, pomegranate, and other trees. 



PARGANA MAT. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



79 





Name. 


Population 




Principal Proprie- 
tors, 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus, 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


80 


Madhua-ka 


473 


... 


473 


Seth Raghunath Das 


Jat 


502 


81 


Makbdiim-pur ... 


354 


5 


359 


Parasu-ram, Ath- 
waraya. 


Ditto ... 


750 


82 


Miina-garhi 


711 


54 


765 




Ditto ... 


936 


83 


Mangal-khoh 


86 




86 


Seth Raghunath Das 


Brahman ,„. 


57 


84 


Mani-garhi 


499 


4 


503 


Ditto 


Jat 


1,008 


85 


Marahla Mukha ,., 


225 


... 


225 


S y a m Shankar, 
mortgagee. 


Ditto 


531 


86 


Mat 


4,246 


504 


4,750 


Brahmans and 
Thakurs. 


Thakur ... 




87 


Milk Kalan 


64 


... 


64 


Athwarayas 


J :i t and 
Brahman. 


177 


88 


Mir-pur 


311 


... 


311 




G a u r u a, 
(■Jaes.) 


851 


89 


Mirtana 


407 


22 


429 




Brahman ... 


504 



80. Madhua-kd is said to derive its name from Man-dliata, a Bairagi. It was purchased 
from the .Jats by Nawab Muhammad Ashraf Khan and confiscated after the mutiny with the rest 
of his estates. 



Makhdum-pur, on the Noh-jhil and Sher-garh road. The old zamindars were Jadons, 
ats ; and now Parasu-ram, Athwaraya, Bohra of Iglas in Aligarh, who purchased at auctioa 



81 
then Jats 
about 1»50, 

82. Mdnd-garhi, founded by one Mana, a Jat from Bherai. Tliere is a ghana of kadamh and 
other trees still, 279 bigliaa in extent, and not many years ago very much larger, as is shown by 
the number of trees dotted about the adjoining fields. It stretches also across the Aliaarh bor- 
der into the village of Gangoli. After the mutiny, a fine of Rs. 677-8, was imposed on the zamin- 
dars, who had joined in the attack on Noh-jhil, A halkabaudi school. 

83. Mangal-khoh, founded last century by Mangal-Sen, a Jat from Bharat-pur, on a creek 
(khoh) of the river. The Jats had five biswas which were sold to IJmrao Baha lur, and being con- 
fiscated with the rest of his estates were given muaf for life to Seth Likhmi Chand. Tlie other 
15 biswas, held by Brahmans, were also confiscated, but eventually restored on payment of a fine. 

84. Mani-garhi, founded by Mani, a Jat from Musmina, and purchased from his descendants 
by Nawab Ashraf Khan, 

86. Marahla Mukha, on the Jamuna, founded by Mukha, a Jat from Barauth. The fine im- 
posed after the mutiny not being realized, the village was sold by auction to De\i Shankar Sahay, 
Kavath of Mathura, who in 1867 made a gift of it to Dhan Kunwar, Brahmani, The latter has 
mortgaged it to Syam Shankar. 

86. Ma7.— Tahsili, police station, branch post-office, halkabandi school. See page 65. 

87_. Milk Kaldi, has now been bought by Athwarayas, Milk khurd, with an area of only 67 
acres, is uninhabited. It originally belonged to Jats from Dunetiya, who have sold it to Brahmans. 

88. Mir-pur, on the Jamuna, is one of the eight Thakur villages. 

69. Mii-tdna is said to have been founded by one Eam-ji, who Jiamecl it after his graud^An^ 
Amntliao. Here is a temple of Murli Maaohar. ' 



so 



PARGANA MAT. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Populadon. 








No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
mau. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


90 


Mithauli 


530 


4 


534 




Jat 


958 


91 


Morja 


46 


... 


46 


Brahman and Jat, 


Ditto 


161 


92 


Mubarak-pur 


210 


... 


210 




Bra'iman ... 


389 


93 


Muin-ud-din-pur 


637 


36 


573 




Jat 


l.liJS 


94 


Musniina 


1,708 


31 


1,739 




Ditto 


1,791 


95 


Kabi-pur 


S86 


33 


419 


Jat 


Ditto and 
Chamar. 


768 


96 


Nagara Birbala ,.. 


51 


5 


56 




Jat 


402 


97 


Nagara I am' ... 


376 


17 


393 




Brahman 


175 


98 


Nagara Dehi 


C9 




69 


RajiiTikam Sinh 
of Mursau. 


Jat 


177 


99 


Nagara Huniayun, 


76 




76 




... 


857 


lOO 


Nagara Maliru ... 


139 


... 


139 




Brahman 


40 


10] 


Nanak-pur 


842 


54 


896 


Seth Raghnnath Das 


Jat 


732 



90. Mithauli, founded by Mitha, Jat. A fine of lis. 750 was imposed after the mutiny. 

91. Morja, founded by Mor Kaj from Dunetiya. Here is a marhi sacred to Mahadeva, with 
eeven biswas of land. 

92. Mubdrah-pur was, after the mutiny, fined Rs. 250-8, 

93. Muit-ud-din-pur, included with Kurauli, was founded by Jats from Parsauli and B.ai,ina. 
Sund.iy is market day. Tiie Muh»»mmadan name is a little inexplicable ; it is generally corrupted 
on the spot into Mundi-pur. The remains of a fort and some fine old trees, the survivors of a large 
bagh, shew that the place was once of more importance than it is now. 

94. Musmina, on the Jamuna opposite Majhoi, with a ferry to connect the two places. At 
the mouth of the channel which lead? from the river to the jhil, there was once a dam to prevent 
the inundation, but this has been washed away. In tiic rains, m.any boats laden with grain start 
from here for Agra and other places down the stream. Chaudhari Het Kam, luuiberdar, is a 
man of great influence among all the Jats in the neighbourhood. After the mutiny a tine of 
Ks. 1,100 was imposed upon him and the ether zamindars. A hamlet called Bliagt bliakareliya 
was founded about a century ago, and is separately assessed. There is a temple of Mahadcva, 
and two annual melds are held in honour of Barahi Devi ou the full moon of Chait and the full 
moon of Kuwar. 

95. Nabi-pur, founded from Siu-Patti of Bajana, includes in its area Chandauli, Kane-ka, 
and Khan-pur. 

96. J^agara Birbala., founded by a Jat of that name from Harnaul. 

97. Nagara Ddni. — Part has been lately acquired by Athwarayas. 

98. Nagara De/i«.— Here is a ruinous mud fort of Padma, zamiudar. The former proprie- 
tors were J.at3 of Pachahra, who in 1830 sold to the iiaja of Mursau. 

100. Nagara Mahru. — Jats have now acquired part from the Brahmans. Raja Tikara Sinh 
has a malikaua of Rs. 23. 

101. Ndnak-pur, founded from Musmina, was sold by the Ja^s to Nawab Ashraf Khan. 
The large moated fort which he coustructed was in the mutiny beseiged for about a week by the 



PARGANA MAT. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



61 







Population. 








No. 


Name. 


Hindus. 


Mnsal- 
man. 


Total 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominaut 
caste 


Acreage. 


102 


NasitW 


1,493 


69 


1,562 




Jat and 
15raliman. 


1,485 


103 


Ndvali 


1,421 


86 


1,507 


Seth Eaghunath 
Das. 


Jat 


2,161 


104 


Nauslier-put 


698 


U 


612 




Ditto 


605 


105 


N.-li-jhil 


2,215 


976 


3,191 


Brahmans and 
Muhammadans. 




3,640 


105 


Niir-pur 


177 


83 


2G0 


Seth Raglmnath 
Das. 


Charaar ... 


540 


107 


O'nawa 


919 


32 


951 


Ilakim-un-Nissa ... 


G a u r u a 

(Jaes.) 


2,511 


lOS 


Pabbi-pur 


380 


4 


384 




Brahman 


395 


109 


Pachahra 


958 


. 


977 


i 


Ditto 


1,426 



Mnsmina, Bherai and Kaulaaa c >nfederacy ; but by the assistance of some of the principal 
zamindiirs in the neisjhbouriiood. Het Ra-u of Musinina. Gliaus Muhammad of Noh-jhil, Khumani 
of Kae-pur and others, Umrao I'aliiidur, who had then succecaed his father Ashraf Khan in the 
estate, contrived to escape with all his valu-ible movahle property to Ali/arh ; after remaining 
there for a month, he joined his uncle Mazhar Ali Khan at Khelij-a in Bulandshahr and eventu- 
ally met his deith in the rebel army at Delhi. The village was cor.fiscated and conferred on 
Seth Likhmi Chand. Till lately there was a fine mango grove here, planted by Ashraf Khan, 2J 
bighns in extent, but it ha? now been very much tliinned and a great part of it ploughed up. 

102. AV/.9i7/i«. — A halkibanli school. Twa h.aralets. 

103, A'n'.-u/i, so called from its Jat fomder. Naval. 1,302 bi'ghas assessed at Rs 1,740, the 
property ot Kishana and Daukali, were put. up to auction and purchased by Nawab Ashraf Khan, 
and confiscated with the rest of his son Umrao Balui Inr's estate In the mutiny the old Jat 
zamindars took part in the murder of Danlat Ram, B ihra of Bhure-ka, the next village, and iti 
tiie attack on the Athwarayas of Ciiandpur. There are two hamlets, o le calle 1 Sainant-garhi. 
By the village pon 1 (po'c/iar) is a small ming > grove near which a colony of Harbhuns has 
been estiblished fiir the last seven or eight years, and on the Seth's estate another orchard of 
much greater extent. 

101 NaifihiT-piir, foundel from Parsauli by N'am-ang, Jat. A fine of Rs. 752 was imposed 
after the mutiny. 



105. Soh-jhil. — Tahsili, police station, pist- 



halkabandi school. See page 67. 



106. A'wr-pur, so Ciilled after Nur Khan, a Piithan, but originally named Bhanvarda, after 
Bhanvar Siuh, a Jat from Kauliina. Having been purchased at auction sale by Mazhar Ali Khan 
of Kumona, it shared the same fate as the rest of his estates after the mtitiny. 

107. Olid'oa, — About 100 years ago the zamindtri passed from the .Tats to a Kayath, who 
Bold five biswas to Sada Rdm, Bohra, while the otiier 15 were sold by auction and were eventually 
acquired by Knnwar Dildar Ali Khan of IJhidanwara Threi^ of the Ohawa people were trans- 
ported for taking part in his murder at the time of the mutiny, and the estate was sold by his 
widow to Thakurani Hakim-ul-Nissaof Sa'dabal, the widow of Husain Ali Khan. Founder, Rata 
Skuh. 

108. Pabhi-pur, otherwise called Harad-pur, after a relative of the founder, Bil, Brahman. 

109. Pachahra. — Given by the Jats to the ancestors of the present proprietors s^me 300 
years ago. A halkabandi school. 



PARGANA MAT. 
Alphahetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Population, 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predomiuant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man 


Total. 


Acreage. 


110 


Pal-khera 


1,345 


8S 


1,433 




.Tnt and 
JSrahuian. 


577 


111 


Parsauli 


1,500 


57 


1,557 




Jat 


1,066 


112 


Pati-piira 


129 


.•k 


129 


Jat and Baniya... 


Jat and 
Brahman. 


151 


113 


Piparaiili 


104 


2 


106 


Gost'in Piirushot- 
tauj Lai, 


Brahman 


743 


114 


Pitaura 


17 




17 




Brahman 


346 


115 


Polua (Great) ... 


33 


... 


33 


Baladeva, Banira, 


Jooi and 
Malhili. 


204 


116 


Rac-pur 


1,121 


9 


1,130 




.lat 


,.0. 


117 


Ram-garhi 


156 


... 


156 




Ditto 


550 


118 


Eam-nagara 


435 


11 


446 




Ditt.> a n d 
lirahmtn. 


662 


119 


Sadik-pur ... 


267 


... 


267 




Jdt 


«. 



110. rdl-hhera (from the • Vi\-V family or dynasty), one of the 12 Barauth rillagrps is held 
15 biswas by Jat-f and 5 by Brahmans. Between the village and a hamlet called Lnkhatiya-par is 
the Patawaiya Naia, which commences in the Buiund-ihahr district and terminates in the Jarauna. 
In the mutiny the people of thok Bandhir plnndercd tlie patwari of Barauth and killed his brother 
HiraLal. A market on Monday. A halkabandi school. 

111. Parsauli, (for Parsa-puri) founded by Serhn, .Jat from Bajana was fined after the mutiny 
Rs. 1,450. The Arazi Kasht Parsauli is land recovered from the jhil,39l acres in extent, assessed 
at lis. 133. 

112. Pati-pnra. — Founded by Pati, a Jiit from Dunetij-a. 

113. Piparduli.-— (For Pippala-pnri). The old zimindars were Jati, but now Gosain Pnrushot- 
tam of Gokul is mortgagee of five biswas under L;iU-shmi Das, Bairagi of the temple of Larli Ji on 
the Man Sarovar, who is in po.ssession of all the remainder. 

114. Pitaura. — (For Pi(a-pura). Two-thirds of the village are now held by Jiits who live at 
Barauth and I'alkhera. 

115. Polua (Great). — The present zamindars are Baladeva, Baniya; Jamund, Brahmani; and 
Kishan Sinh, Jat: originally they were all Jiits. A market is he'd every Monday on the Hahdin 
bi.rder. A malikana is paid to Raja Tikam Sinh of Mursaii. Little Polua, which is uninhabited, 
•witli an area of 105 acres, ia owned by the Maja. 

116. Rae-puT, on the Jamunii and with a ferry between it and Shiih-pur in Kosi, wai 
founded from M\ismina. Half a mile to the west of the villiige is Ajliari 20 bighas in extent with 
a temple of B.iladeva, built about two centuries ago by iSain-sukh, zamiiidar. Two hamlets. 

117. Rdm-fjnrhi, so called after Ram-sukh, Jat, ia one of the eight Kaulana villages. Its older 
name was t haniar-garhi. The Jat zamindars came fi'om Maholi in I'alwal, and half of them still 
live there. 

118. Pd-ii-nru/ara, so cnllod affrr Uiln Sinh, Jii^, is one of the 12 Narwaran villages, Half of 
the zamindari belongs to BrahmauB. 



PARGANA MAT. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



83 





Name. | 


Population 




I'rincipal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




Ng. 


Hindus . 


Musal- 
nian. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


120 


Saclr-pur 


81 


... 


81 


Balaram, Jat 


.Tat 


814 


121 


Sakat-pur 


500 


5 


505 




Brahmaa 


585 


122 


Salaka 


138 


* 


142 


Dharm Das, Ath- 
waraya. 


Jat 


3U 


123 


Samauli 


473 


7 


480 


Lachhman, Bohra. 
HiraLal, Athwara- 
ya. 


Brahman 


866 


124 


Shal 


801 


49 


850 


... 


Jat 


894 


125 


Shankar-garlii ... 


388 


66 


444 




Ditto ... 


556 


12f> 


Singauni 


188 


... 


,83 


Het Ram. Jat of 
Musmina. 


Ditto ... 


704 


127 


Sikandar-pur ... 


1,364 


CO 


1,424 


Sevak Riim, Jiit 
and others. 


Thdkur 


1,828 


128 


Siraila 


265 


30 


293 




Brahman... 


475 


129 


Siu Patti 


1,825 


39 


i,864 




Ut 


2,046 



120. Sadr-pur, one of the eight Kanlana villases, is accounted part of Udhan-pur. It has 
passed from the old JaJ shareholders to Balaram, JaJ of Kateliya. 

121. Sa/iat-pur. — Given to Brahmans by the Jats. 

122. Saldhd, po called after its founder Salah, is one of the 12 Narwaran villages. 21 years 
ago the Jats sold 10 biswas to Dharm Das, Athwaraya. 

123 Samauli, (for Syama-puri), on the .Jamuna, is so called after its founder Syama, Brah- 
man. Gauruas owned a considerable part of the village, but have now sold part to Lachhman. 
Bf)hra of Bhadra-ban, and Hira Lai, Athwaraya, and mortgaged the remainder to Devi Sinh and 
Basant Ham. 

124. !>hrtl. — Near the village pond (tdli) is ajdman orchard belonging to some Manihars, and 
on the Bali-pur side a fine, large, mango grove named after Kalu the lumberdar. 

125. Skanhar-girhi, so ca.\\ei after its .lat founder; has 200 bighas watered by a Kajbaha 
of the Ganges Canal. A market on Tuesday. 

126. SingauU, founded by JaU from IMusmina. was farmed till 1854 by Nawab A-^hraf 
Khan. It then returned to the old .lat proprietors, but as they ioined in the attack on Noh-jhil 
in the mntinv, a fine of Rs. 500 was imposed upon them, and in default of payment the estate 
was sold to Het Ram of Musmina, 

127. S'kanrlnr-pur, founded by Sikandar. a Ja-js Tbaknr from .Tarara. In 1821 it was soM at 
auction to'Moti Ram, Brahm.Tu, and Ghaus ^luhammad, Shaikh, of N(ih-jhil. Subsequently, Moti 
Ram sold 5 biswas to l.'am Kishan, Thakur, and Madan Mohan. Baniva, and the otlier 5 to Laohh- 
man, Brahman, while the Shaikh .=5o]d his 10 to Sevak K'am, Jat, and Randhir, Thakur. To the 
west of the village is a ghand of dlLdk aud hins trees witli a pond covering 8J bighas. A market 
on Wednesday. Two hamlets. 

128. Siraila, founded by Sri and Tulsi, Jats from Harnaul. 
129. Siu Patii.—See Bajana, page 66. 



84 



fARGANA MAT. 

Alpiiahetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


PredDminant 
ca'^te. 




No. 


Hindus. 


jMusal • 
mail. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


120 


Suhag-pur 


528 


10 


538 




Jat 


4'6 


181 


Sultan-palti 


1,591 


P5 


1,620 




Ditto ... 


1 ,9) \ 


132 


Sultau pur 


125 


62 


187 




Malakana 
and Brah- 
man 


66.' 


133 


Suiir 


4,9i:7 


314 


5,271 




... 


4,4li5 


134 


Smka 


177 


... 


177 


Raja Tikam Sinh 
of Mursan. 


Jat 


4(12 


135 


Tehra 


158 


401 


559 




Malakaia... 


420 




Tenti-ka ganw au 


other 


name for 


Akbar- 


pur. 






136 


Thenua 


355 i 


16 


371 




Jat 


?.01 


137 


Tilkagarhi 


629 1 


17 


646 


Het Ram, Jat of 
Musiiiiiia 


Ditto ... 


910 


138 


Toll 


»l 


6 


36 


Zuhur All. 


Saiyid ... 


... 


139 


Udhau-pur 


15 1 




ir 


... 


Jat Noil war, 


... 



130. Sultdy-pur.~ One of tlie 12 Narwaraa villages. Tliere is a jhdri of kins and other trcfs 
extending over 52.J bi'ghas. In the mutiny the zamindars j iined in the attack on Lalji, PatMari of 
Baroth, and iu the murder of his bruther Hira Lil. 

131. SuUdn-patti. — Ste Bajana, page 66. 

132. Sulfdn-pur, on tlie Jamuna, so called after its founder Sultdn, aMalakana. Fifty years 
ago it was sold aw;iy frum his desceudants at auctiaa to Khairati Khan, I'athan, whose heirs aru 
now in possession, tiiough they have lately mortgaged to Sahib Ram and Chet Ram, Baniyas of 
Surir. 

134, Surkd, on the Road between Mat and Ilathras, was founded by Jats from Dunetiya. 

136. Te/ira.oueof the eight Thakur villages, was foundid by a Jaes from Kahnur, whose des- 
cendants, some 20O years ago, turned .Vluhamraadans. In thunMitiiiy they received and sheltered 
for five months tlie refugees trom Noh-jhi! : and as an acknowledgment of their loyalty, one-tenth 
of the Jama, viz., Ris. loo, was remitted from the year 1859 (the remission still coutinuingj and 
the zamindars Zauki, Serhu, and Tara, received each a donation of Us. 60. 

138. Thenua, one of the 12 Narwar villages was given to ThauJa, a Jat of the Thenua got, 
whence its name. Here is a temple built by Khuba zamindar. 

1.37. Tilkd-garhi. — So called after its founder, a Jat from Musmina. A few years later 
anolhtr Jat by name Bhagawan founded the hamlet of Bliairawjin-gvrhi. This latter, being TJ 
biswas of the whole, hus been sold to Het Ham of Musmina. For joining in the attack on Noh- 
jhil, the zamindars, after the mutiny, M-ere fined Rs. 662. 

138. Toli, called in full Toli Saiyid, was taken out of Noh-jhil and given rent-free to 
one Zuhfir AH. I'hc grant was resumed by the British Government and the assessment fixed at 
Rs. 640. Subseiuently it was all sold ; lo biswas to Brahmans, 6 to Baniyas, and 6 to Kunjras. 
Zuhur All, a descendant of theold Saiyid, has now re-purchased 5 biswas from Tulsi Kam, Bauiya, 
and the Kunjras have sold IJ biswas to Indrajit, Brahman, 



Udhan-puT is included with Sadr-pur. 



PARGANA MAT. 

A Ipltabet ical L ist of Villages — (con chided ) . 



85 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No 


H indus. 


Musal- 
mau. 


Total 


Acreage. 


14) 
141 


Udhar 

Nagara Himna .. 


372 


32 


404 


P.aja Tikam Sinh 
and Jaiiaki Irasal. 


Jogiand Jat, 
Jdt 


540 



140. Udhar, founded by Udlio, Jat from Dunctiya. There is a r/hajia, i73^ bi'ghas in extent, 
called Batmar. A nialikaua or royalty is paid to Raja Tikam iSinh of Mur.^au There is one brick- 
built house in the village -a most exceptional thing in this pargana— occupied by Kishaii Sinb, 
Lumberdar. 

141. Nagara-Himna, was purchased from the Jat^ one-third by Kaja Tikam Sinh and two- 
thirds by one Bhagiruth, who has resold to Janaki Prasad and A'azir Khan. 



v.— PARGAXA MAHA-BAN. 

The Maha-ban Pargana forms the cuiinecting link between the two divi- 
sions of the district. Its western half, which hes along the bank of the Jamuna, 
forms part of the Braj Mandal, and closely resembles in all its characteristics 
the tracts that we have hitherto been describing: its towns are places of consi- 
derable interest, bnt the land is poor and barren, dotted with sandhills and in- 
tersected with frequent ravines. To the east, beyond Baladeva, the country is 
assimilated to the rest of the Doab ; the soil, being of greater productiveness, 
has from time immemorial been exclusively devoted to agricultural purposes, 
and thus there are no large centres of population nor sites of historic interest. 
Li area and subordination the pargana has undergone several changes; for 
originally it formed part of Aligarh, and then for some years recognized Sa'dii- 
bad as its capital, before it was finally constituted a member of the district of 
Mathura. In 18G1 it made over to Sa'dabiid some few villages on the boi'der, 
and received instead the whole of the Raya circle, including as many as eighty- 
nine villages, which, till then, had been included in Mat ; together with three 
others, Baltikri, Birbal, and Sonkh, which were detached from Hathras. A 
glance at the map will show that a further rectification of its boundary line to 
the north is still most desirable ; as the narrow tongue of land that runs up along 
the Aligarh border, in innnediate proximity to the Mat Tahsili, Avould clearly be 
benefited by inclusion in Mat jurisdiction. 

The river forms the boundary of the pargana to the south as well as the west, 
and in the lower part of its course is involved in such a series of sinuosities that 
its length is out of all proportion to the area it traverses, and thus necessitates 
the maintenance of no less than eleven crossing-places, viz., the pontoon bridge 
at the city, a bridge-of-boats at Gokul, and ferries at Paui-gunw, Habib-pur or 
Basai, Baroli, Kanjauli, Koila, Tappa Saiyid-pur, Sehat, Akos, and Nera. The 
contracts for all these, excepting the one at Koila, are given in the Agra district. 
Of the 151,846 acres that form the total area, 110,013 are ordinarily under 
cultivation. The crops principally grown are jodr, hajra, and the like, on 
57,000 acres; wheat and barley on 38,700; cotton on 8,000, and clutnd on 
4,000. "Water-melons are also raised in large quantities on the river-sands; and 
the long grass and reeds, produced in the same localities, are valuable as materials 
for making ropes, mats, and articles of wicker-work. 

The number of distinct estates is 216, of which 18 are enjoyed rent-free by 
religious persons or establishments, and 89 are in the hands of sole proprietors, 



PARGANA MAIIA-BaN. 87 

as distinct from village communities. The castes thai muster strongest are Jats 
and Brahmans, who together constitute one-half of the entire population. The 
great temples at Baladeva and Gokul, though they have also endowments in 
land, derive the principal part of their income from the voluntary offerings of 
pilgrims and devotees. Of secular proprietors, the Avcalthiest— as in most other 
parts of the country now-a-days — are 7wvi Jtom{7ies of the baniya class, who have 
laid the foundation of their fortune in trade. First in this order come Mahi 
Lai and Janaki Prasad of Raya. Their ancestor, Nand Bam, was a petty 
trader of that town, who realized large profits by the sale of grain in the famine 
of 1838. In partnership with him was his brother, Magni Lf'il, who, havino- no 
natural heir, adopted his sister's grandson, Janaki Prasad. In 1840 Nand Bam 
died, and as of his two sons, Mahi Lai and Bhajan Lai, the latter was already 
deceased, leaving issue, Jamuna Prasad and Manohar L^'d, he left his estate in 
three equal shares, — the one to his son, the second to his two grandsons, and 
the third to his adopted nephew. Fur some years the property was held as a 
joint undivided estate ; but in 1 800 an agreement was executed constituting three 
estates in severalty ; Janaki Prasad's share being the village of Bhadanwara 
Mahi Lai's that of Arua, both in Mat ; and Jamuna Prasad and Manohar Lai's, 
ten smaller villages in the M aba-ban pargana. As the main object of this ao-ree- 
nient was simply to get rid of Janaki Prasad, the others continued to hold their 
two-thirds of the original estate as one projicrty. But after a time, thinkino- 
that the discrepancy between recorded rights and actual possession might lead to 
difficulties, in 1870 they executed another deed, b_y which the two shares were 
again amalgamated. This joint estate, including business returns, was assessed 
for purposes of the income tax, as yielding an annual profit of Rs. 16,066; 
the Maba-ban villages, in which they are the largest shareholders, being Acharu 
Chura-Hansi, Dhaku, Gonga, Xagal, and Thana Amar Sinh. Some mis- 
understanding has now arisen, and the uncle and nephew have commenced a 
litigation which promises to be long protracted and will probably leave them 
both poorer men. Their kinsman Jiinaki Prasatl, in addition to his Mat villao-e 
of Bhadanwara, has shares in Gainra, Ivakarari and 15 other villa o-es in Maba- 
ban, from which he derives a net income of Rs. 14,200. 

Of much the same, or perhaps rather lower, social standing are a family of 
Sanadh Brahmans at Jagadis-pur, money-lenders by profession, who are gra- 
dually consolidating a considerable estate out of lands which for the most part 
they first held only in mortgage. The head of the firm in their native villao-e 
where they have been settled for many generations, is by name Harideva, with 
■whom is associated in partnership his nephew, Chunni Lai, son of a deceased 
brother, Isvari. Besides owning three parts of Jagadis-]Hir, tbey have also 
shares in Daulat-pur, Habib-pur, Karab, Kakarari, Sahora, Wairani and 16 
other villages, producing a net income of Rs. 12,572. A brother of Harideva's, 



88 



PAR G AN A MAHA-BAN. 



by name Purau Mall, has a separate estate, being part proprietor of Bahadur- 
piu-, Itauli, &c., while a relative, Baladeva, living at Grokul, has a further income 
of Rs. 13,311 derived from trade and lands that he owns at Daghaita and 
Arhera in the Mathura Pargana. This latter's father, Param Sukh, was the 
brother of Hira-mani, Hurideva's father ; and it was their father Jawahir — nick- 
named Kuteliya, ' the pedlar' — son of another Harideva, who began in a very 
small way to form a nucleus for the fortune which his descendants have so 
rapidly accumulated. 

The Pachauris of Gokharauli and the Saiyids of Maha-ban {see page 4) 
thouo-h of inferior wealth have claims to a more ancient and honorable pedigree. 
The latter have a joint income of Rs. 6,084, drawn chiefly from the township 
of Maha-ban, and the villages of Nagara Bhdru, Gohar-pui', Shah-pur Grhosna, 
and Narauli : but the shareholders are so numerous that no one of them is in 
affluent circumstances, and the head of the family. Sirdar 'Ali Khan, is glad to 
accept service under Governinet in a subordinate position as Naib Tahsildar. 
An account has already been given of the Gokarauli Pachauris [page 12) whose 
joint income is estimated at Rs. 10,695 : but as the present head of the family 
is a childless widow and her adoption of a san has given rise to much litigation 
on the part of the rival claimants to the inheritance, it may be of use to add a 
genealogical table showing clearly the degrees of relationship : — 

Bliupat Siiih, 
(of Savaran-khera in Bliada var ; came from there and settled at Satoha) 

Parusu-raiu Sinh, of Satoha. 

Puran-chand, of Gokharauli. 



Giridhar Sinh, 
of Bhada.var. 



I'.alhibli Sinh, 
Tahsiltlar of 
Ko^i, died s. p. 



Mukund Sinh, 
of Gokharauli, 



ijaiisidhar. 



Giijar Mall. 

r 



Gobind Kaiii, 
Tahsildar of 
Sikandra Ka;), 



Bakhtawar Sinh = rran Kiinwar, 
of Gi kharauli present head of 
died s. p. the family. 



I I Har Prasad Kaly.an Sinh. 

I 2 Lalita Prasad of Go- 

\ji Jamuna Prasad kharauli 



l.am-chaud, adopted by Pran Kuuwar. 
Beyond the three towns of Gokul, Maha-ban, and Baladeva, which have 
already been fully described, there is no other place in the pargana which 
requires more than the most cursory notice. 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN. 

Alphabetical List of Villages. 



89 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


VTusal- 
mau. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


1 


'Abd-un-Nabi-pur 
Gokula. 


605 


47 


652 


Nainsukh, Jat ... 


Jat 


662 


2 


Acharu Ladhora, 


929 


9 


938 


Nand-kisbor and 
Jamun a Prasad, 
Baniyas. 


Ditto ... 


1,184 


3 


Akos 


3,252 


88 


3,340 


Bakhshi, Jat ... 


Ditto ... 


3,426 


4 


'Ali-pur 


530 


... 


680 


Moti Ram, Brah- 
man. 


Brahman... 


290 


6 


Amir-pur 


323 


43 


366 


Chandan Sinh, 
Jadon. 


Jit 


448 


6 


Anaundba 


2,253 


77 


2,3,30 


Bbawani, Jat ... 


Ditto ... 


2,230 


7 


Angai 


712 


48 


760 


Gobinda, Jat ... 


Ditto and 
Brahman. 


827 


8 


Arazi Islam-pur, 


127 


... 


127 


Sadik Ali, Saiyid, 


Brahman... 


... 


9 


Arazi Milk Bika- 
EU Shah. 


... 


39 


39 


Rajab Ali, Saiyid, 


Saiyid ... 


73 


10 


Arazi Milk Gaiiffa- 
Tasi 


... 




... 


Kewal Kishan. 
Brahman. 




54 


H 


Arazi Milk Kaiiiin- 
goan. 


... 


... 




Jamaiyat R a e, 
Kayath. 


... 


172 


12 


Artoui 


624 


85 


559 


Ajay Ram, Jat... 


Jat 


635 



I. ' Abd-uti-Nabi-pur Gokula. — Jats own only half the village, Brahmans and Kayaths the 
other half. 

t. Acharu Ladhora. — The present proprietors purchased fmra the Jats. In 1857 two of the 
zamindars, Dhani Ham and Sesh Kam, were hanged as mutineers, two others died in jail. 

3. Akos, — O.T the bank of the Jamuna. Here is a hill known as Bbim Tila. Market on Mon- 
day. Halkabandi school. 

4. 'Ali-pur. — Founded by Shaikh Ali, risaldar. The former proprietors were Kayaths. 

5. .<4mir-/3«r, — Founded by Maharaj Sinh, Jat : mortgaged by his descendants to Chandan 
Sinh. In the mutiny a native of the place, by name Suraj, touk the additional title of Mall, and 
was proclaimed Raja. 

6. Aniuml'id or Anaurha. — Founded by Mahi-pat, Jat. Kesari, Brahman, who had purchased 
a share in the village shortly before the mutiny, was then attacked and plundered by the old pro- 
prietors. A market on Tuesday and Saturday. 

7. Angai. — Founded by Isvar, Jat. A halkabandi school. 

9. Arazi Milk Bikdnu Shah.— Hern is a tomb of the founder's son, Fazl Shah. 

10. Arazi Milk Gangd-vdsi. — .A muafi grant of Sindhia's, but resumed. 

II. Arazi Milk Kdnungodn. — A grant to Ilarsukh Rae Kanungo, made by the zamindars of 
ueveral adjoining villages. 

12. Artoni.—llQ\(}, muafi by the Temple of Baladeva. 



90 



TARGANA MAHA-BAN. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continuod). 





Name. 


Fupulation. 


riiiicipal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


xMusal- 
iiian. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


13 


Ayra 


244 


3 


247 


Narayan S i n h, 
Thakur, 


Jat 


557 


14 


Ajra kherii 


1,852 


129 


1,981 


... 


Ditto and 
Baiiiya. 




15 


Badon 


1,059 


21 


1,080 


Uandhir, Jat 


Jat 


992 


16 


Bahadur-pur ... 


170 




170 


Chi ran ji Lai. Brah- 


Ditto ... 


374 




Baladeva. 


See El 


rha, No. 


1G7 


man. 






17 


Balaiainpur 


138 


... 


138 


Jamai3'at R a e, 
Kayath. 


Jat 


163 


18 


Baltikn 


825 


26 


851 


Mittrasen, Baniya, 


Ditto ... 


1,177 


I'J 


Banan 


440 


... 


440 


Lachtnan, Jat ... 


Ditto ... 


305 


20 


Banarasi-pur ... 


,e 


.,. 


76 


Hukma, Brahmaui, 


Brahman.. 


152 


21 


Band! 


1,301 


15 


1,476 


Kehar Siiih, Jadon, 


Jadon ... 


1,200 


22 


Bansa 


690 


20 


616 


Jats 


Jat 


807 


23 


Barha 


99 




99 


Ilaghubar, Brah- 
man 


Ditto ... 


403 


24 


Baroli 


2,090 


1C7 


2,257 


Pran Kun war, 
i^achauri. 


Jat 


l,fil7 



13. Ayrd, — Eouiuled by Arami, J;it, and purchased from his descendants by the present 
Thakur proprietor. Here much sale used to be manufactured, the soil being extremtly s.ilme. 
A halkabandi school. 

14. Ayrd-KJierd. — A township, the centre of 18 villages, but with no arable land. Market 
on Wednesday and Saturday. 

15. JBd(/on.— Pounded by Badu, Jat: a share has beeu purchased from his descendants by 
Janaki Prasad, Baniya, of Kaya. 

16. Bahddur-piir. — Pounded by Bahadur, Jat. 

17. Balardm-pur. — Pounded by Sobha Rae, Kayath. 

18. BaUikri. — Founded by Balaram, Jat, and sold by his descendants to Mitlra-sen, Baniya, 
of Hathras. 

19 Binidn. — Two of the Jat zamindars were seized for taking part m the mutiny, but died 
before trial. 

20. Bandrasi'pur. — Founded by Banarasi, Brahman. 

21. Bandi. — Here is the temple of Bandi Anandi, Jasoda's two favourite servants, with a 
tank, now in ruins, constructed by Budhan Iliivat. 

22. Bansa. — In taluka Ar-Lashkar-pur. Jama, TJs. 1,546. 

94. Baroli. — .\ tappa of Mandaur, originally belonged to the Jats. A market on Tuesday 
and Saturday. Halkabandi school. 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN. 
Alphabetical List of Villages— (co-nimued). 



91 





Name. 


Population. 




Triucipal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Mu>al- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage, 




Basai : the more 


common 


name 


for Ila- 


bib-pur. 






25 

1 


Basar bhikhandi, 


180 


... 


180 


Kaja Tikam Siuh, 
Jat. 


Jat 


402 


26 


Ijliainsara 


1,611 


39 


1,650 


Puhapa, Jat 


Ditto ... 


829 


27 


Bliankar-pur 


334 


23 


357 


RaeSinh, Jut ... 


Ditto ... 


463 


28 


Bhartiya 


2,467 


65 


2,555 


Radha Krisbnn, 
Brahman ; liiim 
Jas, Jat. 


Ditto ... 


1,332 


29 


Bharu-garh 


103 


1 


104 


Bharat Sinh, Jat 


Chamar ... 


351 


a J 


Bhima 


295 


... 


295 


Daya Earn, Brah- 
man. 


Brahman... 


r78 


31 


Bhit-Baberi 


50 


... 


50 


Dhani Ram, Jat... 


Jat 


244 


32 


Bhojua 


204 


... 


204 


Raja Tikam Sinh, 
of Mursau. 


Ditto 


258 


33 


Hhura 


212 


26 


238 


Kalyan Sinh, Pa- 
chauri. 


Ditto 


513 


34 


Bl.ura 


358 


21 


40 5 


Moh:ina, Jat 


Ditto 


635 


35 


Bhurari 


148 


... 


148 


Gangi, Jat 


Ditto 


16.^ 


36 


Bicli-puri Polua... 


171 




171 


Basudeva, Daniya 


Ditto 


272 


37 


Bibauli 


392 


... 


392 


Baladera,Brahman 


P)rahman ... 


800 


38 


Bu-alial.dJ 


242 


... 


242 


Jats and Baniyas, 


Jat 


250 


39 


Bindu-bulr'iki 


871 


20 


8J1 


Ham Ratn, Jat ... 


1 Ditto 


1,079 



25. Bdiar-bhi'ihandi. — Founded by Bal-umkund, Jat. Bluklianda is the name of a particular 
shrub. Jama, lis. 656. In the taluka Ar-Lashkar-pur. 

26. Bhainsdra. — Founded by Bhainsa, Jat Th" Raja of Kapurthala is muafidar ; the estate 
having been sold to liis ancestor Fatih Sinh i)y Raja Man Sinh, the heir to the throne of Jay-pur, 
who lived as an ascetic at Brinda-ban (see page 137 ) 

28. Bhartiya. — Founded by Bharat, Jat. Market on Monday. Halkabandi school. 

29. Bharu-garh. — Founded by some .Jats in the service of Suraj Mall of Bharat-pur. 

31. Bliit-baheri, — Founded by Parta, Jat. Seth Gobind Das his a small share. 

32. Bhojna. — In the taluka Madam. Jama, Rs. 585. 

36. Bich-ptiri Polua. — Fonnced by Bijay Ram, J.-it, is in the taluka Alr-Lashkar-pur. Half 
the village has been purchased by Brahmans and Baniyas. .Tama, Rs. 700. 

37. Bifjduli. — Here is a temple of Chamar CChamuuda) Devi, built by Nain-sen, where two 
annual melas are held, in Chait and Kuwar. 

38. Bir-aliahdf].. — In the taluka Air-Lash kar-pur. Jama, Rs. 620. 

39. Bindu-buldhi. — Founded by two J;Us, Biudu and Bu'.ald. 



92 



PAEGANA MAHA-BAN. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


P 


)pitlation. 




1 






No. 


Hindus, i 


Musal- 
mau. 

1 


Total. 


rrincipnl Proprie- Predominant Acreage, 
tors. caste. 


40 


Birahna 


601 


13 


614 


Sita Ram, Baniya, 


Jat 


865 


41 


Birbal 


482 


6 


488 


Navala, Jat 


Ditto 


747 


42 


Birona 


298 


7 


3)5 


Jasi Ram, Panda, 


Ditto 


412 


43 


Bisauli 


922 


14 


936 


Akbar, Jat 


Ditto 


1,143 


44 


Byonhin 


1,797 


173 


1,970 


Kiinwar T o d ar 
Sinb, Jat. 


Ditto 


1,796 


45 


Chauhari 


427 


32 


459 


Bbiip Sinb, Brah- 
man 


Brahman ... 


275 


46 


Chhauli 


1,033 


10 


1,043 


Akhai Ram, Jat ... 


Jat 


962 


47 


Chhibarau 


238 


8 


240 


Prasad! Lai, Panda 


Ditto 


407 


48 


Cbhikara 


291 


8 


299 


Kalu, Jat 


Ditto 


433 


49 


Chura-Hansi 


551 


6 


557 


Raudbir, Jat 


Ditto 


288 


60 


Daghaita 


1,814 


79 


1,893 


Baladeva Sinb, 
Brahman of 
Gokul. 


Ditto 


2,401 


51 


Daulat-pur 


938 


58 


996 


Nathu, Jat 


Ditto 


1,135 


52 


Dhaku 


3*5 


40 


425 


Jamuna Prasad, 
Baniya. 


Ditto 


564 


53 


Dhanoti .., 


644 


66 


710 


Bi jay K u n w a r, 
Jadon. 


Ditto 


899 


54 


Daharua 


332 


273 


605 


Raja Udait Nara- 
yan, Brabmau. 


Malakana... 


828 



42. Birona. — The Jat^ still bold one-fourth of the village, the remainder has been transfer- 
red to Baniyas and the Paudes of Baladeva. 

43. Bisauli. — Swiimi Rangacbarya is rauafidar, by grant from Raja Man Sinh, the recluse. 

44. Bi/onldn. — Here arc 125 bighas of woodland and karila. 

45. Chauhari. — The original proprietors were Jats. 

46. C/i//a'"/i.— Founded by Mabaraj Sinh, Jat 

48. Chhihdra.—ln the taluka Madam. Jama, Rs. 830. 

49. Chura-Hansi — Founded by two Jats, Chura and Hansi. 

50. Daghaita.— The present proprietor purchased from the Jats. 

62. Dh'i/ni.—Yotm(\ed by Dhakola, Jat, and sold by his descendants to Jamuna Prasad, Baniya. 
Here are two temples, built by Sabaj RaniBalragi, and Pandit Pern Raj, Kashmiri. 

53. Dhdiwli. — Purchased from the Jats. 

64. Daharua. — So called from the dahar or waste laud in its viuiuity. 



TARGANA MAHA-EAN. 

Alphahefical List of Villages — (continued). 



93 





Name. 


Population 


Principal Troprie- 

tors. 


J'redominant 
caste. 




No. 


„. , ' Musal- 
"'"'^"^•1 man 


Total. 


Acreage. 


55 


Diwana 


],098 


10 


1,108 


Bhagirath, Jat ... 


Jat 


1,462 


56 


FaMh-pura 


492 




492 


Chhitar Mall, Ba- 
niya. 


Brahman... 


333 


57 


Gainra 


1,959 


7 


1,966 


Bhawani, Jat 


Jat 


1,470 


58 


Gaju 

Garsauli, another 


643 

form of 


22 

Gur.saal 


665 


Parsa, Jat 


Ditto 


692 


59 


Ghainchauli 


399 


23 


422 


Jannina Prasad, 
Pachauri. 


Ditto 


729 


60 


Ghiya=;-pur 








Mukund Lai, Ka- 
yath. 


... 


163 


61 


Guhar-pur, the more 
Gokbarauli 


common 
850 


name for 
6 


Haiyat- 
856 


pur 

Pran Kimwar, P.i- 
ch.iiui. 


Ditto 


968 


€2 


j Gokul 

1 


4,190 


60 


4,240 


Purushottam Lai, 
Gosiiin. 


Brahman ... 


333 


63 


' Gonga 


635 


... 


e35 


Har Gobind, Jat... 


Jat 


524 


64 


Gotha 


221 


9 


2.30 


Chidu JIal, Baniya, 


Ditto ... 


644 


65 


Gulshan-abal .., 


... 


... 




BankeLal,Kayatli, 


... 


231 


66 


Gunsauli 


1,365 


54 


1,419 


Plan K u n war, 
Pachauri. 


Ditto ... 


1,175 


67 


Gurera 


1.119 


13 


1,132 

1 


Basudeva, Baniya, 
and Jats. 


Ditto ... 


756 



55. Diwana. — Founded by Diwan Sinh, Jat Held nmafi by Swami Kangacliarya, a grant from 
Kaja Mail Siuh. Abiut half of the ztimindari has also been acquired by purchase. Halkahandi 
school. 



school. 



day. 



Fatih-pura, — Part still owned by the original Jalon and Brahman families. Halkabandi 
Ghainchauli. — The original Jat families still own half the village. A market on Wednes- 



60. Ghiyds-pur. — Founded by Nawab Kamr-ud-diu Khan. 

61. Gokharduli. — Purchased from the Jats. In the mutiny the fort was surprised and occupied 
for some days by the rebels and three ti.en were killed in the attack. A halkabandi school. 

64. Gotha. — Sold by the Jats to the Baniyas. 

65. Gulshan-dhdd, a/j'as Indora : refounded by an Afghan, Gulshan Khan. 

66. Gunsauli, or Garsauli. ]\[arket on Tuesday. Halkabandi school. 

67. Gwerd — Here a mela is hold in propitiation of Devi Barahi, the goddess of sores. An 
oldruined fort bears the name of Alr-Lashkar-pur^ the head of the Ar-Lashkar-purTaluka. A market 
on Monday and Friday. . Jama, Ks. 1,700. 



94 



PARGANA MAHA-BAK. 
Alphahetical List of Villaors — rcontiimpcl). 





Name. 


Vopuhifion- 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


i\ru«al 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


6S 


Habib-pur 


se-t 


4 


5*^8 


Laja Ram, Parasar. 


Ahir 


1,19>) 


69 


Haiyat-pur 


1,149 


313 


1,462 


SardarAli.Saiyid, 


.Malak iina 
andCliamar. 


1,671 




Hans-gaiij, the mo 


re comm 


on name, 


fur Isa-p 


ur. 






70 


Hasan- piir ... 


546 


15 


561 


Dliarm-piil^Baniya 


Baniya and 
.lat. 


549 


71 


Hataiira 


721 


22 


743 


Tamodar Das, 
Kayatli 


Jat 


P75 


72 


Hatkauli 


1,186 


48 


1,234 


Swami Eantracha- 
rya. 


Ditto ... 


960 


73 


Ibrahim-pur 


126 




126 


Hari(l(va S i n h, 
Brahman. 


Ahir 


20S 




Indora, another n 


ame for 


Gulshaii- 


aiad. 








74 


Isa-pur 


1,653 


181 


1,834 


Pevi Sinh, Jat ... 


Jat 


790 


73 


Islam-pur 


16 




16 


Ilar-jas LAI, Gosain 


Ahir a n d 
Brahman. 


500 


76 


Itauli 


652 


19 


671 


Puran Mai, Brah- 
man. 


Jat a n d 
Biahman 


1,250 


77 


Jadon pur 


488 


6 


496 


Ajai Chand, .Jiit .. 


.;at 


545 


78 


Jagadis-pur 


273 


1 


'J 7 4 


Harideva S i n li, 
Brahman. 


Bra h man 
and Cha- 
mar. 


276 


79 


Jagatiya 


lb 


... 


18 


K.aja Tikam Siidi, 
Jat, of ilursan. 


Jat 


259 


80 


Jamal-pur 


.,. 


... 




Janiaiyat R a c, 
Kayatli. 


... 


141 


81 


Jataura 


405 


1 


40.) 


I'urusliottam Lai, 
Gosain. 


Biiiiman... 


755 


82 


Jharotha 


639 


70 


709 


Sunilar, .J:it 


Jat 


676 



6i. Hubib-j)ur, alsD, and nu.re oonnno'dv, callea Basai : originally founded by Giridhar, 
Ahir, and subsequently by llabib Khan, Patha:i. Half has been purchased by Harideva Sinh| 
Buhra. Here is a ferry, for whic.i the contract is given in the Agra district. 

69. Jfaiydf,-piir —Aha called Gohar-pnr. The Persinn name vras piven by Yahya Sufi, who 
recovered the fort of Maha-bau from the Hindus in the time of Ala-ud-din Ghori. 

70. Uasan-pur. — Ilalkabandi School. 

72. Hatkauli — The Jats sti!l own half the village. Market on Wednesday. 

78. Jar/ndls'pur. — Founded by Jagadeva, Parasar, whose descendants still own one-quarter, 
the remainder havmg been sold to Harideva, Bohra. 

79. Jagaliya. — One of the Taluka Madan villages. Jama, Ks. 400. 



PAEGANA MAHA-BAN. 

AJphahetlcal List of Fi/%«s— (continued). 



95 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


t'redominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


83 


Jogi-pur 


4 


... 


4 


Swami R a n g a- 
charya. 


Jogi 


389 


8t 


Jugsana 


2,u75 


98 


2,173 


Bhtigirath, Jat ... 


Jdt 


1,600 


85 


Kachnau 


776 


10 


786 


Bhura, Jat 


Brahman 
and Jat. 


813 


86 


Kakarari 


1,425 


49 


1,474 


Jiva Ham, Jat ... 


Jat 


1,301 


87 


Kalyaii-pur 


486 


1 


487 


llarphul, Brahman, 


Brahman... 


530 


88 


Kanaura 


3!6 


4 


320 


Natha, Jdt 


Jat 


942 


8J 


Kanjauli 


1,304 


42 


1,346 


Chanda, Jat ... 


Ditto ... 


1,875 


90 


Kaiab 


2,594 


65 


2,669 


Fati Kam, Jat ... 


Jat and 
Brahman, 


3,033 


91 


Kariiau 


255 


... 


255 


Nanda, Brahman, 


Brahman... 


436 


92 


Karsaura 


7S6 


34 


750 


Muni Lai, Brah- 
man. 


Jat 


1,2?2 




Kasim-pur, another 


name of 


Saiyid-p 


ur. 










Kateliya, another na 


me for N 


agara Ba 


ri. 








93 


Khalana 


187 


19 


206 


Eanjit Sinh, Jat, 


Ditto 


331 


94 


Khandiya 


32 


3 


35 


AmritSinh, Brah- 
man. 


Ditto ... 


269 


95 


Khan-pur 


417 


... 


417 


Bihari, Tarasar ... 


Bra hman 
and Cha- 
mar. 


1,075 


96 


Kharaira 


221 




221 


Dam-dir Panda, 

Brajl.an. 


Jat 


385 


97 


Khar w a 


743 


29 


772 


Khumani, Jat ... 


Jat and 
brahman. 


840 


98 


Kberiya 


152 


... 


152 


Baliadur Sinh, 
Brahman. 


Brahman ... 


376 



83. Jugi-pur. — Also called luayat-pur, from one Inayat Khau. 

84. Jugsana. — Ilalkabandi school. 

9J. Kdrab. — Market on Thursday. Halkabandi school. 

92. Karsaua. — The original proprietors were Jats. 

93, Khalana. — Founded by Khairati, Jat, five biswas belong to Eaja Tikam Sinh of Mursan, 
Jama, Ks. 7-30. Is in the Taluka A!r-Lashkar-pur. 

95. Khdapur, — Founded by Ali Khan, Pathan. Part has been sold to Harideva, Bohra. 

97. Kharwa. — Held muafi by Swami Rangacharya, a grant from Haja Maa Sinh, the recluse 
of Brinda-bau, Remains of an old fort. 

&8. Kheriya.—l'&ii has been sold to Baniyas. 



96 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Population. 


Priucipal Proprie- 


Predominant 


1 


No. 








Acreage. 






Hindus. 


Musal- 
tuan. 


Total. 


tors. 


caste. 




99 


Khajuri 


136 


15 


151 


Rdja Tikam Sinh. 
Jat, of Mursan. 


Jat 


28 4 


TOO 


Khirari 


445 


33 


478 


ChiranjiLal.Biali- 
man. 


Ditto 


385 


101 


Kinari 


132 


... 


jS2 


liar Gobind, Ka- 
yath. 


Brah m a n 
and Cha- 
mar. 


353 


102 


Kinauli 


548 


SI 


579 


Balavanta, Jat ... 


Jat 


5.-)5 


103 


Kishan-pur 


616 


... 


616 


MunnaLiil, Brah- 
man. 


Brahman... 


145 


104 


Koil 


331 


17 


348 


Laclilinian, Brah- 
man. 


Brahman ... 


286 


105 


Lahrauli 


689 


7 


696 


Kora, Jat 


Ja t^ and 
Brahman. 


1,176 


106 


Lttlpur 


276 




276 


Khiyali, Brahfuan, 


Brahman... 


298 


107 


Loli-ban 


2,063 


58 


2,121 


Fakira, Brahman 


Ditto 


1,371 


108 


Maha->)an 


5,33 1 


1,600 


6,930 


Basudeva, Parasar, 


Ditto 


4,b60 


109 


Mahpai 


29 


1 


30 


Salagiraui, Bra'!- 
man. 


Jdt 


742 


no 


^'alhai 


55 




55 


Jugalkishor Jadon, 


Ditto 


152 


111 


Manilla Balu 


1,069 


57 


1,126 


Badam, Jat 


Ditto 


976 


112 


Manohar-pur 


334 


... 


334 


Laja-Ram Parasar 


Kachhi ... 


678 



99. JiTAayi/rJ.— In the Taluka Air Laslvluir pur. Jama, Ks 6.5. 

101. Kindri.- — On the ' bank' of the Jamima, 

103. Kishan-pur. — Cnt off from the village of Karib, a".d made a grant to Hirduy Ram, Para- 
sar. Ha'.f has been sold to llariaeva, Bolira. Ilalkabandi school. 

104 Koil. — So called from the number of Koil birds in the thickets. Here are two grardens, 
■with well and tiwara, constructed, the one by Ja^aki Prasalof Ruya, the otlier by a Brajbasi 
Brahman, in 1837. Mohan J.al, zamindar, was imprisoned for taking pirt in the mutiny. 

105. Lahrauli. — In the mutiny the zamindars of this and several adj lininp; villages plundered 
a wealthy bohra, by namr> Tika Ram, who had lately purchased some of their land. He is still 
living, but has never recovered from the loss then sustained. 

107. Zo/i-icfn.— This is a station in the Ran-jatra and is said to derive its name from the 
demon Loha, slain by Krishna In late locnl Sanskrit literature lie is styled Lohajaiij^liH, but 
apparently is not mcntif)ned at all in any ancient work. Tlu; pilgrims make oiferings of iron 
(loha). There is a temple of Gopiniith, built Sambat i 702, and a tank called Krishna-bund. Ilal- 
kabandi school 

108. Mahd-ban.—Sec page 147. Tahsili, imperial pust-ofHce, police station, and tahsiH school. 

109. Mahpai.Snul to derive its name from the founder Mahi, a Jat, by whose descendants 
it has been sold to the present Brahman proprietor. 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN. 

Al2'>habetical List of Villages — (continued). 



97 





Name. 


Fopulalion. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musrtl ■ 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage 


H3 


Mayaura 


792 


60 


852 


Isvari Prasad, Brah- 
mauof Agra. 


Jat and 

Maiakana. 


1,048 


114 


Mavali 


265 


14 


276 


Dala, Brahman ... 


Jat and 
Brahman. 


684 


116 


Milk Bitthalnath 


108 


... 


108 


Pnrushottam L a 1 
Gosain. 


Jdt 


168 


116 


Milk K i B h a n a 
Chaube. 


57 


... 


57 


Lachha and Khubi 
Brahmans. 


Chamar ... 


62 


U7 


Misri 


215 


... 


2)5 


Balu, Jat 


Jat 


686 


118 


Slohan-pur „ 


47 




47 


Mohan Lai, Brah- 
man. 


Brahman ... 


105 


119 


Mubarak-pur 


... 


... 


... 


Baladeva Sinh, 
Brahman. 




620 


120 


Mujahid-pur 


37 




£7 


Ram Dayal, Ka- 

yath. 


Ahir 


84 


121 


Mursena 


210 


... 


210 


Dhan Sinh, Jat ... 


Ja{ 


69 


122 


Murshid-abad ... 


85 




85 


Prithi, Brahman, 


Brahman ... 


251 


123 


Muzaffar-pur 


192 


6 


198 


Raghunath Eewan 


Ditto 


347 


1^4 


Nabi-pur 


393 


3 


396 


Chhitar Mal.Bani- 
ya. 


Ahir 


702 


125 


Nagal 


1,040 




1,040 


Ram Sinh, Jat ... 


Jat 


903 


126 


Nagara AkoB 


494 


... 


494 


Nandkishor, Jat, 


Ditto 


1,321 


127 


NagaraArjun ... 






Karan Sinh, Jat... 


1 


366 



1 13. Maraura. — Founded by a Ea/at named Madan. Part is still owned by the original Ja^ 
and Maiakana families. 

114. il/dya/t.— Janaki Da3 and Baladeva Das, Bairagis, of Brinda ban, are muafidars. 
119. AfM6ara^-/)ttr. —Mortgaged to the Gosains of Gokul. 

121. Mursena. — The zamindars of this and several adjoining villages took the opportunity 
in the mutiny of plundering Dhaui Earn, a wealthy Bohra. 

122. Murshid-dhdd.—H'h.is was given by Akbar to a Brahman, named Ramkishan. 

123. Muzaffar-pur. — So called by Muzaffar Khan, Pathaa. The original name was Madan- 



125. Ndgal — Part has been sold to the Baniyas of Raya. Here is a temple built by Raai 
Das, Bairagi; a tiwara by Hemraj of Hathras, three gardens planted by Kishan Das, and Husain 
Beg, and two small mosques, one of them constructed by Chandan, a Baniya of Raya. 

125. Nagara Akos.—la also called Nagara Haga, the name given by its first founder Abhaya- 
chand. On the Jamuna. 



98 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


I'red'minant 

cuatu. 




No. 


Hindus. 


]\rii,=al- 
n^an. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


128 


Nagara A^zam ... 


238 


... 


238 


Parsa, Ja^ 


liralmian ... 


856 


129 


NagaraBali (K.i- 
teliya.; 


1,150 


99 


1,249 


Jivani, Mahcsari 
Haniyin. 


J :\ t and 
Rewari. 


748 


130 


Nagara Bari 


274 


7 


281 


Daya K r i s h a n , 
Baniya. 


Jat 


78 


13J 


Ditto Bharn ... 


625 


22 


647 


Sardar 'Ali, Sai- 
yid. 


Ditto 


1,060 


132 


Ditto Eirbal ... 


134 


2 


136 


Harideva, Jat ... 


Ditto 


194 


133 


Ditto Dhainia... 


186 


... 


186 


Raja Tikam Sinh, 
of Mursan. 


Ditto 


298 


134 


Nagara Giridhar,.. 


233 


14 


217 


.Tamfdyat Pae, 
Kiiyath, 


Ditto 


670 


135 


Ditto Gokharauli 


518 


41 


657 


Gobardhan Das, 
Kayath. 


Ditto 


825 


136 


Ditto Had 


143 


.., 


143 


Devi Sinh, Jat ... 


Ditto 


403 


137 


Ditto Iliia ... 


95 


14 


109 


Dhani Ram, Brah- 
man. 


Ditto 


254 


138 


Ditto Jangali ... 


167 


15 


182 


Bakhsha, Jat ... 


Ditto 


648 


139 


Ditto Karan ... 


... 




... 


RiijA Tikam Sinh, 
of Miu-sau. 




103 


140 


Ditto Kazi 


364 




361 


Raja Udait Na- 
rayau, Brah- 
man, 




248 


141 


Ditto Mir Bulaki 


295 


8 


303 


Fida Husain, 
Saiyid. 


Brahman ... 


120 


142 


Ditto Thana ... 


116 


... 


116 


Swami Rangacha- 
rya 


Jat 


160 


143 


Ditto Todar ... 


236 


1 


237 


Rati Ram, Jat ... 


Ditto 


323 



128. IS'cKjara Azam.—1& also called Senthri, Is on the Jamutia, 

129. Nagara Bali, — Or Kateliya, Halkabandi-school. 

134. Nagara Giridhar.— Is also called Nagara Maharath, after the original founder, Giridhar 
being his son. 

135. iVagrara Go/f/frtraw/i.— Also called, after the founder, Nagara Magna. The real total of 
the census returns, when corrccily added up, is 856. 

136. Nagara JIari. — Part has been transferred to Swami Rangacharya. 

1 40. Nagara JSazt.— Founded by Kazi Muhammad Ali in Akbar's time. Raja Udait Narayan 
is muafidar. 

141. Nagara iJ/ir-JSM/JAi.— Called also Nagara Gopi, after the first fouuder. 



PAEGANA MAHA-BAN. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — '^coutinued). 



99 







Population. 








No. 


Name 


Hindus. 


IVrusal- 
man. 


Total. 


PrinciTial Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


144 


Nagara Tulsi ... 


180 


12 


192 


PaUu, Jat. 


Jat 


203 


145 


Narauli Zanardar 


356 


... 


356 


Pandas of Bala- 
deva. 


Brahman... 


482 


146 


Narwa-Hanei 


130 


•• 


1.S6 


Baladeva Sinh, 
Brahman o f 
Hathras. 


Jat 


861 


147 


Nasir-pur Gonpa, 


... 






Zauki, Jat 


... 


96 


143 


Naurauga 


184 


16 


200 


Raja Tikam Siuh, 
of Mursan. 


Ditto 


463 


149 


Nera 


1,897 


i73 


2,070 


Gokula, Jat 


Ditto 


3,565 


150 


Nigora 


437 


12 


449 


Kuiiwar Kishan 
Prasad, Jat of 
JIursaii. 


Ditto 


796 


151 


Xioi-ganw 


2,698 


16.5 


2,8ti3 


Lachlimao Sinh, 
Jadon. 


Ditto 


2,855 


152 


Nonera 


387 


20 


4'-' 7 


Raja likim Siuh, 
of Mursan. 


Ditto 


369 


153 


Nui--pur 


.21 


1 


222 


Pandas of Bala- 
deva. 


Brahman... 


375 


154 


Ochhata 


190 


... 


190 


Rahi Ram, Jat ... 


Jat 


156 


155 


Pacliawar 


3,757 


170 


3,927 


Nihal, Jat 


Jat, Brah- 
man, and 
Baiiiya. 


3,248 



145. Narauli Zanardar. — Founded by one Hans- raj, and on his death Ijestowed on the Brah- 
mans; hence its second name, zd«ar being the Brahmauical cord. It has now passed to tho 
Pandes of Baladeva. 

146. Nariva-Hansi.-'Sold to the present proprietor by the Jats. 

147. Nasir-pur. — Founded by Nasir Khan and All Khan. Jats own five and-a-half biswaf, 
Blayaths the remainder. 

14S. Nauranga. — Purchased by the Raja about 20 years ago. Jama, Rs. 900. 

149. Nera. — Probably derives its name trom its nearness to the river. One of the zamin- 
dars, Karan Sinh, in the mutiny, fired at the Joint Masfistrate : his sh.are in the village, five bis- 
•was, was cnnfi-cated and bestowed on Kunj Bihari Lai, Kaiiungo of Shikoh-abal. Market on 
Monday. Halkabandi school. 

150. — Nigora. — In the Taluka Alr-Lashkar-pur. Jama, Rs. 1,411. 

151. Nim-gdniv.— The Jats still own nearly half the village. Market on Thursday. 

152. Nonera.— In the Taluka Ar-Lashkar-pur, Jama, Rs, 763. 

155 Pachdiofir.—The founder, Bijay Sinh, had two con^i, '^'mI! and Dhyan, aftnr whom two 
thoks into which the village is divided are still called. Five biswas have been bought by the 



100 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



157 

158 



160 
161 

162 

163 
164 

165 
166 



Pan -ganw 

ratnauli 
Pavesarfi 

Pindaraii ... 

Piri 

Pokhar Hriday, 
(Allah-pur). 

Prasua 
Eacloi 
Rae-pur Mai 

Eausanga 
Eaval 





''opulation 




Hindus. 


IMnsal- 
man. 


Total. 


2,620 


32 


2,652 


1,759 


46 


1,805 


857 


63 


920 


858 


21 


879 


345 


16 


361 


222 




222 


671 


... 


671 


754 


67 


811 


371 


5 


376 


215 


... 


215 


G98 


18 


716 



Principal Proprie- 
tors. 



Eaja of Bharat- 
pur. 

Raja Eaoi, Jii\ ... 

Raja Tikam Sinh, 
of Mursan. 

Swami Eangecha- 
rya, mortgagee. 

Jasa, Ja^ ,„ 

Gbisa, .Tat 



Kunwar Todar 
Sinh, .J at. 

Karaal Kunwar, 
Pachauri. 

Eaja Udait Nara- 
yan, Brahman. 



Bhola, Jat 
ClihoteLal, Br ah- 



Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


Jat 


3,711 


Ditto 


1,768 


Ditto 


9,05 4 


Ditto 


824 


Ditto 


629 


Ditto 


381 


Brahman .. 


8SS 


Jat 


769 


Gujar, Brali- 
nian and 


l,?Ol 


U\ 


389 


Chamar ... 


1,483 



Dhusars of Mathura. The Baniyas here have several substantial brick houses. Market on 
Sunday. Ilalkabandi school. 

156. Pdni-Gdnw. — The two thoks, Madiir and Hansu, are so named after two brothers and 
are entirel}' distinct. Four of the inhabitants were hanged in the mutiny. A temple built by 
Mohani, th'e Eani of Suraj Mall of Hharat-pur. Mela of Plml Dol on Phalgun badi 11. Halka- 
bandi school. 

157. Patnauli. — Part has been sold by the .Tats to Brahmans. 

158. ravesara. — Ilalkabandi school. Jama, Es. 1,839. In the Talnka A^r-Lashkar-pur. 

161. Po/tlinr Hridaj/.—'Fonndcd by one Akrn, who named it after his two song. Part ha» 
been bought np by the Baniyas of Raya and Brahmans of Brinda-ban. 

162. Prasua. — So called from a temple of Parasu-ram, 

164. Bderw-Mai — So called from its founder Rai Sinh Subsequently named Gopal-pur, by 
one Gopal, a Rajput, by whose descendants it has been sold to the present proprietors. 

165. Itamanga.— One of the Taluka Madam villages. Jama, Rs. 725. 

166. — 7?«>a/ —A contraction for Riija-k'ila. Here Sur-bhan, Eadha's maternal grandfather 
Is inid to have lived. There is a temple of Larli Ji, a title of Radha, with a bagli, the gift of 
Kn<:hal Sinh, whore a mela is hold, Bhadon Su li «. The village is still inclurled in the perambu- 
lation of (T"kul and till the foundation of the new temple of Larli Ji at Barsana was a much 
more popular place of pilgrimage than it is now. Seven and-a-half biswas have been sold to 
llajii Udait Narayan. 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN. 

Alphabetical List of Villagefs — (continued). 



101 





Name. 


ropulation. 


Trincipal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musul- 
inan. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


1C7 


Eirha cum Balade- 
va. 


3,258 


120 


3,378 


Jasi Ram, Panda, 


Jat, Baniya, 
and Brah- 
man. 


458 


lec 


Raya 


2,336 


589 


?,925 




Baniya ... 


... 


16> 


Sabali 


1,256 


25 


1,308 


Parsa, Jat 


Jat 


931 


170 


Sahora 


2,653 


69 


2,722 


Nathi Ram, Jat .. 


Ditto 


2,623 


171 


Salian-abad 


120 


6 


126 


Ram Sinh, Jat ... 


Ditto 


322 


I7J 


Sampat Jogi ... 


293 


20 


313 


Ati Bal, Jat ... 


Ditto 


709 


1-3 


Sarae 'Ali Khan... 








A mr i t Kiinwar, 
brahmani. 




174 


174 


Sarae Diiud 


356 


44 


400 


Jugala, Uaniya ... 


Ditto and 
Brahman. 


442 


175 


Sarae Salivahana, 


253 


29 


282 


Gobardhan Das, 
Kay all]. 


Ditto 


279 


176 


Saras 


314 




314 


Lai Sinh, Brah- 
man. 


ii\ 


339 



167. Baladeva. — See page 161. Police Station, district post-office, and halliabandi school. 

168 Eai/d — A township with no arable land of its own, hut the recognized centre of the 14 
Burrounding villages, is on the high road to Aligarli , seven miles from Maihura There is an old 
fort, built by the founder. Kai Sen, frjni wh(im the place derives its name. Market on Monday 
and Friday. Police station, branch post-office and pargana schoid. Section 34 of Act V., of 1861 
is in force. 

169. Sabali. — Founded by Sabal, Jat. Part has been sold to Net Eam, Brahman. 

170. Sahorn —So called from a temple of Sahori Devi. The former ovmera were Mathura 
Kayaths. Fart has been sold to Harideva .and Prahlad, Bohras. In the mutiny the Jat z^miindars 
attacked the patwari and killed Khushi Khan, one of the tahsil chaprasis, for which the ringleader's 
Eam Sukh's share was confiscated. Market on Wednesday. Halkabandi school. A hamlet 
called Tara-pur. 

171. Salim-dbdd. — So called from Saliiu Khan Jagirdar : also known as Phul-pur from its ori- 
ginal founder Phula, Ja{. 

172. Sampat-jogi.— So called after its two foimders, Sampat and Jogi, Jats. 

173. Sarae AH AV; an.— Founded by Ali Khan in the time of Sher Shah. A tomb which ho 
erected in memory of one Bibi Rasti is still in existence, but there is no trace of any Sarae. 

174 Sarae Z^avr/.— Founded by Nawab Daud in Akbar's reign. The Pachauris of Maha-ban 
have purchased part from the Jats. 

175, Sarae Sdlivdhann. — Th? founder was one of Akbar's kamdars. 

176. Suras. — This has been sold by the .Tats. In the mutiny three of the zamindars, Hulasi, 
Sawae, and Akbar plundered the Baniyas of Raya, for which they were thrown into jail and died 
there. 



102 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN, 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Population 




Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


I'rcdomiuant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus 
905 


iiian. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


177 


Saiyid-pur 


48 


953 


Hupa, Jat 


J{x\ 


1,398 


178 


Sarkaud Kl.era... 


179 


... 


179 


Anirit Ktinwar, 
Pachaun lirali- 
mani. 


Ditto 


458 


179 


Saur 


127 


... 


127 


B'uajan Lai, Bani- 
ya. 


Ditto 


7 85 


180 


Sohat 


448 


... 


448 


HiraLai, Crahman, 


Brahman... 


962 


181 


Sfcl-khera 


927 


30 


957 


Achal Sinh, .Jaf... 


U\ 


613 




Seuthri : an Ulier 


name for 


Nagara 


A'zani 








182 


Shahab-pur 


155 




155 


^lukiind Lai, Ka- 

yath. 


Chamar ... 


751 


183 


Shali-pur Ghosna, 


872 


119 


991 


M a h f u z AH, 
Saiyid of the 
M a i\ a-b a n fa- 
mi ly. 


Saiyid ... 


827 


184 


Shaz;i(l-piir I n - 
dauli. 


223 


... 


228 


Jawahir, Ja{ 


J.at 


373 


185 


Sliahzad-pur Tap- 
pa SulKli. 


40 




40 


Hain i'ra,sal, Pa- 
rasar. 


Ditto 


191 


186 


Sbenii 


32'.' 


IC. 


338 


Moti, Jaf 


Ditto 


610 


187 


Shcrpur 


69 


... 


69 


Jugal-kishor, Pa- 
rasar. 


Ahii- 


617 


183 


Siyara 

Souai : see No. 193. 


472 


21 


496 


Ka-.u Eaklish, Jdf, 


Jat 


... 



177. Suhjid-pur. — Known also as Kasim-pur. In the mutiny the ziniindars helped to plunder 
Tika Ram, Bohra, to whom part of the village had been sold. Much of the land is jungle and ra- 
vine along ilie river bank. Tiiere is an English tomb, but withimt inscription. 

179. Saur, — Founded by Sur Kam, Jat. Half has been bought by Swanii Eangacharya. 

180. SeAai.— This parish occupies 1 nook, almost entirely surrounded by the Jamuna. Here 
is a ferry, called Swami Ghat, for which tlie contract is given in Agia. 

181. Set- filter d. — From 'sel, a spear.' 

182. Shahdh-pur. — Founded by Saiyid Shahahud din, whose descendants still own part. 
Part has been mortgaged to the I'andes of Baladeva. 

183. Shdh-pnr. — Said to have been fonndo 1 by the Rani Katira of Mewar. There is an old 
fort built by a chobilar of Bliarat-pur, named Marchna. 

184. Shdli-zdd-pur.SoV\ by the Jats to the Parasar chaudharis 

186. S/icrn».— Part has been sold to the Baniyas of Ayra-khera, 



PARGANA MAHA-BAN. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — ^continued). 



103 





Name. 


/ 


opulation. 




Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
mau. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


189 


Sonkh 


384 


28 


412 


Swami R a n g a 
charya. 


Jat 


95 


190 


Suraj 


690 


4 


603 


Gulab Sinh, J.it .. 


Ditto 


543 


191 


Taiyib-pur 


139 




139 


Murli. Brahman ... 


Brah man 
;m<l Mula- 
kuua. 


332 


192 


Tal-garbi 


£50 


6 


356 


Parma, .Jaf 


Jat 


631 


193 


Tatarota 


!,271 


31 


1,302 


Ummoda, Jat ... 


Ditto 


2,000 


194 


Tchra 


482 


15 


497 


Gopal Das, Baniya, 


Ditto 


763 


195 


Thana Amar Sink, 


241 


10 


251 


Bijay llaui Jat ... 


Ditto 


835 


196 


Thok Bindavani, 
Sonai. 


1,393 


157 


1,555 


Maha pati, Brali- 
mau 


Brahman... 


125 


197 


Thok Gyaa 


243 


... 


243 


Harnam, Brahman 


Ditto 


359 


198 


Thok Kamal ... 


ai8 


... 


318 


Kushali, Jat ... 


Jat 


290 


199 


Thok Saru 


227 


17 


244 


Bliagirath, Jat ... 


Ditto ... 


830 


20( 


Thok Sumera ... 


235 


43 


278 


Kripa Ram, Ja{ ... 


Ditto 


322 


201 


Tirwa 


291 


... 


291 


Har Naraj'an, Brah- 
man, mortgagee. 


Ditto ... 


301 



190. Suraj. — A Parao and masonry well constructed by Prasddi and tialagram, Baniyas. 

192. Tdl Carhi.So called from a tank ("tal) constructed by the village founder, Serhu, 
JaJ. 

Tdluka Ar-Lashkar-pur. — A collective name for the eleven villages of Bir-ali-abad, Basar- 
bhikhandi, Bich-puri, Bansa, Gurera, Khajuri, Khalann, Pavesara, Polua, Nigora, and Sujaii-pur. 
The last-named is uninhabited : it belongs to Raja Tikam Sinh, and is assessed at Rs 745, on an 
area of 243 acres. 

Tdluka Madam. — A collective name for the five villages of Bhojna, Chhikara, Jagatiya, 
Nauranga, and Rausanga. 

193. Tatarota. — Acquired by one Sewa, Jat, from the Kdals. Part has been purchased by 
Dhusars. In the mutiny one of the zaraindars, Ad Ram, was thrown into jail for joining in the 
attack on Tika Ram the wealthy Bohra of Nagara Bali. 

195. Thdnd Amar Sinh. — Here is a temple built by Naval Sinh, karadar of Bharat-pur in 
Sambat 1819. 

1 96. Thok Binddi-nni.—So called from its founder, a Brahman. This, with Thok Gjln, Thok 
Kamal, Thok Saru, Thok sumera, lihiirari, Nagara Bari and Nas^ara Jangali make up the town- 
ship of Sonai. A fort built by Be?am Umrao Shah in 1828 Sambat was for some years used as a 
tahsili. Sarae made by Tahsildar Znhur Ali Khan 40 years ago, a police station, a halkabandi 
school. Market on Sunday and Thursday. 

201. Tirwa.— In the mutiny the Ja{ lumbcrdar, Chain-Sukh, was thrown into jail and died 
there. 



104 



TAKGANA MAHA-BAN. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (concluded). 





Ncame. 


Population. 


Piiucipal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus 


.lusal- ^^,,_ 

1 


Acreage. 


202 
203 


Wairani 

Zikarija-itur 


4,215 


192 


4,407 


liar phul. J at ... 

Jamuiiii Prasad, 
iirahmau. 


Jiit and 
Iirahmau. 


3,114 
101 



202. TT'fliVa/ii— Founded by the Kulals, Part has been sold by the Jats to Haridevu, Bohra. 
Market on Tuesday and Saturday. 

203. Zi/.a/ti'a-/j«r. —Foimerly belonged to the Kanungoes. 



VI— PARGANA SA'DABAD. 

The Pargana of Sa'dabad lies between the Districts of Aligarh and of Agra 
to the North and South, and the Mathura Parganas of Maha-ban and Jalesar to 
the West and East. It has an area of 1,15,498 acres, and is divided into 131 
separate estates, of which 52 are held by sole proprietors and the remainder by 
communities of shareholders. Though water is ordinarily found only at the 
considerable depth of 30 feet below the surface and is often brackish, most of 
the land is of excellent quality, yielding a good return on e very species of agricul- 
tural produce; barley, cotton, joa?- and ai^har being the principal crops, with a 
considerable amount also of hemp and indigo. The predominant classes are 
Jats and Brahmans, who together constitute nearly one half of the total popu- 
lation. At the beginning of the century. Raja Bhagavant Sinh of Mursan was 
one of the lai-gest landed proprietors ; but now his estate in Sa'dabad, as held by 
his son, Raja Tikam Sinh, consists only of the villages of Bhurka, Jhagarari, 
and Nagara Ghariba, which yield an annual income of Rs. 3,000, Another local 
magnate of great importance at the same period was also a Jat by caste, Thakur 
Kushal Sinh, the brother-in-law of Durjan Sal, the usurper of the throne of 
Bharat-pur. His estates, some 10 or 11 villages lying round about Mahrara, 
now on the line of Railway, were all confiscated at the close of the war, when 
a settlement was made with the former proprietors and some of the hereditary 
cultivators. At present the principal people in the pargana are the Muhammadan 
family seated at the town of Sa'dabad, at whose head is the Thakurani Hakim- 
un-Nissa, the widow of Kunwar Husain Ali Khan. The latter was the eldest 
son of Mardan AU Khan, of Chatari in Bulandshahr, the purchaser of the 
estate, which now yields an annual net income of Rs. 48,569, derived from as 
many as 26 different villages. The property is managed on behalf of the 
Thakurani by her nephew, Kunwar Irshad Ali Khan. His brother, Nawub Faiz 
Ali Khan, Bahadur, C. S. I., was for some time prime minister of the Jay-pur 
State, and owns the village of Nanau; while another member of the family 
Zeb-un-Nissa, the widow of Kamr Ali Khan, is the proprietor of Chhava 
and Dauhai, with a net income of Rs. 1,993. The villages of Bahardoi and 
Narayanpur are also in the possession of a Muhammadan, Ghulam Muhammad 
Khan, the son of Hidayat' Ali Khan, whose income was rated at Rs. 3,555. 
The relationship existing between the different members of the Sa'dabad 





106 



PARGANA Sa'DABAD. 



family will be best understood from a glance at the following genealogical 
table :— 
Mavdan 'Ali Khan, of Chatari, purchaser of the Sa'dabad estate. 



(1) Husain =Hakim- (2;Vazir (3) Ziihur (4) Mardau (5) A dau.=Yakub (6) Mahniud (7)KararAli 
All Khan un-Nissa, Ali 'Ali Ali | 'Ali Ali Khan, Khan.ofChha 



cf Sa'dabad, ) i v i u 
^ied«./). 1874. 



K h an. Khan. 
Deputy 
Collec- 
tor. 



Khan. 



Dildar Ali Khan, of Faiz Ali Khan, Irshad Ali Khan, 

Bhadanwara, kil- prime minis- present Maua- 

led in the mutiny ter of Jay- ger of Sa'dabad 

of 1857. pur. estate. 



Khan ofOhitaii: va=Zeb-un- 
of by second Nissa. 
Amba- wife. 



Abdullah Khan, of 
Salim-pur, in Ali- 
garli Pistrict, with 
estates in Mat. 



The family claim descent from Kunwar Pratap Sinh, a Bargiijar Thaknr of 
Bajaur, in Riijputana, who joined Prithi Kaj of Delhi, in his expedition against 
Mahoba. On his way thither he assisted the Dor Raja of Kol in reducing a 
rebellion of the Minas, and was rewarded by receiving in marriage the Riij^'s 
daughter with a dowry of 150 villages in the neighbourhood of Pahasu. The 
eleventh in descent from Pratap Sinh was Lai Sinh, who, though a Hindu, 
received from the Emperor Akbar the title of Khan ; whence the name 
Lal-Khani by which the family is ordinarily designated. It was his grandson 
Itimad Rae, in the reign of Aurangzeb, who first embraced Muhainmadan- 
ism. The seventh in descent from Itimad Rae Avas Nahar Ali Khan, Avho, 
with his nephew Dundi Khan, held the Fort of Kumona against the English, and 
thus forfeited his estate, which was conferred upon his relative Mardan Ali Khan. 

The remaining large landowners are of a different stamp, being noiivcaux 
riches, who have acquired whatever wealth they possess within the last few years 
by the practice of trade and usury. The most prominent members of this class 
are — 1st, Sri Ram, Bohra, son of Madari L41, Brahman, of Salai-pur, who returns 
his net income at Rs. 15,500, derived from shares in 20 different villages ; 2nd, 
Mittra Sen, a Baniya of Hathras, who has an income of Rs. 12,125, arising 
from lands in Mirhavali, Samad-pur, and four other places ; and 3rd, Thakur Das 
and Sita Ram, the sons of Jay Gopiil, Dhusar, who enjoy an income of 
Rs. 12,116, from Jatoi, Kupa and Nagara Dali, and shares in II other villages. 
Most of the indigo factories are branches of the Chotua concern — a firm which 
has its head-quarters near Sonai, in the Hathras pargana — Mr. John O'Brien 
Saunders, of the Engluhman, being the senior partner. 

Stictly speaking, there is not in the whole of Sadabdd a single town; fof 
even the capital is merely a largish village. It was founded by a character of 
considerable historical eminence, Vazir Sa'dullah Khan — the minister of the 
Emporor Shahjahuu — who died in 1655, three years before the accession of Au- 



PARGANA SA'DABAD. 107 

rangzeb. For some time after the annexation of 1803, it continued to be 
recognized as the capital of a very extensive district, which had the Jamuna as 
its western boundary and comprised the Parganas of Jalesar, Mat, Noh-jhil, 
Maha-ban, Raya, Khandauli, Sikandra Kao, and Firozabad, in addition to the 
one named after itself. This arrangement existed till 1832, when the Mathura 
District was formed and absorbed the whole of the Sa'dabad circle, with the 
exception of Sikandra Rao, which was attached to Aligai-h, and Firozabad and 
Khandauli, which compensated Agra for the loss of Mathura. If the size of the 
place had accorded in the least with its natural advantages, it would have 
been impossible to find a more convenient and accessible local centre ; as it 
stands on a small stream, called the Jharna, which facilitates both drainage and 
irrigation, and it is also at the junction of four important high roads. Of these, 
one runs straight to Mathura, a distance of 24 miles ; another to the Railway 
Station at Manik-pur, which is nine miles off; while the remaining two connect it 
with the towns of Agra and Aligarh. The Tahsili, which was originally a Fort 
of the Gosain Himmat Bahadur's, is a small but substantial building, with a deep 
fosse and pierced and battlemented walls. As it has the further advantage of 
occupying an elevated position, and is supplied with a good masonry well in 
the court-yard, it might in case of emergency be found capable of standing a 
siege. There is in the main street a largish temple with an architectural 
facade; but the most conspicuous building in the town is a glittering white 
mosque, recently erected by Kunwar Irshad AH Khan, near his private resi- 
dence. There are two other small mosques ; one built by Ahmad AH Khan, 
Tahsildar, the other ascribed to the Vazir, from whom the place derives its name. 
The zamindari estate was at one time divided between Brahmans, Jats, and 
Galliots; of whom only the former now retain part possession, the remainder of 
the land having been transferred to Muhammadans and baniyas. The principal 
meld is the Ram Lila, started only 40 years ago by Pachauri Mulcund Sinh, when 
Tahsildar. The oldest temples are two in honour of Mahadeva, one of Hanu- 
miin, and a fourth founded by Daulat Rao Sindha, dedicated to Murli Manohar. 
In the mutiny the place was attacked by the Jats, and seven lives were lost 
before they could be repulsed. A Thakur of Hathras, by name Samant Sinh, 
who led the defence, subsequently had a grant of a village in Aligarh, while two 
of the Jat ringleaders, Zalim and Deokaran of Kursanda, were hanged. 

Immediately opposite the road that branches off to Jalesar is a neat little 
rest-house for the accommodation of the officers of the Public Works Depart- 
ment ; and about half a mile from the town on the Agra side iS a large and 
commodious bimgalow of the Kunwar's which is always placed at the disposal 
of his English friends. It is surrounded by extensive mango groves, and at- 
tached to it is a spacious garden, very prettily laid out and well-kept, contain- 
ing many choice varieties of trees, flowers, and creepers. 



108 



No. 



pARrxANA SA'dABAD. 

A^yhabetical List of Villages. 



Name. 





Abhay-pura 




Arautha 




Arazi Milk 




Kxix 




Aturra 




Baghaina 




Baghpur 




Bahadur-pur 




Bahadur-pur 


10 


Bahardoi 


11 


Barahar 



Population. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
mau 


Total. 


289 


7 


296 


1,028 


49 


1,0.'7 


949 


73 


1,022 


207 


11 


218 


842 


73 


915 


162 


11 


173 


384 


21 


405 


40O 


70 


470 


796 


62 


858 


552 


37 


689 



Principal Proprie- 
tors. 



Ila-iiin-un-Nissa... 
Narayan, Baniya,.. 

Chhitar Sinh, Jat, 

Slohan Lai and 
Sita Ram. 

Hari deva, Jat ... 
Gosains 



Ghulatu Muham- 
mad Khdn. 



Mittra Sen, Baniya Jats 
of H^thras. 



Predominant 
caste. 



Ja t a and 
Brahraans. 

Ditto 



Chamars ... 
Jats ,„ 

Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Mahajans... 
Chamars ... 



Acreage. 



479 

1,262 
16 

1,022 
864 

707 
182 
662 
412 

1,015 

815 



1. Abhay-pura, founded by Abhay Ram, a Thenua Jat from Naupura, and transferred 
from his descendants to Kuuwar Husaiu 'Ali Khan of Sa'dabad. 

2. Arautha, founded by Daiila, Jat, a descenJant of Bijay Pal, of Biana, whose family still 
retain one-flfth. The remainder has been transferred to Baniyas and Brahmana. In the mutiny 
Kasi Ram asid Devi Ram, two of the old zauiindars looted the Patwari, and ejected the Lumber* 
dar Mohan Lai. There is a temi)le built by one Radhika Das. 

3. Ardzi Milk, taken for the Kanungos from Sherpur and Sa'dabad. 

4. Arti was founded some 700 years ago by Bhoj-raj, a Gahlot, from whose descendants it 
passed to Laiji, JaJ He has sold the greater part to Thakurani Hakim-un-Nissa of Sa'dabad. 

"There is a temple of Mahideva built by Saraad Puri, Gosain, ancestor of Chetan l^uri, the present 
muafidar. In the mutiny Ilira Siiih and others of the old zamindars looted the lumberdar 
Chhattra Siiih. 

5. Aturra was founded by Rae, a Haga Jat from Susahau, Avhose descendants have mortga- 
ged it to Mohan Lai. 

6. Baghaina was founded some 400 years ago by Adhar, a Theuna Ja^, whose descendants 
hare sold one-fourth to Dip-chand, Jat. 

7. Bdgh-pur was founded some 300 years ago by Bagh-raj, Jat, whose descendants are still 
lu part possession. Fathlu and Durjan are mortgagees of the remainder. 

8. Bahddur-pur, sold by the old Jat proprietors to other Jats and Gosains, 

9. Bahddur-pur, founded some 200 years ago by Ransi, Ahir, from the other Bahadur-pur. 
From his descendants it pa'ised to Deokaran, Mahajan, who was forcibly expelled from the 
Tillage in the mutiny, but his heirs are now in peaceable possession. 

10. 7?rt/wrJoi was founded by a descendant of the Rana Katira. From the Thakurs it passed 
to Ghulam Muhammad Kliiin, whose agent was looted in the mutiny by Ajita and others of the 
old zamindars. 

1 1. Bardhar, said to have been given on the barhdr, or day after the wedding, by Than Sifih 
of Bisana in Uathras to his son in law, Naval Sinh. Now the village is mortgaged to Mittra 
Sen. Here is an indigo factory. 



PAKGANA SA DABAD. 
Alphabetical List of Fi7/a^es— (continued). 



109 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


12 


Baraich 


529 


12 


641 


Ganga Prasad 
Ahir. 


Ahirs and 
Baniyas. 


360 


13 


Bara-mai 


726 


27 


753 


Hakim-un-Nissa of 
Sa'dabad. 


Jats 


983 


U 


Baraus 


420 


100 


620 


Hira Lai and Lai 
Chand, Athwa- 
rayas. 


Chamars ... 


724 


16 


Bauli 


333 


25 


358 


ManoharSinh.Tha- 
kur. 


Ditto 


468 


16 


Bedai 


1,965 


156 


2,121 


„ 


Thakurs ... 


2,343 


17 


Bhukalara 


674 


14 


688 


Bhawani Sinh, and 
Sri Ram. 


Brahmans... 


544 


18 


Bhurka 


650 


4 


654 


Raja Tikam Sinh 
of Mursan. 


Jats 


642 


19 


Bich-pari 


198 


4 


202 


Gosains 


Jats and 
Gosains. 


355 


20 


Bijal-pur 


235 


16 


251 


Hakim-un-Nissa... 


Thakurs ... 


916 


21 


Bilara 


852 


43 


895 


„ 


Jats 


778 



12. Baraich, founded 500 years ago by Bhupal, Ahir, from Bhagari in Firozabad. Part has 
been transferred by his descendants to Baniyas. 

1 3. Bard Mai was sold by the Jats to Murad 'A li Khan, father of Kunwar Husain 'Ali Khaa 
of Sa'dabad, whose widow, Hakiai-un-.Vissa, is the present proprietor. 

14. Baraus was sold by Sita, Malakana, to Thakurs, from whom it passed to Prithi-raj, 
Bohra, whose heirs are uow in possession. In the mutiny he was expelled by Moti Sinh and otheri 
of the old zamindars and looted to the amount of Ks. 5,000. 

15. Bauli was founded by Ram Sahae, a Thakur from Sahpau, and finally passed by gift to 
Manohar Sinh from his father-in-law Bakhtawar Sinh. 

16. Bedai was founded by Godhu, Chauhan, whose descendants have sold part to Brah- 
mans and Baniyas. Here the Phul Dol is celebrated Chait badi 8. In the mutiny the zamindars 
Bijay Sinh and Chandan Sinh took part in looting the town of Si'dabad. The River Karwan, or 
Jharna, dry at all times of the year except during the rains, passes through the village lands. 

17. Bhukalara has been transferred in part by the old Thakur zamindars to Sri Ram, 
Bohra, 

18. Bhurka, has been sold by the Jats to Raja Tikam Sinh of Mursan. 

19. Bich-pari, was acquired by Bhupat, a Baghotiya Jat from Khondu, who married a 
daughter of Sultau Sinh of Kajarothi, and in Sambat 1647 formed it into a separate village, which 
he named Bichpari from its lying • between' (bich) the other two villagts, From his descendants 
it passed to Gosain Kartar Giri, whose heirs are the present proprietors. 

20. Bijal-pur, on the small stream called the Karwan, was founded by one Gegal a Bargujar, 
but has been sold to Thakurani Hakim-un-Nissa by the former Rajput and Brahman proprietors. 

21. Bildra was founded some 400 years ago by a Jat named Karl Ravat, from whose des- 
cendants part has now passed to Baniyas. 



110 



PARGANA SA DABAD. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continiioci). 





Name. 


Popiihttwn. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




Ko 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
mau. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


32 


Bir-nagar ... 


223 


* 


227 


Gaiija,Kayathni... 


Tliakurs ... 


352 


23 


Bisdwar 


4,974 


247 


5,221 


„ 


Jats 


4,391 


34 


Burj Nau Ji 


138 


10 


148 


Moti Ram, Jat ... 


Ditto 


142 


25 


Chatuar-pura ... 


319 


63 


382 


Sri Kara, Bolira... 


Ditto 


245 


26 


Chauwara 


457 


3 


460 


Dala, Bralimaa ... 


Thakiirs ... 


461 


27 


Chhatara 


308 


23 


331 


Thakur Das and 
Sita Ram, Ulifi- 
sars. 


Ditto 


473 


28 


Chhara 


327 


2 


329 


Zeb-un-Nissa 


Jats 


404 


29 


Chirauli 


302 


6 


308 


Dliani Ram, Brah- 
man. 


Ditto 


829 


30 


Dagsai 


420 


40 


460 


Kushali Ram, Brah- 
man. 


Ditto 


685 


?1 


Dauhai 


553 


9 


562 


Zcb-uu-Nissa ... 


Jats and 
Thakurs. 


911 



ae. Bir-nagar was founded by Mani-pal, a Gahlot, from ACrti, and given by his descendants 
to Lokman Das, Kayath, wliose heirs are the present proprietors. In the mutiny the mortgagee, 
Chaudika Prasad, was ejected by llira Sinh and others of tiie old Thakur family, 

23. Bisdwar, originally a dense jungle cleared by one Ram Sen, Jat, some 9"0 years ago. His 
descendanls have transferred one-fifth of the estate to Brahnjaas and B iniyas. In the ghaiid, which 
Btill covers an area of 2,000 bighas a weekly mela is held on Saturday in honour of a'Bara Miyan. 
There is a market on Friday. Two temples are dedicated respectively to Bihari Ji and Mahade- 
ra. In the mutiny the Jats joined the pe.ple of Pachavari in looting Daulat Uam, the lumber- 
dar of the latter village. A halkabandi school. 

24. Burj Ndu Ji consists of 200 bjghas originally comprised in Sahpan, given about a cen- 
tury ago by Paijsa, a zamindar of that place, to Nau Ji, a .lat of Chamar-pura. His heirs retain 
8 biswas, the remaining 12 have been acquired by Hulasi audBhavaiii, also .hits. 

25. Vhamar-pxira. — Purchased at auction from the .lats by Sri Ram, Bohra. 

26. Chauvdra, originally occupied by Thakurs and Chobdars, of whom the former are still 
in possession, while the latter have sold their share to Moti Ram, Jaesvar. Brahmans are also 
part proprietors. 

27. C/i/((-/<dra.— So called from a Thakur of Ughai, whose descendants have sold the estate 
to Thakur Das and Sita Ram, Dhusars. 

28. Chhdmi was founded by Ratn Sinh, Jat, of Kursanda, whose descendants have sold 
part to the Muhammadan family at Sa'dabad. 

29. Chirauli.So called after one Chira (Chiranjiv) a Jat from Sarauth. Part has now 
been transferred to Brahmans and Kaniyas. 

80. /-'ff^.vat.— Transferred by auction sale from the old Jat proprietors, five biswas to Thi- 
kurfini HakJui-un-Nissa of Sa'dabad and the remainder to Kushdli Ram, Bohra. 

31. Dauhai. — The old Thakur family still retain part, but a share has been acquired by 
Lachhi Ram, Bohra, and ten biswas were purchased by Zeb-un-Nissa of Sa'dabad. 



PARGANA SA DABAD. 
Alphabetical Li^t of Vill(tges—{conimned). 



Ill 





Name. 


Popiihifion. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
m:in. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


32 


Phadhu 


1,596 


105 


,,;o, 




Jdta 


1,816 


33 


Dhak-pura 


148 


7 


155 


Fatiii Charid, Ma 
hajaii. 


Thakiirs ... 


297 


34 


Dhanoli 


496 


31 


541 




Jats and 
lirahmans 


913 


35 


Fatli-allah-pur ... 


230 


19 


249 


... 


Thakurs and 
(jola-pur- 
abs 


659 


36 


Garhi Ahvaran ... 


353 


2 


355 




Thakurs ... 


314 


37 


GarhiChiira ... 


332 


... 


332 


Sri Ram, Bohra... 


Ditto ... 


428 


88 


(•arhi MIkanth ... 




... 


... 


Yadnv Lai and Mo- 
han Lal.Eaniyas 
of Sa'dabad. 




199 


39 


Garhi Kustam ... 


106 


82 


188 


KunwarZiihurAli 
Khan. 


Kayathsand 
.lats. 


242 


40 


G;irumara 


1,347 


22 


1,369 


... 


Jats 


1,143 



32. Dhddhu, founded 200 years ago by Dhandhu. J.at, from Dhavali. Sii Pam, Pohra, ii 
now proprietor of one-third. There is a tenlp'.e of Radlia.Ji built by Hatn Kunvar of Haihras ; 
and a garden containing a large and handf^nme donhle chhattri of stone erected by the Paiii of 
Balavaut 8inh of Blmrat-pur in memory of two of her relatives who were natives of this village. 
Here is a halkabandi school. 

33. Dhak'pura, sold by the Gahlots to Deo-karan, Bohra, who in the mutiny was plun- 
dered of 469 man of grain and turned out of the place by Chhattra and Lai Sinh, two of the ex- 
proprietors. His sons are now in possession. 

34 Dhanoli (for Vlian-puri) founded some 700 years ago by a member of the family of the 
Raiia Katera. On the Thakurs falling into arears their estate was bousjht in by t;'overnment 
and eventuilly sold for Us. 2,425 to Har Kishan, Bohra, who was put to death in the mutiny, but 
whose heiis are now in possession. The Karwan Nadi runs through the village lands. 

35. Fath-a lah-pur. — The founder, in spite of the Muharamadan name, is said to have been a 
Gahlot from Gutahra, from whose descendants the estate has passed to Brahmans and Gola- 
p'irab Baniyas. 



S6. Garhi Ahvaran was orijiinally included in Nagara Dali till one of the joint proprie- 
tors, Ahvaran Sahae, in the time of .A mil Abd-un-Nahi Khan, separated his sliare and called it 
Abd-un-Nabi-pur Garhi Ahvaran. His descendants are still in possession. 

37. Garhi Chinfd, founded 700 years ago by Chinta-mani, Gahlot, and almost all sold by his 
descendants to Sri ilam, B^hra. 

38. Garhi Ml/tanth, so called after its Jaesvar founder, is uninhabited. 

39. Garhi Rustam. — In the time of Akbar, Dungar Sinh, one of the Gahlot zaindars, to 
clear himself from a charge of rebellion, turned Miihainraadan and took the name of Saj Khan. 
The estate was bought in by Government from his Malakana desc^ndiints and farmed by Ziiliur 
Ali Khan at Rs. 461 for some 30 years, till his death at Mecca in 1872, when Kara Baklis, a repre- 
sentative of the old family took it at Rs. 600. 

40 Garumara was founded 500 years ago by Abhai and Nathu, two Haga Jats from the west. 
Part has been sold to Bal Kishan, Baniya, and Uaulat Ram, Bohra. A hafkabaiidi school. 



112 



PARGANA SA DABAD. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



No. 



Name. 



Ghatani-pur 

Ghuclia 

Gigla 

Gursauthi 

Gutahra 

Hasan-pur Baru , 

Tdal-pur 

Isaunda 

Jaitai 

Jaru 



Population 



457 
621 

348 



654 

799 
699 



Musal- 
mau. 


Total. 


2 


197 


42 


499 


36 


657 


22 


370 


155 


1,985 


29 


683 


155 


954 


25 


724 


65 


993 


123 


2,479 



Principal Proprie 
tor.s. 



Hakim-un-Nissa of 
Sadabad, 



PrabhuLal Kayath 
Hakim-un-Nissa 



'isambhar Natli, 
KliHttri 



Subaran Sahay, 
Thakur. 



Damodar Das, Ka- 
yath, 



Keval Ram, Brah- 
man. 



Predominant 
caste. 



Jats and 
Brahmans. 

Jats 

Thakurs ... 

Thakursand 
Brahmans. 



Ditto ... 
Jats 



Thakurs and 
Brahmans. 



Thakurs ... 



Thakurs aud 
Brahmans. 



.\creag*. 



576 
631 
464 

2,505 

695 
794 
845 

1,933 



41. Ghdtam-pur, formerly called Saiullah Ghatam-pur, was founded by one Ghatam, a 
Haga Jat, in the days of Amil Sadullah Khan. It was sold by the Jats to Daul it Sinh of Mursan, 
and subs'quentiy half was bought at auction by Daulat Hani, but possession could not be had 
from the Kani Kukmini. Part has been acquired by Thakuran. HaUim-un-Nissa of Sa'dabad. 

42. Ghuchd. —Part has been bought at auction from the Jats by Hemu, Bohra. 

43. Gigld, on the Agra road with a police station, founded some 700 years ago by Qagu, 
a Chauhan Thakur from Semal It has passed from his descendants to Brahmans and Kayaths. 

44. G«rsau</it.— Deserted by the old Chauhan zamindars io time of famine and bought at 
auction by Matdan 'Ali Khan, whose heirs are now in possession. 

45. Gutahra, founded by Shio-raj, a Gahlot from Chitor, who ejected the Ahirs then in 
possession. His heirs still retain 5 biswas ; the remaining i5 have been mortgaged to Babu Bisam- 
bhar-nath, Khattri, and others. Another name of the place was Khera 'AH Saiyid. 

46. Hasan-pur Bdru, founded by Sikandar, a Gahlot, from Parsoli in Hathras, whoee heirs 
still retain half. The other 10 biswas have been sold to Murli and Tota, Baniyas. There is a 
dhdh ghand, where, for fear of a fakir's curse (an) no trees are allowed to be cut. 

47. /<f a /-/>Mr. -One-half has been sold by the Jats to Sita Ram and others, Brahmans and 
Baniyas. 

48. Isaunda, founded 700 years ago by Surat Sahae, a Gahlot Thakur, whose descendants 
Btill own I2J biswas; the remaining 7,i have been transferred to Lachhi Ram, Brahman (whose 
fion, Ganga Bishan, is now in possession) and Panni Lai, son of Nar Sinh Das, Baniya. 

49. Jaitai, founded fOO years ago by one Jait, a Gahlot from Khera Waliya. Now 1*4 his- 
was are owned by the heirs of Kiuibchand, Kayath, and only the remaining 2j biswas by the old 
family. The Karwan Nadi runs through the village lands. 

50. Jdru, founded 600 years ago by Dip Sinh, Chauhan from Baman, from whose descen- 
dants half has been traasferred to Brahmans; is on the Karwan Nadi. Here is a halkabandi 
school. 



PARGANA SA DABAD. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



113 



No. 



Name. 



Jat .i 

Jhagaiari 

Kajarothi 

Kanjauli 
Karraiya 
Karkauli 
Kaunkna, Great., 

Kaunkna, Little, 
Klieriya 

Klionda , 

Kukar-Kania 



Population 




Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


912 


170 


1,082 


218 


11 


229 


1,106 


167 


1.273 


2.931 


212 


3,U3 


295 


S 


298 


751 


66 


817 


567 


25 


592 


388 


15 


403 


452 


25 


477 


1,546 


8S 


1,6.34 


457 


8 


465 



Principal Proprie- Predominant 
tors. ! caste. 



Sita Uiim and Tl 
kurLa5,Dhusars. 

Haja Tikam Siuli 
of jMursau 

Ilakim-un-Nissa, 
of Sadabal. 



Jiva Ram, Bohra, 

Ditto 
Ditto 

Bhuri Siiih Jat ,.. 



Jats and 
Brahmans. 

Jats ... 



Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Gola Purabs 

Thakiirsand 
Brahmans, 



Ditto 



Thakursand 
Jats. 



Jats 



Acreage. 



2,234 

1,969 
265 
714 
637 

377 
142 



51. Jatoi. — Sold by the Jats to Zalim Siuh, Dliusar, and by him to Jay Gopal, a Dliusar 
also, whose sons are now in possession. 

52. Jhagardri derives its name from a ' dispute' (jliagard) with the village of Kajarothi ia 
the time of Abd-un-Nabi Khan. The foimder was one (Jhnndra-bhan, a Jat, whose descendants 
sold the estate to lUjii 'iikam Siiih of Mursau ; and he again has sold 16 biswas to Har Kishan, 
father of Laohhman Siuh. 

53 Rajarot'ii, founded by Kheraa and Dain, two Jats from the west and sold to Thakur 
Mardan 'Ali Klian. Thtre is a temple of the Salagram, built by Jiva Das, Bairagi. 

54. Kanjauli — '200 bighas have been sold by the old Jat proprietors to Brahmans. Here is 
a halkabandi suliool. 

55. Kairaiija. — The ancestor of the present Badhautiya Jat proprietors was one Khem Ji: 
their predecessors were Malakanas, 

56. KarhauU. — The founder, one Muddi, Gola Piirab, came from Banwari. 

57. Ku unhid, Great, founded by Sakat, Chauhan, and Hari, a Gautam Brahman. The 
village has been called at different times Sakat-pur and Nagara Pasendu. The estatx' has now 
entirely passed away from the old families to Jiva Kam, Brahman, and Tiknn Siiih, Jat. 

58. Kaunkna, Little, founded by Gopal, Chauhan: 12 biswas have beon purchased at 
auction by Jiva liam, Athwaraya Brahman. 

59. Kherya, taken out of Little Kaunkna and formed into a separate village about 120 
years a^jo by Giridhari and Hulasi, two Chauhans ; lias now been purchased by Jiva Kam, 
Athwaraya. 

60. Khondd, founded 500 years ago by Karan, a Badhautiya Jat from Karauli. Part 
has been purchased at auction by Bhagawan Das, Bauiya. Here is a halkabandi .scho )l. 

61. Kuhar-gamd — Here is an ancient shrine of Knkar Devi, where a mela is held on the 
festival of the Phul-dol. Part of the estate has been transferred from the old Tha'vur zamindars 
to Jay Devi, widow of Basudeva, Baniya, and Sri liam, Bohra. Here is a halkabandi school. 



114 



PARGANA SA DABAD 

AJphahetical List of Villages — 'continued). 





Name. 


ropulation. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


I'redominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


jrnsal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


62 


Kukatai 


244 


• 


215 


Lachman Das, Ba- 
niya. 


Thakurs ... 


518 


63 


Kumarai 


lo9 


SO 


209 


Sant Lai, Era'iman, 


Jats 


410 


64 


Kupa ,„ 


845 


55 


900 


Thakur Das, Dhu- 
sar. 


Ditto 


1,295 


65 


Kursanda 


6,726 


418 


7,144 




.lata and 
Br^hnians. 


4,467 


66 


Lodhai 


932 


21 


958 


Laclilnnan a n d 
Nav;il Brali- 
iiiaiis. 


Brahmans... 


82S 


67 


Madanai ... 


959 


73 


1,032 


LI u 1 K u n war, Ba- 
niyin. 


Jjits 


1, 125 


68 


Magaru 


5S3 


^3 


6 CO 


Janinna. Prasad, 
Di.u.ar. 


Tliakurs ... 


9S8' 


69 


Mahabat-pur ... 


309 




3(19 


Baniyas 


Jats 


453 


70 


Mahrara 


1,314 


66 


1.380 


Lachhnian, Brah- 
man. 


Bnihmars... 


},^\9 



62. Kukatai. — I'art has been trausferreil at auction to Lachhman Oiis from the old Galilot 
and Brahman zamindars. 

63. Kumarai, founded 400 years ago by a Burnagar Jat from Biliira. Ilis descendants 
still hold 5 biswas ; the remainder has been purchased by Babu Sant Lai and Pandit Gupab 
Prasad, Deputy Inspector of schools. 

64. Kupa, founded by Karan and Mag'ol, Badliantiya Jats from Sankr;\nl on the Ganges. 
Their predecessors were Kalars. Little Kupa is a hanilot. Tlie grc.iter part of ttie estate has 
passed into the hands of Thakur Das, 8ila liam and Maugi Lai, Baniyas. The Sadabad riveP 
Karwan runs through the village land. 

65. Kursanda. — A very large straggling village on the Atrra and Aligarh road. It was- 
settled by a Ilaga Jat, named Puran Ohand, who bestowed part of the land on his purol.it, 
Chandii, Panda. Their descendants are still in possession, except of a part which has been ac- 
quired by Y\thwarayas. There are four small temples. A market is held twice a week, on Sunday 
and Thursday. In the mutiny two of the zamindars, Zaliin and Deo Iviran, were hanged for the 
part they look in looting Sadabad. Here is a halkabandi school. 

GG. Lodhai, founded 300 years ago by Hargun, a Dikshit Sanadh from Maha-ban. Part 
has been purchased by Dan Sahay, Brahman, and f'trmed into a separate mahal. Here is a pond 
where children sufEering from the itch are brought to drink the water, 

67. Madani 
Hoti Lai. 



founded by Mandan, a Gendar Jat ; mortgaged to IMul Kunwar, widow of 



68. MagarH. — Five biswas have passed from the old Gahlot zamindars to Biibu Hari Gobind 
nnd Jamunii Prasad. Uhiisars have also a share. There are two temples of Maha leva and a halka- 
bandi school. 

69. Mahubat-pur. — Sold by the Jiits to Ilira Liil and others, Banij-as, 

70. MahrAra, on the line of Railway, formed part of the estate of Thakur Kushal Sinli, 
Jat, brother-in-law of Durjan Sal of Bliarat-pnr. Afti.r the capture of that Fort in 1827, the 
tillage was confiscated and restored to the old Gautam proprietors. There is a fiuetuango grove,. 



PARGANA SA'dABAD. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



115 









Populatioj 


. 








No. 


Name. 


Hindus. 


Musul- 
mau. 


Total. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage, 


71 


Mai 


1,333 


119 


1,352 


Ealadeva, Athwa- 
raya. 


Jats 


580 


72 


Makan-pur 


441 


17 


458 


... 


Ditto 


516 


73 


Mandaur 


1,762 


85 


1,847 




Ditto 


4,850 


74 


Manik-pur 


249 


-31 


280 




Ditto 


356 


75 


Mansiya 


1,149 


74 


2,2 £3 


... 


Ditto 


981 


76 


Marha Bhoj 


771 


130 


9)7 


Mittra.Sen, Bani- 
ya ot: Hatliras. 


Ditto 


981 


77 


Marha Pithu ... 


1,'97 


16 


1,213 


Ditto 


Ditto 


1,606 


78 


Mir-pur 


.•J 7 4 


16 


390 


Bhola, Jat 


Ditto 


474 


79 


Mirhavali 


2,643 


133 


2,773 


P audit K a in 
Chand. 


Brdhtn ans 
and Jats. 


4,135 



22 biglias in extent with a liadsome stone chhattri in its centre, 'built in memory of a Badhak 
naimd Cliauda, by his br >ther Sewa. The latter was a man of cousidarabla influence, and the 
land was given him by the Jats, as a species of black-mail, in order to secure immunity from the 
gangs of highway robbers witii whim he was connecti'd. The clihattri has delicately sculptured 
columns in the st3'Ie of the Bliarat-pur Raja^' monuments, and a vaulted chamber underground. 
Most of the arches are uow filled up with mud ; au expeiieiit by which a Mr. (311iver, a sub- 
ordinate on the Uuilway, converted it some few years ago into a dwelling-house for himself. 
This might be removed at any time ; but other wanton damage has been done by hacking away 
pieces df the stone pillars, a barbarism with whicli the Brahman zaminJars are credited. A 
daughter-in-law and three grandsons of Sewa are still on the spot; but they are too thriftless and 
too conscious of the ill reputation generally borne by members of their caste to take any steps 
either to preserve their ancestor's monument or to replace the trees which are uow growing too 
eld to be productive. Here is a hallcabandi school. 

71. Mai, said to have been founded by Madde, Ravat, a Tlienua Jat from Adan-garh. Eight 
biswas were sold before the mutiny to Baladava, Athvvaraya, whom the old zamindara then took 
the opportunity of looting. A halkabandi school. 

73. Mandaur, at the head of a reach of the Jamuna, wa=* formerly the seat of some extensive 
salt-works, yielding a royalty of Rs 4)0, remitted by Mr. Tiiornton in \&^^. Part of the village 
has been transferred from the Jats to Biniyas. Tliere is a temple of Maha.leva, aud a halkabandi 
school. 

74. Mdnih-pur, on the liigh-road from Sa'dat/ad to .Talesar, has a railway station, officially 
designated .Jalesar Road Tiie founder, Blaim, a Gahla Jat, named it after his sou Manik. One- 
fourth has been purchased by Jaesvars. 

75. Mansiya, or Mansiha, was founded by a Pttndiir Jat from Sarabhai. Part has been sold 
to Brahmans and Baniyas. There is a temple of Mahadeva, built by Lachhman Das, Athwaraya, 
and a chhattri of Bhikha Ram, Jat. 

76 Marha Bhoj, one-third of the original Jat village of Marhaka named after the parti- 
cular shareholder. Part has been acquired by Dhusars and Musalmans. 

77. Marha Pithu, a second sliare of the same original village as Marha Bhoj. Pait has 
been purchased by Mittra Sen and Thakur Das, Bauiyas. 

78. Mir-pur — Part has been sold by the Jats to a Gosain. 

79. MirhdcaU, founded by Kuki, Ravat, a Jat, from whose descendants one-sixth has passed 
by auction to Bialimans and Baniyas. There is a temple of Salagraua. A halkabandi schooi. 



iiG 



PAUGANA SA DABAD. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — {conimwcA). 





Name. 




'\)piilaiion 


. 


Principal ProprU;- 
tors. 


Prcilominant 
caste. 




Ko. 


Ilintlus. 


Musal- 
uiaii. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


80 


Nagara Baiiu ... 


4 -J 'J 


45 


474 




Tluikurs ... 


313 


81 


Nagara Baiuirasi, 


343 


47 


390 


Babu Har Gobind 

Kiiyatli. 


Jat3 


343 


82 


„ Biliiiri ... 


135 


... 


135 


Sii Ham,, Bohra ... 


Bratimaiis.., 


246 


83 


Call ... 


472 


60 


532 


Daulat i;am, Jat ; 
Thakiir I) a s, 
and yita Ham, 
Diiri-ara. 


Thakurs & 
Jats 


69» 


84 


„ Ghaiiba, 


79 


22 


101 


RajaTikam Sinh 
Raof Mursan. 


Jats 


33e8 


85 


„ Kali 


7C6 


15 


721 


Haki n-un-Nis-ia of 
t^a'dabad. 


Dtto 


632 


66 


„ Khan z a - 


64 


... 


G4 


Sri Ram, Bohra... 


Chamars ... 


169 


87 


„ Maiiji ... 


235 


20 


255 


Hiirideva, Jat ... 


Jats 


212 


88 


„ Saliiii ... 


471 


11 


482 


Baladeva Sinh, 
Brahman. 


Ahirs 


451 


89 


Nanau 


386 


12 


398 


Knnvar Faiz 'Ali 
Kliaa. 


Jats 


736 


90 


Narayan-pur-Ba 1, 


279 


6 


285 


Ghulam Muhara- 
mild Khan. 


Thakurs ... 


299 



80. Nagara Bairn -Separatt-d fr )in Ugliai some 200 years ago. The Thakurs and Bnlhmans- 
have sold part to Panna Lai and Chhattra. 

81. Nagara Bmidrasi: so called after the founder, a Thenua Jat from Mai. Oue-fiflh has. 
been sold to Babu llari Gobind and Baladeva, Athwaraya. 

82. Nagara Bihori -. separate 1 off f ram Sahpau in favour of Bihiri, a Jat froai Klierii by So- 
nai. It has been purchased by Sri Ram, Bolira. 

83. Nagara Dali has almost entirely passed from the Gahlots to Jats and Dhusars. 

84. Nagara Gliarlba'. separated < ff from BaraMai by one of the Jat Z'mindars, who called it 
after his own name. It has been transferred by his de.scendants to Raja Tikam Sinh of Mursan.. 

85. Nagara Kali has passed from the Jats to Thakurani Hakiui-un-Nissa, widow of Kuuvar 
Husain 'Ali Khan. 

86. Nagara Kkdmmdn: sold by the Mal.akanas to Sri Ram, Bohra. 

87. Nagara Mauji: separated oft' from Kukar-gaina. Two-thirds have been purchased at 
auction by HaUdeva, Brahman. 

88. Sagara Salin: \f^% biswas had been acquired before the mutiny by Baladeva Sinh, 
Brahman from the Ahirs, who then took the opportunity of looting him. 

89 Ndnnu, founded by Uddar, a Jat of Nan-pur.a. It has been sold to Kunvar Faiz Air 
Khan, lately Prime Mmister of the Maharaja of Jaypur. There is a temple built by Dilbakhsh. 
Patwan, whom the zamindars looted in the mutiny. 

90. Ndrdnan-pur-Bad: founded by one Kunjal at the instigation of Gosiiin Narayan Das It was 
transferred l.v the old Thakur ziimindars to Kuuvar Zuhur 'Ali Khau and farmud by Ghulau 
Muhammad Khau. 



PARGANA SA DABAD. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



117 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
nian. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


91 


Nasii-pur 


! 




... 


Kiinwar Sen of 
KanjauU. 


... 


287 


92 


Xasir-pur 


464 


536 


1,000 


Cliuraiiian Siiih, 
Thakur. 


Jats and 
Thakurs. 


1,205 


93 


Naugama 


4,019 


■2-29 


4,248 


Jaydevi, Baniyin, 


Jats 


3,670 


94 


Naupura 


813 


" 


824 


... 


Ditto 


597 


95 


Pachavari 


SOS 


9 


315 


PannaLal, Baniya, 


•Tata and 
Bralimans. 


704 


96 


Parsaiira 


3t4 


30 


374 


Hakim-un-Xissa of 
Sa'daLad. 


Jats 


657 


97 


Patti Bahram ... 


372 


47 


419 


Khvali Ram and 
Kill) war Sen, 
Jat.. 


Jats and 
Lrahmans. 


369 


98 


„ Sakti 


168 


... 


168 


Hakim-nn-Xissaof 
Sa'dabad. 


Jats 


516 


90 


Pihura 


298 


26 


324 


Sri Ram, Brahman, 


Ditto 


312 


100 


Pi'para Mai 


587 


128 


715 


11 !i ki n)-nn-Xi?sa, 
of Sa'dabad. 


Ditto 


1,393 


101 


Pusaini 


198 


11 


2)9 


Liclilinian, Brah- 
uKin. 


Ditto 

I 


317 



91. A^dsiV -/jur, now deserted, was founded by one Dala, a Ciiur.l Jut from Sakra. It has 
been sold to other Jats and Jaesvars. 

92 Nasir-pur, othirwise called L'ismai, was founded by two Haga Jats from Uncha-gaiiw 
by Susaha I. It h^is been sold to Cliur.i-m:in Sinh, who in the mutiny was temporarily ejected 
by the old zamiudars. Here is a halkabandi school. 

93. Naugdma was founded by Dhani Paehauri and Adu, Jat. Now one-third has been sold 
to Baniyas and ilusalraans. Here is a halkabandi school. 

95. Pachdvati, founded 400 years ago by Sikru and Paran, Haga Jats, descendants of 
Raja l:anpal. The estate was bought at auction by Daulat Ram, Baniya, who was forcibly ex- 
pelled in the mutiny, but whose heirs are now in possession. 

96. Parsaura passed from the Thakurs 50 years ago to IMaya Ram, a Badhautiya Jat from 
Marha Bhoj. Halt has been bought at auction by Thakurani Hakim-uu-Nissa. 

97. Patti Bahrdm, otherwise called Patti Algarazi. Five biswas have passed from the Jats 
to A.thwarayas. 

98. Patti Sakti, or Saurai, has been in greater part transferred from the Jats to Thakurani 
Bakim-un-N issa. 

99. Pihura: founded 400 years ago by Ummed, a Jat from Marhaka, has been transferred 
to Sri Ram, Liohra, Hira Lai, Brahman, and Panna Lai, Baniya. 

_ 100. Pipara Mai : purchased at auction from the Jats bv Thakurani Hakim-un-Nissa Here 
is an old temple of Salagram. 

101. Pusaini: founded by Rati and Shah-zada, Jats from Kursanda, has been sold to 
LacLhuau, Athwaraja ; Bahadur, Jaesvar ; and Jivan and Chuttan, Musalnians. 



118 



PAUGANA SA DABAD. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — . continncd). 





Name. 


Pc 


piihitiuii. 




rriiicipal Proprie- 
tois. 


Prcdoniiuant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


]y[nsal- 
man. 

51 


4-20 


Acreage. > 


102 


R;'io-piira 


37S 


Unirao S i n h, 
Tiiakur. 


Thakurs ... 


574 


103 


Raj-nagar 


343 


6 


349 


Gol.ardhiin, Brah- 

UUUl. 


Brah ma n s 
and Tha- 
kurs. 


364 


104 


Kam-pura 


24T 


147 


387 


Maliajans 


Cliamars and 
Maluijaus. 


278 


105 


Rashid-pur 


441 


22 


4G;5 


Klniniaiii, Brah- 
man. 


J ) r a li m a n s 
and Jats. 


3G8 


106 


Ris-gaina 


£9 J 


54 


944 


G y a n S i n h, 

Thakur. 


Tliakurs ... 


1,336 


107 


Rudajal 


156 




156 


La chhinan and 
Kanliai, Gura- 
riyas. 


Onhlots and 
Chamars 


174 


108 


S:i'(lal;ad 


2,706 


1,228 


3,934 


Baladeva, Brah- 
man. 


B r a h m a n s 
and Baniyas. 


1,017 


109 


Sabpau 


4,059 


556 


4,615 


Pa una Lai, Baniya, 


Bmiyas and 
Brahmans. 


2,431 


no 


Salai-pur Chand- 
wara. 


312 


25 


337 


Sri Ram, Bohra .. 


Thakurs and 
Brahtnans. 


567 



102. Rde-piira: named by SuklvU'va the founaer, a Gahlot of Gutahra, after his grandson, 
Eae-sukh. It has been sold to the Chaiihans. 

103. Jldi-naqar : f.iumlcd by Riri Ibar, a Gabl't, from Alrti. His descendants still retain 
five biswas ; the remainder has b en sold to Gobardhan, Biahmau, and Tara-chaud, Jaesva-. 

104. JRdm-pura: foundc i by Man Mall, a Gautam Biahman from Sahpau : sold to Devkaran 
and Maya R;im, wh so lieir.s are now in possession. In the mutiny Murlidbar a s m of Dev- 
Karan's, distingui.shed himself by the capture of a mutinous sepoy, f . r which he had a reward of 
Ks. SO. 

105. RashH-])itr : 8i>ld in part by the .lats to Khuiiiilni, Brahman. 

106. nis-r/dina: eight biswas have been purchased at auction from the Jats by Sii Ram and 
Jiva Ram, Boliras. 

107. Rndi'ii/ith — In 1809 the zamindars were Teja, Gahlnt and Pnsa, Chamar, whose heirs 
are still in pussessiuu of the greater part, though a share has been acquired by Kripa Ram, 
Garariya, 

108. Sa^lahdil. — Tahsili — police station — branch post-offlce — talisili school (seepage ). 

109. 5a///}r/u (for iS'rt/i-pMrrt).— The original zaniind.ars were Brahmans, who still have a 
itialikiina of Us. 62-8 per annum. From them it passcil t> Tbakurs, who now hold only 7^ biswas, 
the remaining 12^ having boen acquired by Bmidh Sinb, Tliakur, and I'aniii Lai, Biniya. There 
is an old mud fort, a Saraiigi lempb' built by the Jaesvars, 7 small Hindu shrines built by 
different Bairagis, a police station, u district post office, and a halkabandi school. 

110. SaAti-;j«r C/ic<«'i(i«'(i.'a.— The jiint founders arc said to have been Sabala, a Brahman 
from Bhukaldra and Ghandu, an Abir from the Jalesar i'argana. Prom their descendants the estate 
passed to Madari, llolira, whose son, Sri Ram, is now in possession. In the mutiny the old 
zamindars looted Baladeva, Buhra, of Bhukalara, of property valued at more than Rs. 30,000. 



PARC ANA SA DAB AD. 
Alphahefical List of VWacfes. — (continued). 



110 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hiudus. 


man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


1 11 


Siilim-pur 


1,622 


129 


l.T'Jl 


Hiri Sinli, Brah- 
man aid :MiUra 
Sen, Eitniy.i. 


Jdts ... 


1,793 


112 


Samatl-par 


5S7 


18 


COS 


MittraSen.Buiiya 
of Hatbras. 


Ditto ... 


544 


113 


Sarauth 


1,383 


70 


1,453 




Ditto 


039 


114 


Sarmast-pur 


in 


14 


128 


Ilira Sinh, Thakur, 


Brahmans.. 


154 


115 


Sedariya 


493 


2 


495 


Seth Raghunath 
iias. 


Ditto 


648 


116 


Shahbaz-pur 


274 


19 


293 


^Mahajans 


C li am a r s 
and Tha- 
kurs. 


409 


117 


Sher-pur 


336 


5 


S41 


Jhaman Lai, 
lianiya. 


Jats ... 


969 


118 


Sikhara 


872 


1 


873 


... 


Brahmans, 


1,075 


119 


Sistai 


510 


79 


589 


Hira Lai, Athwa- 
raya. 


Jats 


1,113 


120 


Sithara-pur 


460 


13 


473 




I itto ... 


458 



1 11. Salim-pur. — Part lias been sold by tlie Jits to Brahmans, Bmiya?, Kayatlis, and Mewats. 
Here is a hulkabandi scIijoI. 

112. Samid-pur. —The fimnder is sold to have b^cn a Charaj .Fat from Biman in Khiindauli, 
named Savadha'i ; and it is most pmbable that tiie village was oriijinally called after him, and 
that the Persian vford (Samail, ' t!ie L>rd') is only a corraptir)n The Jats .^till retain eight bis- 
AVas; theremainint; 12 have been sild or mortgaged to Mittra Sen, Baniya of Hathras. 

113. Sarauth, founded by a Jat from Mai. 

114. Sarm3s^/7!<r, foundeil by Tulsi, a Brahin:m fromBirhan in Jalesar. His descendants 
have mortgaged 5 biswas to Hira Sinh 

115. Sedariya: sold in part by the old Brahnan zamin lars to Flari Rim, Rra'iman, and 
Baniyas. 

116. Shahbdz-tjur: separated from Arti, by Dharmu, Gahlit, one of the zamindars of that 
village : now sold to Jats and Mahajans, 

117. Sher-pur: founded in Samhtt 1097 hy Sarup, son of Pi!tn, ,Jit. whose de-cendants 
Btill own one-third ; trie remaindur his been sold to Thakuraii U iki n-uu-Nissa and Mohan Lai, 
Baniya. The Karwaa Nadi runs through the village land. 

118. Sikhara: separated from Sahpxu and triven by the zamindars of that villaje to Sri 
Chand, Paida, whos'^ d'-cendants still own 1 1 biswis : the rom liiidor has been sold to Raja 
Prithi Sinh and Sawai Bam, Brahman. 

119. Sisfai: purchased at auction from the Thakurs by Ganes, Bohra, and sold by him to 
Hira Lai and Lai Chand. who were temporarily ejected in the mutiny by Dhan Sinh and Devi 
Sinh, two of the old zamindars, 

120. Sitkard-pur, or Gobara, was separated from Garumra by Jasu, one of the Jat zamin- 
dars of that village ; his descendants arc still in possession. 



120 



PARGANA SA DABAD. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continuod). 





Name. 


Popidalion. 


Principal I'ropric- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


:\rusai- 

uian. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


121 


Sultiiu-pur 


279 


6 


285 


Devi Sinh, Thakur, 


C'h obda rs 
and Ahirs. 


525 


122 


Susahan 


1,157 


105 


1,2 '.2 


M u I - k u n V a r, 
Baiiiyin. 


JiiU and 
Bi ah mans. 


1,794 


123 


Taj-pura 


1,048 


62 


!,110 


II a kim-nii-Nissa, 
of Sa'dabad. 


Jat8 


1,003 


124 


Tamsi 


502 


72 


574 


rritlii, Jat 


Ditto 


541 


125 


Tasigau 


2,222 


127 


2 349 




Ditto 


2,276 


126 


Tharaura 


553 


42 


572 


Kesari, Aliir ... 


Aiiirs ... 


615 


127 


Udhaina 


737 


45 


7.^2 


Nasar Sahay, Tha- 
kur. 


Tliakurs ... 


784 


128 


Ughai 


520 


57 


577 


Thakur Das and 
bita Kam, Dhu- 
sars. 


Ditto 


592 


129 


Zari-pura 


126 


... 


126 


Sri Rim, Brah- 
man. 


Briilimans 
and Gara- 
riyas. 


331 



121. Sulldi-pnr: half ha.s been sold by the ChobJars and Aliirs to Sri llain, Bohra, and 
some .Jaesvars. 

122. Susahan, or Uncha-ganw, hii3 been uDrtgigel by the J;its to Mul-kunvar, widow of 
Hoti Lai, Bauiya. 

123. Tdj-pura; purchased at auction from tlie Jiit^ by Thakurani Ilakim-un-Nissa. 

12*. Tdmni: founded by Thiini, a Badhautiya Jat and Sukh-Ram, a Chauudar Jat from 
Marhaka. Half has been soU'i to Sri Ram, Bolira. 

125. Tasi (J au.- Founded by Adu Pal, a Ilaga Jat from Susalian. Half has been sold to 
Brahmans and Baniyas. A halkabandi school. 

126. Tharaura: Fotmded by one Thilii, Ahir, whose descem'.ants are still in possession. 

127. Udhaina: 75 bi^'lias have been sold by the old Thakur zamindars to Amar Chand, 
Athwaraya. Here is a halkabandi school. 

128. Ui]hai: Fonndcd by Raja Ugrascn from Cliitor. The Gahlots have sold part to Thakur 
Das and Sita Uam, Dhisars ; Nand Das, Bairagi ; and Giridhar, liolira. 

129. Zari-pura: sold to Sri liain, Bohra^ by the Th^kurs. 



VIL— PARGANA JALESAR. 

The Jalesar Pargana affords a marked contrast to all the rest of the district, 
from which it differs no less in soil and scenery than in the character and social 
status of the population. In the other six parganas, wheat, indigo, and rice are 
seldom or never to be seen, here they form the staple crops; there the pasturage 
is abundant and every villager has his herd of cattle, here all the land is arable, 
and no more cattle are kept than are barely enough to work the plough ; there the 
country is dotted with natura' woods and groves, but has no enclosed orchards, 
here the mango and other fruit trees are freely planted and thrive well, but there 
is no open jungle ; there the village communities still for the most part retain pos- 
session of their ancestral lands, here they have been ousted almost completely by 
modern capitalists ; there the Jats constitute the great mass of the population, 
here they occupy one solitary village ; there the Muhammadans have never gained 
any permanent footing and every spot is impregnated with Hindu traditions, 
here what local history there is is mainly associated with Muhammadan families. 
These differences for the most part involve no necessity for any chan o-e in 
political administration ; and their existence might seem to render a district 
more complete and self-contained by the supply of mutual deficiencies. But 
inaccessibility is a more serious consideration ; and the towns of Awa and Jalesar 
are respectively 55 and 43 miles from the Local Courts, a greater distance than 
separates them from the capitals of the four adjoining districts. This, under any 
conditions, would be justly accounted an inconvenience, and it is rendered more 
so by some of the peculiar circumstances enumerated above. In consequence 
of the general transfer of the land from the old proprietors, there is a restless 
and impatient feeling abroad, which is certainly intensified by the remoteness 
of the Courts and the consequent unwillingness to have recourse to them for the 
settlement of a dispute in its incipient stages. Hence the frequent occurrence 
of serious outrages, such as burglaries and highway robberies, which are often 
carried out with more or less impunity, notwithstanding the number of people 
that must have been privy to their commission. However willing the autho- 
rities of the different districts may be to act in concert, investigation on the 
part of the Police is greatly hampered by the readiness with which the 
cruniuals can escape across the border, and disperse themselves through the five 
districts of Mathura, Agra, Mainpuri, Eta, and Aligarh. Thus, though a 
local administrator is naturally jealous of any change calculated to diminish 
the importance of his charge, and Jalesar is unquestionably the richest portion of 

Q 



122 PARGANA JALESAR. 

the district, still it has always been admitted by each successive Magistrate and 
Collector that its exchange for a tract of country with much fewer natural 
advantages would be a most politic and beneficial measure. 

Of the total area of 174,698 acres, 130,733 are under cultivation. Not only 
is water found nearer the surface than in the other parganas and generally good 
in quality, but special facilities for irrigation are afforded by the Etawa Branch 
of the Agra Canal, which runs through the north-east corner of the pargana,^ 
and has numerous subordinate cuts and channels ; for the use of which a water 
rate is paid of Rs. 35,402. There are also two small streams, fed in the dry 
Aveather mainly by the canal, viz., the Sengar, or Sarsa, wliich flows by the towns 
of Jalesar and Umar-garh, and the Isan, which lias a more easterly course and 
runs into Mainpuri. There is thus scarcely any }.>art of the country where arti- 
ficial irrigation is not easily practicable ; except in some few reaches of ■dsar 
land, as from Noh-Khera to Awa, whence is obtained the reh, or alkali, for the 
glass manufacture carried on in the town of Jalesar. 

The Ahivasis, of the same stock as in Chhata, have a small settlement near 

Aharan ; and several villages about Barhan are to a great extent populated by 

another Brahmanical class, of limited extension, called Grola-piirab. These latter 

have the character of being very industrious agriculturists, and are found in 

greater numbers across the Agra border in the IrsiJat-nagar Pargana. Five 

villages in the same neighbourhood have been jn'oclaimed under Act VIII. of 

1870, as addicted to the crime of female infanticide, viz., Baghai, Shaikhu-j)ur- 

Mandan-pur, Bajmal, W alidad-pur, and Eajauli ; but it is hoped that in the 

course of a very short time they Avill be able to shake off this evil imputation, 

and clear themselves from the consequent liabilities. Only three villages are 

religious endowments, viz., Uncha-ganw, Lohcha, and Gorakh-pur; of which 

the two first are held rent-free by Swami Rangacharya of Brinda-ban, and the 

third by Gosain Purushottam Lai of Gokul. The earliest local traditions are 

connected with a Raja of Biana — called by my Muhammadan informant Sbauhar 

Pal, which obviously cannot have been his name '^ — who had gone on a pijo-rim- 

age, and in his absence had been despoiled of his kingdom by Raja Har Pal 

of Mahoba. Hearing of this disaster on his homeward march, lie stopped short 

at the village now called Sona near Jalesar, and there established himself. By 

oac'h of his three Ranis he had male issue : one son founded Ram-o-arh in the 

immediate neighbourhood, and Narkhi in Firozabdd ; his second Rani's son was 

the founder of Mursama; while the third Rdni's two sous became, one the lord 

of Daulatabad with the title of Thakur Mandan, and the other of Chauudri in 

Firozabad. 

1 Tliero is one iirsl- class rest-house on the Canal in the district, at rilkathra. 

2 Possibly he may have been the same Raja Son, or Sohan Pal, who has left his mark on the 
Matburd Pargana at the villages of Son, Sousa, &c. 



PARGANA JALESAR. 123 

The Fidna Katira of Mewar, already mentioned in connection with Maha- 
ban, is said to have penetrated to Jalesar and to have bnilt the Fort. Shah- 
nagar is also ascribed to him as well as Sarae Nim ami Begam-pur, and his 
posterity spread as fiir as Shaikhu-Mandan-pur, Tehu, Rajmal, Sahpau, and 
Rohini in Hathras. The descendants of his elder son are distinguished by the 
word ' Sah' attached to their names, as Khumani Sah— whence Sahpau, for 
Sah-pura — while those of the younger sou are called Chaudharis ; in Hathras, 
however, their title is Rao. 

Till the annexation of 1803 the Pargana was in two divisions, Jalesar and 
Rustam-nagar ; though, in 1786, we find that the Amil, Nawalj Muhammad 
Khan, who bore the title of Samsam-nd-daula, 'the sharp sword of the State,' 
had his two subordinate zilladars, Bakhsh Sinh and Uday KaJ, posted, the one 
at Barhan, the other at Ahai-an. About the same period Jalesar was the seat 
of a Muhamraadan magnate, by name Bahlim Khan, who gained a high reputa- 
tion both by his successes in war and also by the magnificence which he dis- 
played in the shorter intervals of peace. One of the quarters of the town still 
bears his name, while another, being the place where his elephants Avere kept, 
is called Hathi-khana. His son, Rashid Khan (commemorated by Rashid-pur), 
had two heirs, Zain-ud-din and Badr-ud-din, who in a few years squandered 
the whole of their patrimony. 

Other persons of some little note in their time, whose fixmilies are now either 
extinct or ntterly reduced in circumstances, were as follows : — 

1. "^^ Sultan Khan and Maksiid Khaa established at Sakra and Maksud-pur ; 
the sons of a Jadon by name Riip Das, whose father, Siikh Das, had a consider- 
able estate about Dariya-pnr in Hathras. Rup Das was a younger son, and, 
on his conversion to Muhammadanism, is said to have received a grant from 
the Emperor of as many as fifty-two villages. 

2. Mirzas Raza and Taja, two brothers, who lived, the one at Paundri, the 
other at Simrau. The former was killed by a Gujar servant, named Ram Bakhsh, 
who had been instigated to the deed by one of his master's nephews. The widow, 
to avenge her husband's death, betook herself to General De Boigne, with whom 
she spent the remainder of her life, after becoming a Christian and placing him 
in possession of all her jdgir, comprising the villages of Paundri, Punhera, Rejua, 
and others. 

3. Mirza Muhammad Beg Agha, of Firozabad, a kinsman of Nawab Mu- 
hammad Khan, whose grandson, Ghulam 'Ali Khan, planted the large mango 
grove in the suburbs of Jalesar, now accounted Nuziil land. 

4. Bihari Das, Kayath, who entered the service of Nawab Sadullah Khan, 
and built out of funds supplied by his patron the Katra, or market-place, at 
Jalesar, which has fallen into utter ruin, but still bears his name. His repre- 
sentative is now the Fatwari of Nagara Gol. 



124 PARGANA JALESAR. 

5. Sri Ram, Kdnimgo, the proprietor of Banwdri-pur and other villages, 
who built a fine house in Jalesar, on the Awa road, which was purchased from 
his grandson, Khub Sinh, by Raja Pitambar. 

At the present day the one great landed proprietor is the Raja Prithi Sinh of 
Awa, whose assessable income for the year 1872 was returned as Rs. 3,05,813. 
His estate is composed of two talukas, one the Amaoabad, with the fixed number 
of nineteen villages, the other the Awa Mi'sa, which includes all the remainder. 
A third taluka, known as the Ramgarh, comprises nine villages, and is the pro- 
perty of Thakur BuddhSinhof Umar-garh, whose income was put at Rs. 18,250, 
including the profits of his indigo factory. A kinsman of the Raja's, Kunwar 
Jugal-Kishor, and his brother, Pratap Sinh, sons of Rudra Sinh, have an estate 
of Rs. 12,423 a year ; and Narayan Sinh of Plasan-garh, with other lands at 
Muhammad-pur, Daulat-pur, Mushki, and Mehki, is a Thakur of good family 
and reputation, though of no very great wealth. The estate was acquired by 
his father, Pratap Sinh, a resident of Gangni in Firozabad. 

Several well-to-do money-lenders and indigo factors, who have lately pushed 
their way into prominent positions, may also be briefly mentioned : — 

1. Ganga Bishan, son of Lachhi Ram, Bohra, of Berni, who has shares in 
Kherd-Gwarau, and four other villages, yielding an annual profit of Rs. 8,629. 

2. Gopal Das and Narayan Das, traders and indigo factors of Jalesar, with 
land at Agar-pur, Deva-karan-pur, &c., assessed at Rs, 8,879. Their father, 
Baladeva Dds, was a man of very violent temper and abusive tongue, who was 
driven into one of his own indigo vats by a servant whom he had provoked, and 
there drowned. 

3. Magn Biliari Lai, a Kayath, of a Patwari family, with land at Nagara, 
Bari, and other villages, yielding an income of Rs. 7,338. His father, Rudra 
Sinh, was murdered by the old proi)rietors, whom he had ousted. 

4. Sada Ram and Sewa Ram, Marwari money-lenders, sons of Rati Ram 
of Jalesar, with lands in Akbar-pur-Haveli, &c., assessed at Rs. 7,185. 

5. Uday Ram of Khanda and Jamal-nagar Bhainsa, who has recently pur- 
chased an estate for Rs. 25,000. 

6. Fakir-chand, Baniya, of Biruni, the son of Gobardhan, whose father, 
Bidhi-chand was a small shop-keeper at Khanda. 

7. Talewar Sinh and Chatm-bhuj, of Bara Hasan Jahan-pur, Nagara 
Bari, and Sahor-garh, the sons of Mahi Lai, who was in the service of Thdkur 
Buddh Sinh of Umar-garh. 

This catalogue might be considerably extended, as there are more moneyed 
people in Jalesar than in all the other rural parts of the district ; but as they 
have neither family history nor influence, it will be sufficient to mention them 
in the alphabetical list at the end of this section, by merely appending their 
names to the villages of which they have acquired possession. 



PARGANA JALESAR. 125 

The town of Jalesar is situated between two branches of the rirer Sarsa ; 
and as the surrounding country is naturally of a low level and was further 
excavated in ancient times to supply earth for the construction of the hill on 
which the Fort was built, the place is often in the rains entirely surrounded by 
the floods. The name, a slight and very modern modification of Jalesvar,^ 
' Lord of water,' is then seen to be highly appropriate. The foundation of the 
Fort, of which only the substructure now remains, is popularly ascribed (as has 
been already mentioned) to the Rana Katira of Mewar, whose most probable 
date would seem to be 1303, the year of the capture of Chitor. It is said that 
the Muharamadan army that essayed to oppose his progress, was commanded 
by a Saiyid Ibrahim, who fell on the field, and has ever since been reverenced 
as a saint and martyr. His Urs, or annual feast, is held on the 20th and 21st 
of the month Shaban, seven days after the Shab-i-Barat ; and the Dargah, where 
his tomb is shown, comprises a tolerably extensive range of buildings. These 
have lately been repaired at the cost of the Municipality, though they are of no 
special interest, being built in the very clumsiest style of architecture, and 
apparently not more than 100 years old. The Nakar-Khana, which is of the 
same type as the rest, bears an inscribed tablet recording its erection by one 
Ghulam Mustafa in the year 1179 Hijra. The guardians of the shrine attach 
great value to a document in their possession, believing it to attest the truth of 
their traditions. The manuscript is only a few lines in length, and gives the 
ordinary succession of the Muhammadan Imams, among whom Saiyid Ibrahim 
is mentioned as a son of Imam Miisa Kazira, and is said to have come to Jalesar 
from Tabriz. I am able to state, on Mr. Blochmann's authority, that there is no 
external confirmation whatever of such an assertion ; and the tomb can scarcely 
be more than a commemorative cenotaph. If the real Saiyid Ibrahim were 
buried in it, Jalesar would be a place of pilgrimage for all the Shiahs in India. 
About a quarter of a mile from the further end of the town is another Muham- 
madan shrine of equally apocryphal character. It is known as that of ' the 
Bara Miyan,' a Malang fakir, who, some 250 years ago, came from Ajmer and 
attracted attention chiefly by the singularity of his diet. When children are 
bewitched, which is — or is supposed to be — a very common occurrence in India 
it is customary to take them to a cross-road or other open place and there 
pass some article or other backwards and forwards over their head in the hope 
that the evil spirit may be induced to enter it. Fruits and vegetables which 
had thus become possessed by satanic influences were all the food the holy man 
would eat. A mela, attended by Hindus quite as much, if not more, than by 
Muhammadans, is held in his honour every Saturday throughout the year ; 
and the owners of the ground, some 15 or 16 persons, Shaikhs of Jalesar 

^ Hence (since in Persian writing no distinction can be made between o and va.) the town in 
Bengal with the same name is spelt by English oflScials as ' Jelasore.' 



126 PARGANA JALERAR. 

are computed to realize annually some lis, G,000 from the offerings of the 
credulous. 

The summit of the hill, where once stood the Fort, is now occupied by 
the Courts of the Munsif and the Tahsildar and the Munici[)al Office, the 
latter a very substantial and commodious building. To these will be added 
in the course of a few months a new school, for which an allotment has 
been made of Rs. 6,000; the one moiety being contributed by the Munici- 
pality and the District Educational Fund, and the balance supplied by the 
Government. 

It appears from the Census Reports that, between the years 1853 and 18G5, 
there Avas a decrease of 2,000 in the population, a fact, if f^ict it be, which is 
explained by a decline in the weaving trade. A revival of comparative pros- 
perity dates from the time when the Municipality was constituted. Since 
then the entire length of the one main street has been metalled and a system 
of drainage — wdiich was a most urgent requirement — satisfactorily completed. 
The town, however, is still an exceedingly mean-looking place without a single 
shop, private house, or public building of any pretension. The dispensary is a 
useful institution and is conveniently situated in a very central locality; but 
there has certainly been no sacrifice to architectural grace in its design and 
the area it occupies is extremely narrow and confined. At one end of the 
Bazar, a large market-square was cleared and ranges of shops of uniform 
design — all of brick— erected at the suggestion of Mr. Fisher, in 1869-70, 
when he was Municipal Secretary. The cost was defrayed chiefly by private 
individuals, who hoped to recoup themselves for the outlay by the rent of the 
shops. But as the squai'c was designed on a scale which avowedly bore no 
proportion to the actual i-equirements of the local trade, a large number of the 
tenements have never yet been occupied ; and, indeed, were they all taken up 
by the resident population, the remainder of the town would be deserted. It 
was hoped at the time that Jalesar might be developed into a flourishing mart 
by improving the roads in its neighbourhood ; and one step to that end has 
been taken this year by metalling the eight miles that lie between it and 
the Railway Station at Manikpur. But much more remains to be done 
before it can be brought into the ordinary line of traffic ; for though there 
are several great mercantile depots at no great distance, still in whatever 
direction they lie, whether in Agra, Eta, or Aligarh, Jalesar is cut off from all 
by the exceptional heaviness of the cart-tracks, by which alone they can be 
reached. 

As a grain-market, therefore, its capabilities are entirely in embryo; and 
its manufactures are equally unimportant, its one speciality being glass, of 
which small phials and drinking vessels are made. To this it may be added 
that a considerable amount of cloth is woven, chiefly of the qualities known 



PARGANA JALESAR. 127 

as gdra and adhotar; that the Jalesar clfdris, or bangles, have some reputation 
in the immediate neighbourhood ; and that in the suburb of Khalil-ganj there 
is a numerous guild of workers in brass. 

The sum at the disposal of the Municipality for the year 1872-73 was 
Rs. 14,255, from which, however, should be deducted an opening balance of 
Bs. 1,946 ; leaving Rs. 12,309, as the actual income. Of this amount, the 
greater part, viz., Rs. 10,795, was the result of octroi taxation. The principal 
commodities imported liable to duty were articles of food, from which was 
derived more than half the entire income, viz., Rs. 6,597 ; the tax on metals, 
which yielded Rs. 1,278, being next in importance. 

AwA is a small and apparently modern town, noticeable only as the resi- 
dence of Raja Prithi Sinh, who has a large Fort immediately outside it. In 
the mutiny, cannon were mounted on the walls, and every preparation made 
for sustaining a siege. Happily, there was no occasion to test their adequacy, 
but there can be no doubt that the existence of so formidable a stronghold in 
their midst had a considerable effect in repressing the energies of the dis- 
affected. The first Fort was constructed by Thakur Bhakt Sinh, but only on a 
small and rude scale. His son, Thakur Hira Sinh, was virtually the founder 
of the existing range of buildings, to which large additions have been made 
by the present Raja; the most prominent being a suite of reception rooms 
profusely furni.'hed in quasi-Euro] can fashion. All the f-urn unding country 
consists of dreary tim?' plains, scarcely, if at all, available for the purposes of 
the agriculturist ; but their desert appearance has now been happily relieved 
by the number of mango groves planted by the Raja and his ancestors. The 
tree seems specially to affect such a soil, as its growth is most rapid and luxu- 
riant ; a result promoted in no slight degree by the neighbourhood of the 
canal and the facilities for obtaining a constant supply of water. At the 
back of one of the largest orchards is a bdoli constructed of block kankar ; a 
stone which is quarried here in great abundance and is most serviceable as a 
building material where no finished decoration is required. The town or 
Ganj, as it is called, is surrounded by a crumbling mud wall ; and between it 
and the Fort the Raja is now building a very fine and substantial mansion 
intended for the accommodation of his English friends. It stands in the centre 
of an extensive walled enclosure, containing all necessary oflfices for servants 
&c., and a pleasure-garden Avith an ornamental sheet of water. The Chauki- 
dari Act is in force in the town, but the monthly income is so small that the 
only local improvement yet carried out has been the partial metalling of the 
main street. The school, an unusually commodious building of its class is 
due to the liberality of the Eaja. The new PoHce Station has been removed 
a little distance from its old site in the Bazar and now stands on the side of 
the high road that leads from Eta to Agra, 



128 PARGANA JALESAR. 

Umar-garh is the seat of the ancient Jddon family, of whom Thakur 
Buddh Sinh is the present representative. The Fort Avhere he resides was ori- 
ginally on a very large scale and defended by a deep fosse, but this is now 
partially filled up and the dilapidated state of the buildings indicates the 
reduced circumstances of their master. The village is a poor, half deserted 
place, and is said to have been so ever since it was plundered by the Mahrattas 
in the time of Thakur Bahadur Sinh (see Part I., page 12). The glory of the 
place consists in its magnificent mango groves, 16 in number, which have no 
rival anywhere in the district. In addition to the indigo factory belonging to 
the Thakur, there is another, with a handsome residence for themanagei', in the 
hands of Europeans, Mr. Rennie, of the Bank of Bengal, being the principal 
partner. 

Note. — The transfer, so repeatedly advocated in the course of this narrative, is now on the 
point of being carried out ; and from the comtQencement of the official year 1874-75 the Jalesar 
Parganawill form part of the Agra District. No orders have yet been passed regarding the tract 
to be awarded in compensation ; but it m ly be hoped that it will be the Farraii Pargana. 



PARGANA JALESAR. 
Alphabetical List of Villages. 



129 





Name. 


Population. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
niau. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


1 


Abd-ul-hai-pur or 
Nagara Hira. 


396 


126 


522 


RajaofAwa ... 


Jadons ... 


824 


2 


Abhay-raj-pur or 
Khuti-pura. 


232 


3 


235 


... 




483 


S 


A gar-pur 


186 


18 


204 


GopilDas Nara- 
yan Das, Bani- 

yas. 


... 


696 


4 


Aharan 


2,559 


197 


2,756 


ThakuraniHakim- 
ur>-NisBa,of Sa'd- 
abad. 


GahlotTha- 
kurs. 


2,795 


6 


Akbar-pur Hareli, 


287 


126 


413 


Eaja of Awa and 
others. 


Chamirs ... 


126 


6 


Akbar-pur San- 
thai. 


198 


6 


204 




Jadons ... 


361 


7 


Amanabad „. 


456 


25 


481 


Raja of Awa ... 


Chamars ... 


797 


? 


Arab-garh ... 


225 


9 


234 


Brahmans 


Ditto ... 


412 


9 


Arazi Berhar ... 


68 


2 


60 


Kazi Mumtaz 'Ali. 


Ahirs ... 


90 


JO 


Ata-ullah-pur ... 


57 


... 


57 


Raja of Awa ... 


Jadons ... 


217 


1) 


Aunera 


320 


7 


327 


... 


Brahmans, 


471 


12 


Awa 


4,838 


746 


5,584 


••• 


Jadons 


3,177 


13 


Babar-pur 


680 


69 


749 


... 




1,556 


14 


Badan-pur Kazi- 
pur. 


427 


... 


427 


Ahirs 


Ahirs ... 


389 


15 


Badhan-purKunj- 
man-pur. 


642 


65 


697 


Natha Ram, Jadon, 
mortgagee. 


Jadons ... 


684 


16 


Badhavali 


1,120 


70 


1,190 


Raja of Awa ... 


Brahmans, 


1,252 


17 


Baghai 


557 


25 


582 


Jadons 


JaJons ... 


640 


18 


Bahadur-pur ... 


282 


17 


299 


Ahirs 


Ahirs 


185 


19 


Balesra 


479 


20 


499 


Raja of Awa ,„ 


Brahmans, 


925 


20 


Banwari-pur 


303 


... 


303 


... 


Jad.)ns 


277 


21 


Bara Bhundela ... 


961 


71 


1,032 




Brahmans, 


669 


22 


Bara Hasan Jahaa- 
pur. 


931 


47 


978 


TalewarSinh.Cha- 
turbhuj Sinh, 
Kayaihs. 


Kachhis ... 


1,141 


S3 


Barai Kalyan-pur 
Allah vardi-pur, 
or Khusrai, 


1,076 


72 


1,148 

1 


Raja of Awa ... 


Brahmans, 

1 


1,680 



130 



PARGANA JALESAR. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Fopulation 




Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total, 


Acreage, 


24 


Barhan 


3,8 J 8 


199 


4,017 


... 


Chain ars ... 


5,49 9 


25 


Begaiu-pur 


371 




371 


Chunni Lai nnd 
others, Braii- 
nums. 


Mewatis ... 


330 


26 


Benai 


1,181 


73 


1,254 


Haja of A^wa and 
others. 


Jats 


1,046 


27 


Berni 


1,397 


96 


1,-I93 


Brahmans 


Brahmans, 


1,439 


28 


Bhainsa Braj-pur, 


713 


65 


778 


Tota lian: and 
others, Baaiyas. 


Chamars ... 


613 


£9 


Bhyao 


353 


48 


441 


Galliots and Seth 
Kaghunath Das. 


Gahlots ... 


500 


30 


Bich-puri 


658 


26 


684 


Gahlots 


... 


839 


31 


Bir-nagar 


1,180 


86 


1,266 


liaja of Aiwa ... 


Lodhas ... 


1,875 


32 


Biruui 


696 


61 


657 


Fakir Chand, Ba- 
ni^a, and others. 


Thakurs ... 


744 


33 


Bishan-pur 


80 


... 


80 


Dwiiraka Das and 
others. 


Ahirs ... 


66 


34 


Bora, Great 


1,582 


87 


1,669 


Isvari and others, 
Gahlots. 


Giihlots ... 


2,093 


35 


Bora, Little 


494 


16 


609 


Eaja of Awa and 

others. 


Brahmans, 


803 


36 


Braj-pur Clianda, 


69 




69 


Jadons 


Jadons ... 


628 


37 


Budhaira 


339 


9 


348 


Raja of Aiwa ... 


Lodhas ... 


490 


38 


Chir-gama 


996 


43 


1,039 




Chiimars... 


1,272 


39 


Chiihar-pur 


146 


58 


204 


MadanBihariLiil, 
Kajath. 


Ahirs ... 


£92 


40 


Churthara 


511 


22 


534 


Kaja of Aiwa ... 


Hrahmans, 


719 


41 


Dalsa-pur 


627 


26 


653 


... 


Chamars... 


708 


42 


Daluat-pur.Gilola 


374 


27 


401 


SttaTJam.riardeva 
ymh, .lad ■) n s, 
murtgagtes. " 


Lwdhas ... 


337 


43 


Daulat-pur Mu6h- 
ki 


270 


12 


282 


Seth Roshan Lai 
and N a r a y a n 
Siuh, JaJon. 


Ahirs ... 


590 


44 


De\a-karan-pur, 


250 


53 


303 


Gnnga Prasad, 
Baniya, mort- 
gagee. 


Chamars... 


662 



PAR G ANA JALESAR. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



131 





Name. 


Populuticn. 


Principal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominan 
caste. 




No 


Hindus. 


Miisal- 
man 


Total. 


Acreage. 


45 


Dos-par 


274 


16 


290 


Sita Ram and 
others, Jalons. 


Brahmans, 


619 


46 


Dulha 


411 


23 


434 


Raja of Aiwa ... 


Lodhas ... 


690 


47 


Eta 


467 


3 


470 


Brahmans 


Gola-purab 
Brahmans. 


458 


48 


Farid-pur 


270 


... 


270 


Raja of Aiwa ... 


Jadons ... 


305 


49 


Gadesra 


195 


15 


210 


... 


Ahirs 


30r 


60 


Gairi 


395 


20 


415 


EajaofAlwa ... 


Jadons ... 


7^4 


51 


Ganes-pur 


1,390 


96 


1,486 


Jadons 


Ditto ... 


2,265 


62 


Gehia 


282 


... 


282 


Ditto 


... 


360 


63 


Gopal-pur, or 
Sarae Kaj-nagar, 


664 


32 


696 


Mohan Lai, Kay- 
ath and others. 


Lodhas ... 


1,012 


64 


Gorakh-pur 


26 


... 


26 


Gosain Purushot- 
tom Lai and 

others. 


Jadons ... 


192 


55 


Gothua 


846 


100 


946 


Raja of Awa ... 


... 


1,246 


66 


Gundao 


301 


63 


364 


Padam Sinh, Jad- 
on, Bi l.de va 
Siiih, Brahman. 


Chamars... 


956 


57 


Gwaliyara 


211 


41 


252 


Mohan Kunwar, 
Jadon. 


Jadons ... 


156 


68 


Habib-uUah pur 
Aztuat-ptir. 


147 


4 


151 


Mahbub Sinh 
Brahman. 


••« 


291 


59 


Haiida 1-pur, o r 
Takuiwar. 


420 


18 


438 


Raja of Awa ... 


Chamars... 


399 


60 


Hasan-abad 


313 


... 


313 


Rajaof Awa.Seth 
Roilian Lai, and 
others. 


Brahmans, 


231 


61 


Hasan- al i-pur 
Basai 


687 


19 


706 


Thakur Das, mort- 
gagee. 


Jadons ,., 


1,142 


62 


Hasan-garh „. 


654 


43 


697 


Ram Prasad, 

Jadon. 


Kachhis ... 


1,377 


63 


Hemraj-pur, o r 
Chaiidar 


190 


19 


209 


Gokul Sinh, Ja- 
dwn. 


Chamars... 


404 


64 


Hindona 


502 


17 


519 


nu;j Kunwar and 
others, Brahmans. 


Lodhas ... 


834 


65 


Ibrahim-nagar ... 


45 


... 


45 


Lai Chura -man' 
Sinh, J a Ion. 


Jadons .., 


103 



132 



PARGANA JALESAK. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



Name. 


Papula tion 




Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Isaui 


983 


32 


1,015 


Jain-pura 


339 




339 


Jalesar 


8,335 


6,507 


14,902 


Jallu-khera 


591 


36 


627 


Jamal-pux 


349 


18 


367 


Jamal-pur Gadri, 


597 


51 


648 


Jamal-nagar 
Bhainsa. 


907 


56 


963 


Jamaun 


924 


56 


980 


Jam-pur Chamar- 
aula. 


899 


70 


969 


Janavali 


769 


40 


829 


Jarani 


1,029 


96 


1,125 


Kaprahi 


155 


... 


155 


Karahla Kasim- 


129 




129 


pur. 








Karthani 


296 


10 


306 


Kasarra Amrit- 


166 




166 


pur. 








Khalil-ganj.orRus- 
tam-nagar. 


2,382 


338 


2,720 


Khanda 


3,143 


266 


3,409 


Kharkaua 


333 


6 


338 


Khatauta 


1,126 


48 


1,174 


Khe?a Gwarau ... 


400 


20 


420 


Kherara 


743 


60 


793 


Khpri Gurhi Ilar- 
rae 


1,455 


81 


1,536 



Priucipal proprie- 

turs. 


1 
Predominant 
caste. 

1 


Acreage. 


Jadons 


Jadons ... 


1,667 


Kaja of Aiwa ... 


Cbamars ... 


603 


Raja of Awaand 
Baiyid Intizam 
Ali, &c. 


Musalmans, 


3,812 


Raja of Aiwa, Kus- 
lial Siuh, &c. 


Chamars ,.. 


1,040 


DurjanLaljBaniya 


Baniyas ... 


410 


Raja of Kvra. ... 


Jadona 


780 


Murli Sinh, Uday 
Ram, and others. 


Ahirs ... 


1,141 


Gahlots 


Gahlots ... 


326 


Sri Gopal, Bohra, 


Ahirs 


478 


Raja of Aiwa ... 


Jadons ... 


1,529 


Megh Sinh, Brah- 


Chamars ... 


1,251 


man. 






Raja of Aiwa ... 


Ditto 


234 




Gahlots ... 


831 


Kesar, Durga and 
others. 


Ahirs ... 


184 



Saiyid Ahmad Ali, 
Hira-man, Bohra 



Raja of Awa and 
oihers. 

Baladeva, Haride- 
va, and others, 
Gahlots. 

Riija of Awa, Nek- 
Ram, and others. 

Lachhi Ram and 
others, baniyas. 

Raja of Awa ... 

Lacliman Sinh, 
mortgagee, and 
others. 



Ditto ... 
Baniyas ... 
Ahirs ... 
Brahmaus, 

Chamais ... 
Ahirs 

Chamars ... 

Gola.j)urah 
brahmaus. 



PARGANA JALESAR. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



133 





Name. 


Population 




P rincipal proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


1 
Hindus. 


Musal- 
mau. 


Total. 


Acreage, 


88 


Kheriya Taj ... 


482 


76 


658 


Eaja of Aiwa ... 


Chanaars ... 


635 


89 


Kosma 


610 


9 


619 


Tika Earn, Bohra, 


Garariyas, 


652 


90 


Kunjal-pur ... 


418 


39 


457 


Ganga B i s h a n 
Earn Prasad, 
Bohras. 


Brahmans, 


321 


91 


Kurgama 


495 


15 


610 


Eaja of Aiwa, Kun- 
da.i Lai, Ahivasi, 


Kachhis ... 


434 


92 


Kuswa 


1,233 


72 


1,305 


Eaja of Awa, Mo- 
lian Sinh and 
others. 


Ahirs ... 


1,420 


93 


Lakhmi-pur, or 
ijarai Usar. 


319 


23 


342 


Eaja of Awa ... 


Charaars ... 


833 


94 


Lodhi-pur 


177 


15 


192 


Daya Earn, mort- 
gagee. 


Lodhas ... 


258 


95 


Lohcha Xahar-pur, 


685 


35 


720 


Baladeva Sahay, 
and vSwamiEau- 
gacharya. 


Ahirs 


1,087 


96 


Mahabat-pur ... 


68 


... 


68 


EajaofAwa ... 


Brahioans. 


225 


97 


Mahan-mai 


806 


77 


883 


Khub Lil and 
others, Brah- 
mans. 


Ditto ... 


1,116 


98 


Mai 


514 


48 


562 


Mr. Hashman 


Lodhas ... 


626 


99 


Maksud pur 


39i 


«e 


935 


Eaja of ^wa and 
others. 


Musalmans, 


i,0I4 


100 


Mandan-pur 


362 


19 


381 


Eaja of Aiwa. 


Chamars ••• 


944 


101 


Marl! a Prahlad- 
nagar. 


337 


23 


360 


Ditto 


Lodhas ... 


663 


102 


Marsena 


578 


71 


649 


Buddh Sinh of 
Umar-garh and 
others. 


Dhakara 
Thakurs. 


1,049 


103 


Mauzam-pur 


171 


.., 


171 


Muktayal Sinh, 
mortgagee, J adon. 


Lodhas ... 


339 


104 


Mehki 


305 


61 


356 


Murli Sinh, Vazir- 
ali, and others. 


Jadons ... 


649 


105 


Mirza pur 


306 


... 


306 


T.)ta Earn Baniya, 


Brahma n s', 


499 


106 


Misa, Great 


991 


73 


1,064 


EajaofAwa 


Jadons 


1,876 


107 


„ Little 


420 


3 


423 




Baniyaa ... 


497 


108 


Misauli Hemraj- 
pur. 


544 


35 


679 


Thakur Buddh 
Sinh i)f Um ar - 
garh and others. 


Brahmans, 


1,154 



134 



PARGANA JALESAR. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name. 


Po/ u 'at ion . 


Principal proprie- 
tore. 


Predominant 
caste. 


1 


No. 


Hindus. 


Mu«al- 
miin. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


109 


Mi'avali Shaikh- 
pura. 


1,733 


80 


1,813 


ThaknraniHakim- 
un-Nissa. 


Brahma ns 
and Cha- 
mara 


2,449 


110 


Mitraul 


822 


28 


850 


Kaja of Aiwa ... 


Lodhas ,.. 


670 


111 


Mohan-pur 


440 


9 


449 


... 


Chamars ... 


805 


112 


Mubarak-pur Na- 
dauli 


179 


... 


179 


Raja of Awa and 
iianchhor Das. 


Kabars 


218 


113 


Muhabbat-pur ... 


249 


8 


257 


Raja of Aiwa 


Brahman s , 


301 


114 


Miihammad-nagar 
Kha.i-pur. 


69 


1 


60 


Thakurani Hakim- 
uu-Nissa. 


Ahirs ... 


275 


115 


Muhammad-pur... 


164 


8 


172 


Narayan Sinh, of 
Hasangarli, 


Lodhas ... 


396 


116 


Muhsin-abad 


369 


23 


392 


Raja of Aiwa ... 


Gola-purab 
Brahmaus. 


289 


117 


Muka^-pur 


152 


3 


153 


Rnti Ram, Nand- 
kishor, m..rt- 
gageea, Ahirs. 


Ahirs 


195 


118 


Mukhwar 


1,290 


71 


1,361 


Raja of Aiwa ... 


Dh a k a r a 
Thakurs. 


2,354 


119 


Murlidhar-pur ... 


207 


6 


213 


... 


Cliamars ... 


150 


1?0 


Mursama 


8 15 


n 


816 


Ram Kunwar and 

others. 


Jadons 


1,088 


12) 


Murthar Ali-pur... 


731 


20 


751 


... 


Chamars ... 


1,461 


122 


Nagara Adhu ... 


661 


22 


5S3 


Hem Sinh and 
others, Thakiirs, 
and Mansa Ram, 
Kayath. 


Dh a k a r a 
Thakurs. 


... 


123 


„ Ani 


650 


42 


592 


Nandu and Gyiis 
Kunwar, Ahirius. 


Ahirs 


426 


124 


„ Bari 


673 


25 


598 


Masn Rihari Lai, 
Kayath. 


Ch.raars ... 


650 


125 


„ Bel 


644 


51 


695 


Raja of Aiwa and 
others. 


Ditto 


1,050 


126 


„ Chaad ... 


171 


46 


217 


Rup R a Ti and others' 
Jianiyas. 


Ditto 


638 


127 


„ Gol 


391 


15 


406 


Kanhay Sinh, Jadon 
and others. 


Gola-purab 
Brahiuaus. 


498 


128 


„ Khokar ... 


... 


... 




Raja of Aiwa and 
Madan Biliari 
Lai. 


Brahmans, 


232 



PARQANA JALESAR. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 



133 





Name. 




Populatio 


n. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors, 


Predominant 
caste. 




No 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


129 


Xagara Kumar ... 


96 


20 


116 


Kishan Sinh and 
Hakim-un-Nissa. 


Gahlot Tha 
kurs. 


274 


130 


„ Maha-sinh, 


537 


48 


585 


Talewar Sinh and 
others, Kayaths 


Brahman s. 


388 


131 


„ Mitan, or 
Dilokiiara. 


729 


20 


749 


Tulsi Ram. Seih 
KoshHu Lai, and 
others. 


Garariy a s 


1,409 


132 


,, Pachauri, 


252 


... 


252 


Eaja of Awa, Ke- 
sari, and others. 


Brahman s, 


394 


133 


„ Sarji ... 


313 


... 


313 


A man Sinh and 
others Jad'.ns- 


Jadons ... 


450 


134 


„ Sarup 


725 


10 


735 


Chain Sukh and 
others, Bohras. 


Chamars ... 


1,120 


135 


„ Sukhdeva, 
Bali-pur. 


807 


15 


822 


Raja of ^wa ... 


Jadons ... 


1,190 


136 


Nagwai Abu-na- 
gar. 


792 


21 


813 


Shib Sinh and 
others, mortga- 
gees. 


Ahirs ... 


866 


137 


XarauEirnagar... 


518 


40 


558 


Hajaof^wa ... 


Jadona ... 


1,046 


138 


Narholi 


800 


53 


853 


Ditto 


Ditto 


1,235 


139 


Narora 


1,340 


185 


1,525 




Ditto ... 


1,259 


140 


Nim-Khera 


945 


59 


1,004 


Tliakiir Das, murt- 

gagte. 


Ditto 


fc05 


141 


Noh 


1,455 


204 


1,659 


Kajii of Aiwa 


Ditto 


2,367 


142 


Noh-khera 


62!i 


40 


660 


... 


Ditto 


1,029 


143 


Pabha 


480 


66 


545 


... 


Bralimans.. 


505 


144 


Pabar 


333 


... 


333 


Chunni Lai, Brah- 
m!in, ar.d Man 
Sinh, Gahlot. 


Ditto 


676 


145 


Pahari-pur 


1,057 


56 


1,113 


Ganga Ram and 
others, Gahlots. 


Chamars... 


1,120 


146 


Pahar-mal-pur ... 


81 


18 


99 


Rup Kunwar, Ka- 

yath. 


Ditto 


136 


147 


Paiyanda-pur ... 


173 


15 


188 


Thaknr Devi Sinh, 
Gahlot. 


Ditto 


441 


143 


Pasiya-pur Be- 
gam-pur. 


95 


110 


205 


RajaofAwa ... 


Ditto 


445 


149 


"■atna 


676 


11 


587 


Moti Sinh, and 
others, Jadons. 


Jadong ... 


1,240 



136 



PARGANA JALESAR. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (continued). 





Name, 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Predominant 
caste. 




No. 


Hindus. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


Acreage. 


150 


Paundri ... 


1,013 


39 


1,052 


Kaja of Awa ... 


Jadons ... 


!,543 


151 


Pilkathra 


1,695 


76 


1,771 




Chamara .. 


2,090 


152 


Punhera 


1,822 


112 


1,9.34 


Raja of ^wa ... 


Brahmans. 


1,844 


153 


Raja Ram-pur ... 


304 


6 


310 


ManoharSinh and 
others,.] a Jons.. 


Chamars... 


500 


154 


Rajauli 


759 


29 


788 


Muktaynl Sinhand 
others, Jadons. 


Jadons ... 


797 


155 


Eajmal-pur Tim- 
rua. 


460 


18 


478 


Lachhman Sinh 
and others, Ba- 
niyas, 


Ahirs 


684 


156 


Ram-ga?li 


4,482 


447 


4,929 


Thakur Buddh 
Sinh of Umar- 
garh. 


Chamars... 


7,261 


157 


Ramrae pur ,„ 


34 


... 


34 


Swami R an g a- 
charya. 


G ahlot 
Tliakurs. 


228 


168 


Ranosa 


181 


22 


203 


Dungar Sinh, Ba- 
niya, and others 


Ahirs ... 


207 


159 


Rashid-pur 


13S 


1 


139 


Raja of Awa ... 


Lodhas ... 


329 


160 


Raalu'd-pur. o r 
Kheriya Khati. 


208 




208 




Kachhis ... 


289 


161 


Rf shid-pur M i • 
traul. 


213 




213 


... 


Lodhas ... 


227 


162 


Raza-nagar 


213 


126 


339 


Si'ta Ram and 
others, Gahlots. 


G ahlot 
Thdkurs. 


379 


163 


Rejua 


1 035 


52 


1,105 


Lekhraj and 
others, Ahirs. 


Brahmans . 


1,008 


164 


Rohina Mirza-pur 


2,470 


171 


2,641 


Raja of Kvra. ... 


Chamars ... 


4,072 


165 


Sahor-garh 


151 


... 


151 


Badam Sinh and 
others, Gahlots. 


Ditto 


384 


166 


Saif-uddin-pur... 


212 


24 


236 


Sukhdeva and 
others, Bjhras. 


Ahirs ... 


381 


167 


Sakra 


843 


33 


876 


Raja of K^& ... 


Brahmans. 


1,109 


168 


Sakrauli 


1,991 


340 


2,331 


... 


Jadons ... 


2,747 


169 


Sala-mai 


310 


3 


313 


Raja of ^wa, and 
others. 


Ahira ... 


264 


170 


Salim-pur Eta ... 


426 


15 


441 


Bhup Sinh, Brah- 
man. 


D h a kara 
Thakurs. 


1,036 


171 


Mitraul, 


425 


18 


443 


Raja of Kwa. ... 


Kachhis ... 


402 



PARGANA JALESAR. 
Alphabetical List of Villages — (continuec^). 



137 







HinduB. 


Population. 


Principal Proprie- 
tors. 


Pi'edominan 
caste. 




No. 


Name. 


Musal- 
man. 


Total. 


t Acreage. 


172 


Salivahan-pur ... 


448 


... 


448 


Bihiiri Lai and 
others, Bohras. 


Lodhas ... 


58() 


173 


Santhai Nabi-pur, 


746 


29 


775 


Sahi Eani and 
others, Gahlot-. 


Chamars ... 


1,505 


174 


Sarae Jay Ram ... 


680 


20 


600 


Kanhay Sinh, Ja- 
d-.n. 


Baniyas ... 


355 


175 


„ Nfin 


715 


63 


778 


OeviSinh, ") ^ . 
SundarSinh. fp-;^^^- 
DhaunJit, 31°'« 


Brahmans 
and Baniyas 


623 


176 


Sarani 


607 


24 


631 


Raja of A wa ... 


Garariyas,., 


715 


177 


Sarkari 


473 




473 


... 


Chamars ... 


361 


178 


Senua 


930 


46 


976 




Ditto ... 


1,164 


179 


Shah-nagar Tiin- 
rua. 


1,933 


91 


2,024 


Nek Ram, and 
others, Gahlots. 


Thakurs ... 


2,438 


IbO 


Shaikhu-purMan- 
danpur. 


1,366 


49 


1,415 


Magn Bihari I.al. 
Kayath,andTha- 
kurs. 


Chamars .. 


1,807 


181 


mal. 


1,700 


157 


1,857 


Magn^ Bihari Lai, 
Svvanii Rauga- 
charya. 


Ditto ... 


2,259 


182 


Sbams-pur 


384 


1 


385 


Raja of Aiwa 


Ditto ... 


1,290 


183 


Sikandar-pur ... 


426 


8 


434 




Jadons and 
Chamars. 


762 


184 


Simrau 


1,348 


72 


1,420 


.Tas Ram, and others, 
Thakurs, and 
Shadi Lai, Kajath. 


Thakurs ... 


1,876 


185 


Sirgama 


272 


37 


S09 


Clmnni Lai Brah- 
man. 


Bbats 


609 


186 


Sona 


373 


22 


395 


Thakur B u d d h 
Sinh of Umar- 
garh. 


Lodhas ... 


753 


187 


Sujan-pur 


369 


... 


369 


Tara Sahay and 
others, Gahlots. 


Gahlot Tha- 
kurs. 


400 


188 


Takhawan 


928 


39 


967 


Thakur Das, Jadon, 


Chamars ... 


1,872 


189 


Tamaach-garli ... 


700 


76 


776 


„ Devi Sinh, 
Gahlot. 


Chamars and 
Garariyas. 


1,159 


190 


Tehu 


1,860 


85 


1,945 


Seth Roshan Lai 
and others. 


Thakurs ... 


2,333 


191 


Tikathar 


1,047 


83 


1,130 


Baladeva Sinh, 
Brdhman. 


Ditto ... 

i 


2,222 



138 



PARGANA JALESAR. 

Alphabetical List of Villages — (concluded). 







Population. 








No. 


Kame. 


Hindus. 


Mu?al- 
man. 


Total. 


Principal proprie- 

turs. 


Predominant 
caste. 


Acreage. 


192 


Tisar 


447 


44 


491 


iHhulan Sinh and 
others, Gahlots. 


Bargujars.. 


937 


193 


Uderi 


329 


44 


373 


Raja of Awa 


Jadons 


375 


194 


Uncha-ganw ... 


1,968 


110 


2,068 


Swami Ranaachar- 
ya and others. 


Gahlots am. 
Cbamars. 


1,499 


195 


"Walidad-pur ... 


723 


9 


732 


Sundar Pokhpal 
and others. 


Ahira ... 


440 


199 


Yusuf-pur 


263 


16 


279 


Amar Siuh, Kaynth, 
Chain Sukli and 
others, Bohras. 


Chamars ... 


584 



SUPPLEMENTARY VILLAGE NOTES 



Pargana Kosi. 

3. Barchauli.— This name appears to be only an office corruption ; on tlio 
spot the word is always pronounced Bancliauli. 

7. Bathan.—O^ the two schools, the one at Little Bathan has been closed; 
at the other there is an attendance of forty-five boys. The Kokila-ban, which 
lies between two smaller groves, each called Padar Ganga— the one in Bathan, 
the other in Jav— is 212 bighas in extent; 54 bighas being held rent-free by 
the Mahant of the Hermitage, who also has all the pasturage and fallen tim- 
ber of the whole area, with a further endowment of 22 bighas of arable 
land in Jav. The walled garden near the lake was planted by a Seth of Mir- 
zapur, through the agency of Ghanpat Ram of Kosi ; and the adjoining bar ah- 
dari, or pavilion, was built by Nem Ji, a Baniya, also of Kosi, in 1870, out of 
money left for the purpose by his brother, Bansidhar. A fair is held in th& 
grove every Saturday, and a larger one on every full-moon ; when the princi- 
pal diversion consists in seeing the immense swarms of monkeys fight for the 
grain that is scrambled among them. The Bairagi belongs to the Nimbarak 
Sampradaya, and states that the distinctive doctrines of the sect are not abso- 
lutely unwritten (as is ordinarily supposed), but are comprised in ten Sanskrit 
couplets that form the basis of a commentary in as many thousands. One 
of bis disciples is a very intelligent and argumentative theological student ;- 
and a sketch of his belief may be here given as a proof that the esoteric doc- 
trines of the Vaishnavas generally have little in common with the gross idola- 
try which the Christian Missionary is too often content to demolish as the 
equivalent of Hinduism. So far is this from being the case, that many of their 
dogmas are of an eminently philosophical character, and contrast favorably, 
not only with the colourless abstractions of the Brahma Samaj, but also with 
the defiant materialism into which the greater pai*t of non-Catholic Europe is 
rapidly lapsing. The one infinite and invisible God is the only real existence 
and the only proper object of devout contemplation. But as the incomprehen- 
sible is utterly beyond the reach of human faculties. He is partially manifested 
for our behoof in the book of creation, in which natural objects are the letters 
of the universal alphabet, and express the sentiments of the Divine Author. A 
printed page, however, conveys no meaning to anyone but a scholar, and is liable 
to be misunderstood even by him ; so, too, with the book of the world. Whether 



140 PARGANA KOSI. 

the traditional scenes of Krishna's adventures have been rightly determined is 
a matter of little consequence, if only a visit to them excites the believer's reli- 
gious enthusiasm. The places are mere symbols of no value in themselves ; 
the idea they convey is the direct emanation from the spirit of the author. 
But it may be equally well expressed by different types ; in the same way as 
two copies of a book may be word for woi'd the same in sound and sense though 
entirely different in appearance, one being written in Nagari, the other in Eng- 
lish characters. To enquire into the cause of the diversity between the religi- 
ous symbols adopted by different nationalities may be an interesting study, but 
is not one that can affect th3 basis of faith. And thus it matters little Avhether 
Radha and Krishna were ever real personages ; the mysteries of divine love which 
they symbolize remain, though the symbols disappear ; in the same way as a 
poem may have existed long before it was committed to writing, and may be 
remembered long after the writing has been destroyed. The transcription is a 
relief to the mind ; but though obviously advantageous on the whole, istili 
in minor points it may rather have the effect of stereotyping error : fi)r 
no material form, however perfect and semi-divine, can ever be created with- 
out containing in itself an element of deception; its appearance varies ac- 
cording to the point of view and the distance from which it is regarded. It is 
to convictions of this kind that must be attributed the utter indifference of the 
Hindu to chronological accuracy and historical research The annals of Hin- 
dustan date only from its conquest by the Muhammadans — a people whose 
faith is based on the misconception of a fact, as the Hindus' is on the corrupt 
embodiment of a conception. Thus the literature of the former deals exclusively 
with events ; of the latter with ideas. 

14. Dah-adnw. — The boundary line between this and the adjoining village 
of Garhi in Gur-ganw has been the subject of violent contention for the last 
thirty years, and the dispute is not settled yet. The school has an attendance 
of no more than thirty boys ; of whom only seven are sons of the Jat agricul- 
turists. By the temple of Braj-bhiikhan, which is of considerable size, is a 
small pond called Bhankru, with an old kadamb tree, reputed sacred on account 
of a curious excrescence on the trunk resembling Krishna's mukut, or ' crown ' 
The Dadhi-kuud is 35 bighas in extent, and the total amount of rakhyd, o20 
}>ighas, including Rasoli, or Ras-ban, which is uninhabited except by a Bairagi. 

26. Hathdaa. — One and-a-half biswa is owned by Gautam Brahmans ; all 
the remainder by Jats of the Sorot sub-division, who are very numerous in the 
neighbourhood. The rakhyd adjoining the village is 435 bighas in extent ; 
but the trees are almost aWp'das, and those of small size. The daharo^ Nand- 
ban (365 bighas) lies on the other side of the canal near Sessai. This, 
though according to present arrangements accounted a hamlet of Hathana, is, 
properly speaking, an offshoot of Great Sessai in Gur-ganw, from which it is 



PARGANA KOSI. 141 

only parted by a few paces of waste land. A temple of some size and very 
considerable local celebrity, dedicated to Lakshmi Nartiyan, stands on the mar- 
gin of an extensive lake faced on the temple side with masonry ghats. This is 
known as the KsMr Sd<jar, or ' Milky Sea,' a name which the colour of the 
water renders not inappropriate. It is most unfortunate that the boundary 
line between the two Provinces should have been drawn where it is, as the 
exclusion of the Sanadh Swamis of Little Sessai from a share in the emoluments 
of the temple, enjoyed by their kinsmen living in the origins! village, has re- 
sulted in the most intense animosity, displayed in the mutiny by a pitched 
battle in which twenty-seven persons lost their lives. Much of the land attach- 
ed to the hamlet of Sara 7 lies across the canal, greatly to the inconvenience of 
its cultivators, who have to go round a long distance by the Sessai Bridge to 
reach it. It was at one time an entirely distinct village ; and hence to the 
present day Hathana is accounted to comprise forty biswas, being divided into 
two thoks, one of twenty-five, the other of fifteen biswas. There are seven 
lumberdars. The school has an attendance of thirty-three boys, of whom nine- 
teen are Jats. 

28. ./ay.— There is no special Javak-ban now recognized by that name ; 
Java-bat or Java-ban, being regarded as the name of the village. There are 
four rakhyds ; Chir-kund and Jugal-kutti, both of small extent ; Kishori-bat 
(36 bighas) with the Kishori-kund and kunj built by Hup Ram ; and the Padar 
Ganga (15 bighas) with an orchard of mango and khlrni trees planted by 
Siirma, a Bairagi who also built the temple of Radha-kant out of grants he re- 
ceived from the chiefs of Rajwara. On his death the temple was deserted for 
a time till taken over by a Gosain of Brinda-ban, who makes it an allowance 
of Rs. 10 a month. Not a stick can be taken from the rakhyds for the use of 
the villages or the local temples without the express permission of the absentee 
landlord. 

Pargana Chhata. 

21. Based Little. — For the last ten years the river has been retreatincr, 
and the land recovered from its bed now amounts to 304 acres, which have been 
constituted into a separate mahal and assigned to Daya Ram, a Thakur of 
Mathura. The village zamindars, who had the offer of the land when the 
increment first began, and then declined it, now bitterly regret their error of 
judgment, as the estate is yearly increasing in value. 

33. Chaksaull. — The rakkyd adjoins the Gahrvar-ban, which is accounted 
part of Man-pur, and with it extends over an area of all but 108 bighas, exclu- 
sive of the hill-side, which also is densely wooded, being covered from top to 
bottom with dho trees. These latter, however, are always perfecdy bare of 



142 PARGANA CHHATA. 

foliage except during the rains. In the rakhyd is the Bihar-kund, a natural 
pond ; and also a masonry tank, four acres in extent, known as the Dohani- 
kuntl, which is at all seasons of the year quite dry, and must have been so for 
a great length of time, as it is filled with large kadamb trees, some of which 
would seem to be not less than a hundred years old. The quaint seclusion of 
this spacious stone bason, buried in the midst of the green woods, with the 
ruined courts and palaces of Barsana, though out of sight, almost within a 
'stone's throw, and the range of rocks in the back-ground with some tcmjde or 
pavilion crowning each prominent peak, renders the spot one of the most plea- 
sant and picturesque that can be found in the district. The building on the 
western ridge is the Man-Mandir, on the eastern the Bilas-Mandir, while those 
on the central range are the Mor-kutti, the Ddn-Mandir and the temples of 
Ldrli Ji'. 

35. Chaumuhd. — Pandit Ganga-dhar's endowment covers half the entire 
cost of the Agra College. 

42. JJibhdra. — On the I'idge is a round tower built by the villagers in the 
mutiny as a stronghold for resort in case of an attack from the Mewatis. The 
Ratn-kund lies at the back of the hill beyond a small temple and watch-tower 
built in earlier times to command the pass. Near the village is another pond, 
called Suraj kund, with a stone cliliattri of some size erected about thirty years 
ago in memory of one of the Gujar zamindars by name Ranjit. 

51. Jait-pur. — For the last five years the river has been making a dead 
set at the village, washing away its land to Bijauli and Bhadra-ban on the 
opposite bank. Two hundred and twenty-five bighas have been swept off these 
last rains, and the area, which in 1837 was 583 acres, is now reduced to 244; 
each of the two thoks (Sri Ram and Jag-rup) having suffered about equally. A 
house or two has already disappeared, and there is scarcely a hope that any of 
the remainder will outlast another year. The people, however, so soon to be 
rendered homeless and landless, are making no provision against the impend- 
ing calamity ; probably in the hope that the wayward stream may yet relent 
and spare them by returning to its original channel. In default of such an 
event, they will be much to be pitied ; for with their land, they lose also their 
social status, and even if they are abls to rent fields in the adjoining villages, 
it can only be as tenants-at-will. 

57. KaraJila. — The pond which covers an area of more than eleven bighas 
is also called Lalita-kund. On its margin is ajhiiJd Avith high and substantial 
masonry ]:illars, where, on feast-days, two little boys, dressed to personate 
Radlia and Krishna, are seated and swung. The kadamh-khandi is upwards of 
460 biglias in extent. Of three temples, only the one dedicated to Radha 
Raman is of masonry construction. The school has an attendance of thirty-one 
boys, all of whom are Brahmans and Baniyas with the exception of only two 



PARGANA CHHATA. 143 

Jadons — one of them, too, coming from the next village, Ajnokh — thus show- 
ing that the agricultural community in the present generation are no wiser 
than their fathers, who parted with the whole of their birth-right to the Lala 
Babu for about the value of a single field. 

85. Rdnera. — The muafidar, who is the son by adoption of his predecessor, 
Shio-nath, resides in Mathara, and is the rent-free proprietor of another village 
also, Ganesara, in the home pargana. Two mahals have now been formed, the 
one of eight biswas with three lumberdars, the other of twelve with four ; each 
including some part of the three thoks. Rami, Khadu, and Amu Jait. Of the 
zamindari two and-a-half biswas have been acquired by the Bhat muafi lar, four 
and-a-quarter by some Bohras, while the Gauruas retain the remaining thir- 
teen and-a-quarter. Their ancestor, Bhiipal, was the founder of twenty-four 
villages in the neighbourhood ; his brother, Tenpal, of twelve on the Ganges. 
They were Sissodias from Chitor (the name of the village commemorating the 
Chitor Rana), and their descendants have taken the distinctive title of Bachhal 
only in consequence of their Guru having his seat at the Bachh-ban in Sehi. 
The above information was gathered on the spot ; the original incorrect note 
was based on the settlement papers, written in the Persian character, in which 
Jay-pur and Chitor are absolutely identical in form — a fair illustration of the 
utter unfitness of such a character for purposes of record. The school has an 
attendance of fifty-one boys, of whom fourteen are the sons of the Thakur za- 
raindars. 

88. Eithora, probably for Ritha-pura, from the ritha tree. Hindus, when 
mentioning the place, almost invariably add ' Chandravali ka ganw ;' Chandra- 
vali being one of of Radha's favourite companions, who is said to have lived 
there. 

92. Sanket. — The temple of Radha Raman is in precisely the same style as 
the one at Nand-ganw, though on rather a smaller scale. The exterior has an 
imposing appearance, and is visible from a considerable distance, but there is 
nothing worth seeing inside, the workmanship being of a clumsy description, 
and the whole of the cloistered court-yard crowded with the meanest hovels. 
There is, however, a pretty view from the top of the walls. The original shrine, 
which Riip Ram restored, is ascribed to Todar Mall, Akbar's famous minister. 
The httle temple of Bihari (otherwise called Sija Mahal), built by a Raja of 
Bardwan, seems to be accounted much more sacred. It stands in a walled 
garden, all overgrown with Mns jungle, in which is a high jkild with several 
laithaks, and other holy spots marked by inscribed commemorative tablets set 
up by one of Sindhia's Generals (as at Paitha and other places in the neigh- 
bourhood) in Sambat 1885. It is here, on the occasion of anyjdtra, that the 
spectacle of Krishna's marriage is represented as a scene in the Ras Lila. The 
Krishan-kund is a large sheet of water, fifty yards square, with masonry 



144 PARGANA CHHATa'. 

steps ou one of its sides. In the village are three large and handsome dwell- 
ing-houses, built in the reign of Suraj Mall, by one of his officials, Jauhari 
Blall of Fatihabad, and said to have been reduced to their present ruinous con- 
dition bj the succeeding occupant of the Bharat-pur throne, the Raja Jawahir 
Sinh. The Vihvala-kund is a few hundred yards from the village on the road 
to Karahla. It is of stone, and has on its margin a temple of Devi, built by a 
Maharaja of Gwaliar. 

The Doman-ban is within the boundaries of Nand-ganw, but is about the 
same distance from that town as it is from Bijwari and Sanket. It is a very 
pretty spot of the same character as Pisayo, and of considerable extent ; the 
name being always explained to mean ' the double wood,' as if a corruption of do 
van. At either extremity is a large pond embosomed in the trees, the one called 
Puran-masi, ' the full moon,' the other Rundki jhundki, 'jingle jingle.' A few 
fields beyond is the Kamal-pur grove. 

95. Sehi. — Here is the tirtha of Bachh-ban, which in Part I., page 35, is 
incorrectly placed at Basai. 



Pargana Mathura. 

83. Malwli. — The school has been closed. The so-called * Ban' is but a 
bare and dreary spot fringed with a single line of kadamh trees. The adjoin- 
ing tank, which swarms with snakes — not of a venomous description — is 
enclosed with masonry walls and flights of steps, and let into one of the piers is 
a tablet with a defaced inscription, bearing apparently the date Samhat 1702. 
The work is said to have been repaired by the Mahratta Rani Baji Bai. The 
temple on the margin is known by the title of Kuuwar Kalyan Rae, and adjoin- 
ing it is a substantially-built Baithak, or rest-house, for the accommodation of 
the Gosain on his annual visit in the month of Bhadon. On the other side of 
the village, encircled by a belt of Mns jungle with a few remja and saliora 
trees, is a steep hill, called Dhruva tila, covered with broken bricks ; and 
in front of the Bairagi's cell, on its summit, I noticed (January, 1874) the 
cross-bar of a Buddhist railing. From this point to the temple of Kesava Deva 
in Mathura, the distance in a straight line across the fields can scarcely be much 
more than two miles. Without any leading question on my part the villagers 
repeated the tradition that the Jamuna used to flow immediately under the hill. 
(See Part I., page 104). 

115. Paitha. — The original temple of Chatur-bhuj is said to have been 
destroyed by Aurangzeb. Its successor, which also is now in ruins, was pro- 
bably built on the old foundations, as it comprised a nave, choir, and sacrarium, 
each of the two latter cells being surmounted by a sikhara, and thus bore a 
general resemblance to the temples of Akbar's reign at Brind^-ban. The 



PARGANA MATHURA. 145 

nave is unroofed, and both the towers partly demolished ; what remains per- 
fect is only of brick, and quite plain and unornamented. It stands in the 
kadamh-khandi (107 bighas), which spreads over the low ground at the foot of 
the village Khera ; its deepest hollows forming the Narayan ISarovar, which is 
only a succession of ponds with here and there a flight of masonry steps. The 
Mahesar Mahadeva is in the Moha-ban on the road to Gobardhan close to Par- 
soli. The school has an attendance of only twenty-five boys, fifteen of whom 
are sons of the Brahman zamindars. There are three thoks, Jasua, Binayak, 
and Gujaran ka ; and ten lumberdars, of whom one is a Gujar, the other nine 
Sanadlis. The closely. adjoining Kliera, called Garhi, is a hamlet of Jangali 
Bari. 

118. Pali. — The date of Anang Pal, the re-builder of Delhi, and founder 
of the Tomar dynasty at that city, is the first half of the eighth century, 
736 A.D, The occurrence of his name here confirms a tradition mentioned 
by General Cunningham, that his dominions extended as far south as Agra. 

119. Pali Khera. — From a small mound immediately adjoining the village. 
I have recently disinterred a solid block of red sand-stone, measuring four feet 
in height by three feet four inches in breadth, and carved on either side with a 
very curious Bacchanalian group, as described in the archaeological appendix. 

123. Parson. — The absurd derivation of the name current on the spot, and 
gravely entered in the Settlement records, is that Krishna, the third day after 
he had slain the demon Kesi, met some of his friends here, who asked him what 
day it was when the fight took place, and he answered Parson, ' the day before 
yesterday.' The true explanation is suggested by a large pond, with the re- 
mains of a kadamh-khandi adjoining it, which still bears the unmutilated name 
of Parasuram-kund : Parsa being the ordinary abbreviation for Parasuram, 
the transition is an easy one from Parsa-ganw through Parsaun to Parson. 
On the margin of the pond is a temple of some size dedicated to Radha Mohan, 
built by Girwar Das, Bairagi, at a cost of some Rs. 2,000, opened last year on 
the feast of the Basant Panchami. In the village is an older shrine with the 
title of Radha Raman, and on a small khera towards Mahroli are some massive 
slabs of stone and sculptured fragments called Balbhadra. The Raja Prithi 
Sinh, in addition to the rent-free estate, owns the zamindari also of nearly 
eighteen biswas, the greater part of which was purchased at auction in the 
year 1844. The muafi grant was made to his ancestor. Raja Bardh Sinh, in 
1788 A. D., by Madho Rao Sindliia, for the maintenance of a dole-house at 
Brinda-ban, to which purpose the revenue is still devoted. At the time of the 
grant the jama was only Rs. 1,200 which has been gradually increased to 
Rs. 7,040. The x\hivasis who now own only two biswas, represent themselves to 
be the descendants of Kishan Ram, Dharm-jit, »Tay Ram, and Fatih Ram, the 
sous of one Maha Das, who came from Sunrakh in the ninth century, in 

1 



146 PARGAKA MATHURA. 

the reign of Raja Gangal of Amber. To tlieir piirohits, who were Vyds Brdh- 
mans, they made a grant of one-fourth biswa, which their descendants still 
enjoy. The Ahivasis are found also in Hathras and Mewat, and recognize as 
many as seventy-two gots or sub-divisions among themselves. In Parson they 
are all engaged in the salt trade, and leave the cultivation of the land almost 
entirely to the women and children. Hence the only crops grown to any extent 
are cham, bdjrd, and jodr, which require little or no irrigation. There are twen- 
ty-seven masonry wells, and according to the census computation the village 
contains as many as 121 brick-built houses; but this gives rather a false impres- 
sion, being the number not of separate houses, but of separate sets of rooms. 
The school has an attendance of forty-two boys, of whom exactly half are Ahi- 
vasis. 

125. P ho Jidar.— The old kherd of considerable height and extent is desert- 
ed; but lying round about it are as many as nineteen hamlets named as follows: 
Ajit, Bhuchha, Dariwara, Andhu-ka, Bhau, Garhi, Jarpa, Thakura, Sri Chand, 
Dalsay, Gharu, Gola, Kharu, Hamla, Dabda, Sihado, Dham Bari, Dham Chhoti, 
and Khana. There are eighteen lumberdars, of whom one is a Chaube, and all 
the rest Juts. 

151. Son. — As the kherd, or artificial hill on which the ■N'illage stands, is 
of great height and area, it is very probable that at some remote period the 
place was one of considerable importance, and (according to the tradition) the 
capital of a Raja. It may plausibly be conjectured that Sonsa, Sonkh, and 
Sonoth were also part of his ten'itory and named after him. 

Sonkk. — The original foundation of the place is by local tradition connected 
with Anaug Pal, the re-builder of Delhi (736 A. D.). The Sahjua and Purna 
market-places are both in the Bazar. This lies immediately under the kherd, 
which is crowned by the crumbKng walls and bastions of the old Fort. A 
considerable amount of business is transacted every day of the week ; there 
being as many as 200 baniyas' shops and almost enough local trade to justify 
the incorporation of a Municipality. In Sahjua there are several extensive 
orchards of mango and ber trees, with an octagonal stone chhattri (commemo- 
rating the grandfiither of the present lumberdar), and three masonry wells of 
exceptionally large dimensions ; all attesting the greater wealth and importance 
of the Jat proprietors during the short period of the Bharat-pur Hegemony. 
About a mile from the Bazar, just across the Bharat-pur border, at a place called 
Gunsara, is a vei'y fine masonry tank, worthy of a visit from anyone in the neigh- 
bourhood, being on the same scale and in much the same style as the Kusum-Sar- 
ovar near Gobardhan. This was the work of the Rdni Lakshmi, the consort of 
Raja Randhir Siidi, who also built the beautiful kiinj that bears her name on 
the bank of the Jamuna at Brinda-ban. The tank was not quite completed at 
the time of her death, and accordin 5: to native custom has never been touched 



PARGANA MATHURA. 



147 



since. Adjoining it is an extensive walled garden overgrown with hhirni and 
other trees that are sadlj in need of thinning. In the centre is an elaborately 
carved stone plinth for a building that was designed but never executed. 
Though the population of Sonkh exceeds 4,000, the school has an attendance 
of no more than sixty pupils of whom only six are the sons of the Jat zamindars. 
The five Fattis stand as follows : — 



Name 



Ajal 
Ab5 
Purna 
Sahjua 
Tasi ha 

Total 



Thoks, 


Lumber- 
dars. 


Wells. 


Popula- 
tion. 


4 
2 
2 
2 
3 


2 
6 
2 

4 
S 


3 

7 
6 
15 
2 


195 

380 

1,104 

2,017 

415 


13 


16 


33 


4,111 



The Ajal thoks are called Bhagmall, 
Jagraj, Sirmaur, and Kunja. 

Ase is now divided into two distinct 
niahals. 

The Purna thoks are named Kisana and 
Isvar. 

The Sahjua ; Biluchi and Bewal. 

The Tasiha ; Tajj Urang, and Manohar. 



Where the road branches off to Gobardhan is a towered temple of Mahadeva, 
with a masonry tank of no great area but very considerable depth, which was 
commenced twenty years ago by a Bairagi, Earn Das. It is now all but complet- 
ed, after an outlay of Rs. 1,300, which he laboriously collected in small sums 
from the people of the neighbourhood, with the exception of Rs. 200 or 300, 
which were granted him from the balance of the Chaukidari fund. The avenue 
of trees along the road between Sonkh and Gobardhan was almost entirely 
planted by another Bairagi by name Salagram, who began the work out of a 
donation made him by the deceased Raja of Bharat-pur on the birth of his son 
and heir. 

160. Unclid-gdnw. — The Kumud-ban is close to the seventh mile-stone on 
the Sonkh road, which runs between it and the village. Its full extent is 282 
bighas, but it is mostly karil jungle, with only in the centre a small thicket of 
kadamb, pdpri, pasendu, chhonkar and sahora trees, none of them being of very 
large growth. Adjoining it is an extensive pond with a hamlet of ten or twelve 
houses, occupied by Jogis. A field or two off is a garden of the muafidar's with 
an arched brick entrance gateway, and a small shrine of Mahadeva on a terrace 
in the centre. The water has lately become so brackish, that the trees — chiefly 
mango, jdman, and labera — are all being destroyed. 



MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS. 



r. — Abstract of Population, Area, and Resources. 





PonvlnfAon 






ai 




Iitcome 


Tax lie- 












a 




turns {a) 1870-71. 


Pargana 




a 




CM M . 


2 




m 


a 




o 






^°^ 


c-g 




-a 


1 

3 


3 
o 


t 


a 

9 


1 


■2 £ S 


a'i 




w 


s 


H 


< 


1^ 


f: 


< 














Rs. 


Ks. 


Rs. 


KoBi 


65,274 


8,534 


73,808 


97,301 


66 


1,51,996 


330 


8,08.1 


Chhata 


92,539 


9051 


101,590 


160,433 


115 


1,77,876 


251 


5.8J4 


Wathura 


183,315 


18,359 


201,67 2 


183,2:53 


194 


2,14,043 


934 


45,633 


Mat 


93,7 21 


6,521 


100,248 


139,659 


159 


2,37,734 


259 


8,183 


Malia-ban 


136,430 


7,5^3 


143.955 


151,h46 


216 


2,8S,808 


389 


13,876 


Sadabad 


100,381 


7,924 


108,3U5 


115,498 


131 


2 86,526 


245 


9,462 


Jalesar 


141,335 


16,433 


157,775 


183,592 


203 


3,04,167 


438 


23,121 


Total ... 


812,995 


74,347 


887.353 


1,031,562 


1,048 


16,61,150 


2,846 


1,14,204 



63,431 



Tlie population of the four municipalities is as follows : — 
Mathura 

Including the City propei* ... ... ... 54,331 

The Sadr Bazar ... ... ... 4,509 

Regimental Bazar ... ... ... 1,764 

Civil Lines and Cantonments, ... ... 1,285 

Part of Jaysinh-pura ... ... 625 

Part of Hans-ganj .». ... ... 917 



Brindd-ban 

Jalesar 

Kosi 

(a ) No person was taxed whose annual profits were less than Re. 500. 

(b.) The census papers, as added np in the Tahsilis, gave the general results as follows! 
Hindus, 816,870; Muhammadaus, 76,649 ; Christians, 23 : Total, 8,92,542. 



63,431 






. 21,004 




. 14,902 




. 12,770 



CASTE RETUENS. 

IT. — Caste Returns, AccoRDtNa to the Census of 1872. 



149 



Brahman ... 


148,762 


Ghosi 


5,907 


Nai 


17,183 


Baniya 


70,100 


Gujar 


2,045 


Nat 


252 


Thkur 


52,822 


Harbhura ... 


271 


Nonera 


554 


Agari (?) ... 


97 


JaTighara ... 


3 


Or 


1,367 


Aheri ya 


953 


Jat 


141,073 


Patwa 


193 


Abir 


16,487 


Jotishi 


151 


Eadha (?) ... 


130 


Badhak ... 


32 


Julaha 


24 


Rann-rez ... 


22 


Banjara 


1,149 


Kachhi 


10,106 


Rewari 


877 


Bartri 


395 


Kabar ... 


10,468 


Saikal-gar ... 


14 


Barhai 


18,411 


KakU 


725 


Sliisha-gar... 


8 


Bari 


193 


Kaiijar 


425 


Singhariya, 


278 


Basur (?) ... 


7 


Kavath ... 


5,062 


Sonar 


5,103 


Bathal (?) ... 


7 


Khatik 


5,933 


Taga 


62 


Bhangi 


14,936 


Khattri 


1,443 


Tamboli ... 


500 


Bhar-bhunja, 


1,288 


Kori 


23,060 


Taw^if 


94 


Bhat 


2,353 


Kumhar 


12,291 


Teli 


3,304 
355 


Bhninhar ... 


27 


Kurmi 


2,027 


Thathera ... 


Bishnavi ... 


25 


Lakhera ... 


4 


Turha 


10 


Bulai (?) ... 


43 


Lodlia 


10,183 


Bairagi 


12,103 


Chamar 


138,123 


Lobar 


3.501 


Gosaiu 


524 


Chhipi ... 


1,486 


Mahiijan ... 


1,195 


Jogi 


4,618 


Chobdar ... 


212 


Miniar 


772 


Sadh _ ... 


119 


Dakaut 


105 


MaH 


7,580 


San jogi 


5 


Darzi 


4,596 


Makakana ... 


110 


Sarlihangi ... 


145 


Dhaiiuk 


457 


Mallah ... 


5,633 


Bangali 


510 


Dhobi . ... 


8,161 


Manihar 


556 


Mina 


212 


Dhunia 


4,827 


Mirasi 


31 


Ujjaini 


10 


Dom 


156 


Mochi 


351 


Pahari 


19 


Garariya ... 


20,873 


Murai (?) ... 


J 00 


Musahnans, 


74,347 


Gma("?) ... 


23 


Musdhar ... 


286 





la the above list there are some names of obscure castes which I have beea 
nnable to identify. The Malakanas, who are a very numerous class, formino- al- 
most the entire population of many considerable villages, are strangely represent- 
ed as only 110 in number. The vast majority must have been included under 
the general name of Muhammadans. The same remark probably applies also 
to the Rangrez or 'dyer' class : and the morality of the district, it may be feared 
is not so high as to render 94 even an approximately correct estimate of the 
number of professional prostitutes (taicaif) 34 of whom, oddly enough, are repre- 
sented as males. No mention is made of the pseudo-Brahmanical Ahivasis 
nor of the Mathuriya Chaubes, and it does not appear under what head they are 
grouped. It may further be noted that the Dhiisars, ranked with Baniyas and 
put at 112 only, must be greatly under-rated ; and with regard to the Thakurs 
a large proportion of them would more properly be designated as Gauruas. 
The Trades' List for the city of Mathura is also curiously defective, at least in 



160 



CASTE RETURNS. 



one respect ; since it entirely omits stone-masons; though they ftr:n a numer- 
ous community, and in fact stone-carving is the great speciahty of the place. 
These remarks are not intended as captious criticisms on the performance of a 
task which must have been one of exceeding difficulty, but rather as notes to 
be remembered hereafter, when the census is again taken, and a comparison 
instituted between it and previous returns. 





III. — Towns administered under Act XX, 


ot' 1856. 




No. 


Name. 


Popula- 


No. of' 


Houses 


Ordinary 


Cost of 


tion. 


houses. 


assessed. 


Income. 


Police. 












Rs. 


Rs. 


1 


Kamar 


4,243 


991 


919 


714 


450 


2 


Chhata 


6,720 


1,631 


1,250 


1,570 


930 


3 


Shergarh 


5,305 


1,266 


790 


1,100 


690 


4 


Sahar 


4,187 


942 


758 


770 


480 


5 


Gobardhan 


5,689 


1,414 


1,400 


1,927 


1,392 


6 


Sonkh 


4,111 


682 


570 


595 


336 


7 


Mat 


4,746 


1,088 


711 


631 


480 


8 


Raya 


2,925 


639 


632 


720 


336 


9 


Maha-ban 


6,930 


1,949 


1,037 


1,378 


912 


10 


Gokul 


4,245 


1,315 


981 


1,200 


834 


11 


Baladeva 


3,378 


988 


552 


960 


642 


12 


Sa'dabad 


3,934 


908 


570 


450 


432 


13 


Salipau 


4,615 


1,042 


736 


448 


384 


14 


Awa 


5,584 


1,110 


503 


460 


384 



IV. — Metalled High Roads. 



Agra and Delhi, road ; from Kotban (north) to Aurangabad 

(south.) 
Mathura and Bharat-pur road ; to the border at Rasul-pur ... 
Mathura and Hathras road ; to Sonai on the Aligarh border ... 
Agra and Hathras road: passing through Sadabad ... 
Mathura and Dig road; to Ganthauli on the Bharat-pur border, 
Mathura to Brinda-ban 
Chliata to Shergarh 
Mathura to Jalesar 

Branch road to Aligarh; from the Hathras road 
Eta and Agra road ; from Awa to Umar-garh 



Miles. 

40^ 

14 

14| 

11 

6 

8 

41i 

H 
12 

176 



ROADS. 151 

The East Indian Railway cuts across the Sa'dabdd and Jalesar Parganas, with 
one Station in each, viz., Manik-pur (officially styled Jalesar Road) and Barhan. 
Both, however, are little used either for goods or passenger traffic by the people 
of the district who ordinarily find Hathras and Aligarb more convenient. 
There is no made road, either metalled or unmetalled, any wliere near Barhan. 

V. — Principal Unmetalled Roads. 



No. 




Miles. 


1 


Matlmra (Dig Darwuza) to Sonkh 


14 


2 


Chhatato Gobardhan... 


16 


3 


JaittoSahar 


8 


4 


Jait to Shergarh 


14 


5 


Kosi to 8hergarh and on to Nob-jhil across the river 


16 


6 


Raya to Baladeva 


m 


7 


Jalesar to Awa 


lU 


8 


Jalesar and Sikandra Rao road ... 


8 


9 


Jalesar and Hathras road ... ... ^ ... 


12 


10 


Jait to Brinda-ban 


6 




115A 



For the maintenance and repair of these roads an annual allotment is made 
at the rate of Rs. 25 per mile. 



VI. — Second-class Unmetalled Roads. 



No. 


1. In Kosi Fargana : 


Miles. 


1 


Kosi to Dham-Sitiha (towards Sahar) 




n 


2 


Ditto Jan (towards Nand-ganw) ... 






H 


3 


Ditto Gindoi ( towards Kain-ba n in Bharat-pur ) . . . 






7 


4 


Ditto l^^anchauli 






8i 


5 


Ditto Kamar 






6 


6 


Ditto Lal-pur (towards Punahana in Gur-ganw).. 






n 


7 


Ditto Sessai 






H 


8 


Ditto Ainch 






lOi 


9 


Ditto Majhoi 






10 


10 


Ditto Shdh-pur 






10 








77| 








2. In Chhdtd Pargana : 




1 


Sher-garh to Bahta Ferry 


5 


2 


Dig and Kosi road ; by Sahar and Bhadaval 


.. 


8 


3 


Mathura and Kamar road ; from Pelkhu to Uncha-ganw 


,, 


11 


4 


Clihata to Barsana 


., 


10 


K 


Chaumuba to Siyara Fei'ry 


•• 


12 






46 



152 



No. 


3. In Matliurd Pargana : 




Miles. 


1 


Aring to Soukli 


... 


6 


2 


Ditto towards Agra 


... ... 


51 


3 


Aurangabad to Mukund-pur 


... 


6 


4 


Brinda-ban to Gobardhan 


... 


12* 


5 


Mathura tliroiigh Ral to Sahar 


... 


Hi 


6 


Sonkh to Gobardhan 


... 





7 


Ditto towards Agra 
4. In Mat Pargana : 




() 




531 






1 


Noli-jbil to Kesi Ghat, Brinda-ban ... 




22 


2 


Mat towards Beswa in Aligarh 


... 


6 


3 


Ditto Raya 


... ,,, 


4 


4 


Noh-jhil to Bajana 


... 


4 


5 


Akbar-pur to Khaira on Aligarh border 


... 


7 


6 


Bajana to Pitaura (on Noh-jhil and Brinda-ban 


road) 


5 


7 


Surir towards Beswa 


... 


7 


8 


Ditto to Bahta Ferry 


... ••• 


2 


9 


Ditto Siyiira Ferry 
5. — In Mahd-han Pargana : 




4 




61 






1 


Baladeva to Sohat Ferry ... 


... 


15 


2 


Gokul to Maha- ban 


... 


3 


3 


Hataura to Bhartiya (towards Khandauli) 


... 


8 


4 


Maha-ban to Koila Ferry 


.. 


H 


5 


Ditto to Brahnianda Ghdt 


... 


3 


6 


Ditto to Basai Habib-pur Ferry... 


... 


5 


7 


Raya towards Mat 


... 


5 


8 


Pontoon Bridge through Raval to Sarae Ddud 
G. — In Sa'dabdd Pargana : 




15 




551 






1 


Manik-pur Railway Station to Nagara Salim 


... 


1 


2 


Sa'dabad to Bahddur-pur... 


... 


5 


3 


Ditto to Mandaur 


... 


12 


4 


Ditto to Pi para Mai ... 


.«• •»• 


8 


5 


Ditto to Sikara 




7 




33 



SECOND-CLASS UNMETALLED ROADS. 



153 



No. 


7. — In Jalesar Pargana : 


Miles. 


1 


Jalesar towards Firozabad in the Agra District ... 


8 


2 


Ditto to Umar-garh 


9 


3 


Ditto to Pilkathra 




7 


4 


Ditto towards Hathras ... 


... 


6 


5 


Ditto to Noh-khera 




6 


6 


Ditto to Aliaran 




7 


7 


Ditto and Khanda Road 




18 


8 


Aliaran to Barlian Railway Station .. 




5 


9 


Noh-khera to Awa 




10 


10 


Umar-garh to Aharan 




8 


18 


Pilkathra to Noh-khera ... 




4 








88 



For the maintenance and repair of these roads, amounting in all to 414f 
miles, an annual allotment is made at the rate of Rs. 5 per mile. 



VII. — Distance of Principal Towns from the City of Mathura. 



Awa ... 


.. 55 miles. 


Chhata ... 


lU 


miles. 


Maha-ban 


... 6 miles. 


Aring... 


.. n 




Gobardhan.. 


13i 




Sa'dabad 


...26 


» 


Baladeva 


.. 11 




Jalesar 


43 




Sahar 


... 15 


» 


Brinda-ban 


.. 6 


?j 


Kosi 


25i 


jj 


Sher-garh 


... 21 


)) 



VIII. — Bridges and Ferries. 




The total income is thus Rs. 52,031, from which, however, a district allot- 
ment is made of only Rs. 16,000 or Rs. 17,000 a year. 



154 



POLICE STATIONS ; POST-OFFICES ; MARKET-TOWNS. 



IX.— Police Stations. 
The Kotwali : the Sadr Bazar 



Bharat-pur Road and 



Auranofabad : Brinda-ban : Gobar- 



l.—In the City. 
Brinda-ban Road. 

2. — In Mathurd Pargana : Ar{nq . _ . 

dhan ; Jait ; Rasiil-pur and Sonkh. 

3. — In Chhdtd Pargana : Barsana ; Chhata ; Sahar and Shergarh. 

4.^/n the Kosi Pargana : Kosi and Majhoi. 

5. — In the Mat Pargana : Mat ; NoH-Jnfii ; Surir ; and Bajana outpost. 

6. — hi the Mahd-han Pargana : Baladeva ; Hansganj outpost ; Maha-ban ; 
Eaya ; and Sonai outpost. 

7. — In the Sa'dahdd Pargana : Sa'dabad ; Sahpau ; and Gigla outpost. 

8. — In the Jalesar Pargana : Aharan ; Aiwa ; Jalesar ; Noh-khcra out- 
post and Umar-garh. 

The Force consists of one European and three Native Inspectors, 15 Sub- 
Inspectors, 86 Head Constables, and 372 Rank and File, under the control of 
the District Superintendent. At each of the places printed in capitals there is 
a Sub-Inspector ; at the other Stations two Head Constables, and at the out- 
posts one. There are also 11 Sawars : two at Chhata, two at Raya, two at 
Sa'dabad and the remaining five, together with three Camel-Sawars, in the Lines. 



X. — Post- Offices. 
Mathura ; Brinda-ban ; Chhata ; Jalesar Railway Station, and 



Jalesar ; Maha-ban ; Mat ; Noh- 



Imperial . 
Kosi. 

Branch : Aring ; A:\va ; Gobardhan 
jhil ; Raya ; Sa'dabad, and Sahar. 

District : Aharan ; Baladeva ; Barsana ; Jait ; Majhoi ; Noh-khera ; Rasiil- 
pur ; Sahpau ; Sher-garh ; Sonkh ; Surir, and Umar-garh. 

At the Branch offices there is a Deputy Post-master ; at the District offices 
only a Muharrir, who draws his pay from the District Dak Fund. 

XL— Market Towns. 



Pargana. 


Town. 


Day. 


Kosi 

Ditto ... 
Chhata ... 

Ditto ... 

Ditto 

Ditto ... 

Ditto ... 

Ditto .... 


Kosi 

Shah-pur... 
Chhata ... 
Chaumuha 
Khaira ... 
Sahar ... 
Shergarh... 
Taroli "... 


Tuesday and Wednesday. 

Monday. 

Friday. 

Tuesday. 

Saturday. 

Wednesday. 

Thursday. 

Monday. 



MARKET-TOWNS. 



155 



Pargana. 



Town. 



Mathura ... 


Aring 


Ditto ... 


Aurangabad 


Ditto ... 


Bachh-ganw 


Ditto ... 


Brindd-ban 


Ditto ... 


Kosi (Little) 


Ditto ... 


Mangotla... 


Ditto ... 


Piirna 


Ditto ... 


Sahjua 


Ditto ... 


Sakitra .. 


Mat 


Arua 


Ditto ... 


Bajana ... 


Ditto ... 


Barauth ... 


Ditto ... 


Bhadanwara 


Ditto ... 


Harnaul ... 


Ditto ... 


Jawara ... 


Ditto ... 


Karahri ... 


Ditto ... 


Kaulahar... 


Ditto ... 


Lohi 


Ditto ... 


Mat 


Ditto ... 


Muin-ud-din-pur 


Ditto ... 


Navali ... 


Ditto ... 


Noh-jhil ... 


Ditto ... 


Pal-khera 


Ditto ... 


Shankar Grarhi 


Ditto ... 


Sikandar-pur 


Ditto .. 


Surir 


Maha-ban;.. 


Akos 


Ditto ... 


Anaundha 


Ditto ... 


Ayra Khera 


Ditto ... 


Baroli .'.. 


Ditto ... 


Bbartiya ... 


Ditto ... 


Bhura 


Ditto ... ■ ... 


Diwana ... 


Ditto ... 


Garsauli ... 


Ditto ... 


Jngsuna ... 


Ditto ... 


Kanjauli ... 


Ditto ... 


Karab 


Ditto ... 


Nagara Gokharauli ... 


Ditto ... 


Pacha var... 


Ditto ... 


Raya 


Ditto ... 


Sahora 


Ditto ... 


Sarae Daud 


Ditto ... 


Sonai 


Ditto ... 


Wairani ... 


Sa'dabad... 


Kvti 


Ditto ... 


Bahardoi ... 


Ditto ... 


Bisawar ... 



Day. 



Sunday. 

Friday. 

Saturday. 

Tuesday. 

Friday. 

Thursday. 

Monday. 

Thursday. 

Saturday. 

Monday and Friday. 

Thursday and Saturday. 

Thursday. 

Friday. 

Sunday. 

Monday and Friday. 

Tuesday and Friday. 

Tuesday. 

Saturday. 

Thursday. 

Sunday. 

Ditto. 
Friday. 
Monday. 

Ditto. 
Wednesday. 
Monday. 

Ditto. 
Tuesday and Saturday. 
Wednesday and Saturday. 
Tuesday and Saturday. 
Monday. 

Ditto. 
Saturday. 

Tuesday and Saturday. 
Wednesday. 

Ditto. 
Thursday. 
Tuesday. 
Sunday. 

Monday and Friday. 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. 

Sunday and Wednesday. 
Tuesday and Saturday. 
Monday and Thursday. 
Sunday. 
Friday. 



156 



MARKET-TOWNS. 



Pargana. 


Town. 


Day. 


Sa'dabaJ ... 


Hasanpur Bam 


Saturday. 


Ditto ... 


Jaru 


Monday and Friday. 


Ditto ... 


Jatoi 


Monday. 


Ditto ... 


Kajarothi 


Wednesday and Saturday. 


Ditto ... 


Kursauda 


Sunday. 


Ditto ... 


Mahrara ... 


Monday and Friday. 


Ditto ... 


Mai 


Wednesday. 


Ditto ... 


Mangru ... 


Friday. 


Ditto ... 


Nasir-pur... 


Thursday. 


Ditto ... 


Nauoama 


Sunday and Wednesday. 


Ditto ... 


Patt'i Bahram 


Friday. 


Ditto ... 


Sa'daMd ... 


Tuesday and Saturday. 


Ditto ... 


Sahpau ... 


Sunday and Wednesday. 


Ditto ... 


Salimpur... 


Sunday. 


Ditto ... 


Susahan ... ..- 


Monday. 


Ditto .. 


Tasigan ... 


Tuesday. 


Ditto ... 


Udhaina ... 


Wednesday. 


Jalesar ,.. 


Aliaran ... 


Sunday and Thursday. 


Ditto ... 


K^ya, 


Sunday and Tuesday. 


Ditto ... 


Badan-pur Kunjmallpur, 


Tuesday. 


Ditto ..> 


Barhan ... 


Monday and Friday. 


Ditto ... 


Bora (Great) 


Sunday and Thursday. 


Ditto ... 


Clnirthara... 


Wednesday. 


Ditto ... 


Daiilat-pur Gilola 


Saturday. 


Ditto ... 


Jalesar ... 


... 


Ditto ... 


Kaprai 


Wednesday. 


Ditto ... 


K hand a ... 


Tuesday and Saturday. 


Ditto ... 


Mai 


Wednesday. 


Ditto ... 


Mandan-pitr 


Ditto. 


Ditto ... 


Mauzam-pur 


Ditto. 


Ditto ... 


Nahrora ... 


Tliursday and Saturday. 


Ditto ... 


Pilkathra... 


Sunday. 


Ditto ... 


Punliera ... 


Wednesday and Friday. 


Ditto ... 


Rejua 


Friday. 


Ditto ... 


Sakroli ... 


Sunday and Wednesday. 


Ditto ... 


Sautliai Nabi-piir 


Wednesday. 


Jitto ... 


tSarae Nim 


Monday and Friday. 


Ditto ... 


Sluihuagar Tiinrua 


Friday. 


Ditto ... 


N agar a Arjun 


Saturday. 


Ditto ... 


Shaikhu-ijur Raj mall... 


Wednesday and Saturday- 


Ditto ... 


Tehu ... 


Wednesday. 


Ditto ... 


Umar-garh 


Sunday and Thursday. 


Ditto ... 


Unclia-ganw 


Ditto ditto. 



The singular lack of village markets in the Kosi Pargana admits of easy 
explanation. There the one great central mart is so exceptionally well placed, 
in the very centre of the Pargana, on an important high road, and with as 



REST-HOUSES AND EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS. 



157 



many as eleven branch roads radiating from it in different directions, that 
almost every householder in the whole of the pargana is enabled to resort to it 
for his ordinary weekly purchases, without any inconvenience and with much 
benefit as regards the choice and quality of goods. 



XII. — Rest Houses. 
( Arailahle for the occasional use of District Officers and others.) 



Place. 


Description. 


Place. 


Description. 


Akbar-pur ... 
Basonthi 
Bhadaval ... 
Chhata 
Gobardhan... 


Canal Bungalow. 
Canal Kothi. 

Ditto. 
Road Bungalow. 
Maharaja of Bharat- 


Kosi 

Kosi (Little,) 

Mathura ... 

Ditto 
Paiganw ... 


Municipal Bungalow. 
Canal Kothi. 
Dak Bungalow (public.) 
Sessions Bungalow. 
Canal Bungalow. 


Jait 

Jalesar 
A wa 


pur's House. 
Upper story of Po- J 

lice Station. ( 
Municipal Office. 
Raja of Awa's House. 


Pilkathra ... 
Sa'dabad ... 

Ditto 
Sahar 


Canal Kothi. 
The Kunwar Ji's House. 
Road Bungalow. 
Old Tahsili. 











XIIL 


— Educational. 
















Number of 
pupils. 




Income. 


Charges. 


Class of School. 




i 








3 " 






.s-s 


■3 






1 
S 

3 

15 


i 

a 


a 
1 

a 


1 


as 


a 

1^ 


1 




1 


CO 

•s 

is 


II 


1 










1 




Ks. 


Ks. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


R,s. 


R.S 


Rs. 


Rs. 


High School .., 


1 


219 


lo' 229 


16- 


5,830 


907 




6.737 


5,P58 


136 


307 


6,102 


^ f Aided Anglo 


2 


89 


2 91 


59 


720 


176 


720 


1,616 


1,342 


... 


150 


1,492 


5 Ternacular. 
»J 1 Tahsili and 


























1 


111 


4 115 


65 


250 


31 


64 


335 


293 


11 


16 


320 


^ j Town (supe- 
S1 rior.) 


















































g Halkabandi 


3 


257 


21 278 213 


257 


... 


205 


462 


410 


5!> 




462 


^ 1 (superior.) 
•^ (^Unaided native 
























120 


1,640 


205 1,845, 976 


... 


6,519 


... 


6,519 


6,519 


... 


... 


6.519 




f Tahsili and 


7 


516 


73 589 426 


2,140 


675 


13 


2,828 


2,023 


130 


196 


2,349 




Town (infe 






1 
















fr 


Tior.; 






f 










1 




< 


Halkabandi 


;33 


4,971 


104 5,163 3,891 


8,491 


... 


8,102 


16,593 


11,866 6.35 


299 12.801 




(lufenor.) 






1 j 


















Female (Go- 


23 


424 


55I 479 386 


1,543 






1,543 


1,468 


24 


fin 


1,542 


Si 


vernment.) 


























Female (aided) 


2 


44 


... 


44 


31 


84 


... 


96 


180 


157 




23 


180 




Unaided na- 
. tive. 


6 


280 


10 


290 


172 


... 


432 




432 


393 


... 


39 


432 


Total ... 


297 


8,551 


574 


9,124 


6,387 


19,315 


8,740 


9,190 


37,245 


25,129 


988 


1,080 


27,197 



158 



EDUCATIONAL. 







2.— 


Distribution of Schools. 










\ 




^ 


t-* 


© 


i2 


O 






























■y: 


o 

r=3 


a 


S 


o 


• C 






Pargana. 








> m 




13 


C3 


o 


3' 

3 




L/J 




J 


'o 


n 


a 


v,i 


W. 


cS 










o ^ 


f-' ja 




'V -a 






CO 




-s 


1^^ 


>^ 


'T3 


1^ 


% 






1 


Ph 


w 


<1 


O 


<1 


t3 


c=< 


Ph 


Kosi 




13 


1 


1 




4 


1 


21 


ChMtk 


1 


... 


19 




5 




3 




28 


Mathura 


2 




17 


I 


3 


3 


71 


2 


99 


Mat 






24 




4 




7 




35 


Maha-ban ... 


1 


1 


25 








13 




40 


Sa'dabad ... 


1 




20 




5 




9 




35 


Jalesar 


1 

7 


1 


18 


... 


5 


... 


13 
120 


2 


39 


Total .. 


136 


2 


23 


3 


5 


297 



After all that can be urged as to tlie want of discipline, the faultiness of 
the toxt-books, and the singulai-lj illiterate habits and defective training of the 
teachers, it must still be admitted that the village schools are little, if at all, 
inferior to any institutions of a similar character that existed in England even 
so recently as the beginning of the present century. , The object with which they 
have been established is often, however, greatly misunderstood, both by the 
people and also the subordinate officers of the Department. The aim, as I con- 
ceive it, should be, not to impart either very advanced or very technical instruc- 
tion, and thus create a horde of applicants for Government employ, many of whom 
must be unsuccessful ; but simply to afford the rising generation of the agricultu- 
ral community as much mathematical and literary knowledge as will protect them 
from fraud, enable them to speak, read, and write their own mother-tongue with 
ease and precision, and develope a generally intelligent frame of mind, which, 
far from rendering them discontented with their natural sphere of life^ will 
rather bind them to it by exhibiting its wider interests and capabilities. 

This amount of education would amply satisfy the requirements of the great 
mass of the people ; and it is only when a boy displays exceptional ability in 
some particular line that he should be encouraged to develope it by a higher 
course of study. The cry that is being raised by certain utilitarians for the 
general establishment of practical schools of art and design is greatly to be de- 
precated. The ordinary level of art-feeling is already much higher in India 
than it is in England ; and in almost every large town there is some special 
manufacture (as for example at Mathura the art of the stone-mason) which 



SCHOOLS: INDIGENOUS TREES. 159 

would inevitably be vulgarized and destroyed by our interference. Excepting 
only purely utilitarian works, such as bridges, the buildings erected on behalf 
of the Government by trained EngHsh Engineers arc a most humiliating spec- 
tacle when contrasted with the performances of the co nmonntive mason paid 
at the rate of five anas a day. He evolves an infinite variety of the most grace- 
ful and intricate decorative designs with little or no apparent effort ; and even 
when his work is of the plainest, it almost invariably displays that architectural 
propriety and readiness in the adaptation of local materials which most distin- 
guish true from false art. 

One most unfortunate defect in the existing system deserves to be noted ; 
as the schools were primarily intended for the benefit of the agriculturist, it is 
he only who is taxed for their support. Hence has arisen an anomaly that 
could never have been contemplated. The poorest section of the community 
and the one which has the most special claim upon the Government, is sino-led 
out for a burden from which a richer and less deserving class is exempted. And 
not only so, for while the farmer's son is mostly out in the fields with his father's 
cattle, and makes little use of the school, the rich, who do use it pay nothino- for 
the privilege. Nor is this the only matter in which the tiller of the soil is un- 
duly weighted in his up-hill race against the Baniya. Though he never writes 
a letter, never leaves his own village, and has no property that can be stolen 
beyond the crops which he stays out in the fields all night himself to protect ; still it 
is he that pays for the district post, the district roads, and the village watchmen ; 
while the Bazar shop-keeper, who makes a liberal use of one and all of these 
institutions, has them presented to him as a free gift by his less fortunate neio-h- 
bours. And the same policy has now been still further developed by the institu- 
tion of Free Schools in the Municipal towns, being the places where tradespeople 
most congregate. These schools are purely experimental and have only been in 
existence for about a year. It is therefore premature to pronounce definitely upon 
their failure or success ; but probably their object would be equally well obtained 
by the admission of a limited number of Free scholars into the Tahsili schools. 



XIV. — List of Trees. 
( That are indigenous to, or thrive well in, Western Mathurd.) 
Akol (for Sanskrit anhola) Alangium (?) a tree with yellow flower found 
in the Konai rakhyd. 

* Amaltas, Cassia fistula. 

* Amla, Emblica officinalis. The name (Sanskrit amla, Latin atnarus) refers 
to the sourness of the fruit. 

Anjan-rukh, Hardwickia Binata (?) found at Charan-Pahar. 
Arni, Clerodendron Phlomoides ^ in flower and habit resembling the 
honeysuckle. 



160 INDIGENOUS TREES. 

* AsoK, Jonesia asoca. 
Babul, Acacia Arabica. 
Bakatan, Melia semper-virens. 
Bar, Ficus Bengalensis. 

Bakna, (for Sanskrit varana) Cratoeva niirvala. 

* Bel, (for Sanskrit vilva) Mgle Marmelos. 
Ber, (for Sanskrit badara ) Zizyphus jujuba. 

* Champa, Micbelia cbampaka. 

Chhonkar, Prosopis spicigera ^a tree that in general appearance closely 
resembles the Eemja, only without the russet seed-pods that distinguish the 
latter. 

Dhak, (for Sanskrit dagdha, 'on fire') Butea frondosa. 

Dho, (for Sanskrit dhava) Conocarpus latifolius (?) at Barsana. 

DuNGAR, another name for the PiLU. /A^-^-^^ i .."c^^-.-i^/ , 

Far AS, Tamarix Indica. 

GoNDi, Cordia angustifolia, a good furniture wood ; at Barsana. 

GuLAR, Ficus racemosa. 

HiNGOT, Balanites Egyptiaca, at Charan-Pahar and Kokila-ban. 

HiNS, a very strong, thorny creeper.- t^^'^Aa-U-f 'f<^t-au.^ . 

Imli, Tamarindus Indica. 

* Jaman, Syzygium Jambolanum. 

Jhau, Tamarix dioica; a dwarf variety of the Faras, which springs up after 
the rains on hhddar land, and forms a dense jungle. 
Kachnar, Bavihinia variegata. 
Kadamb, Nauclea Kadamba. 
Karil, (for Sanskrit karira) Capparis aphylla. 
Khajur, (for Sanskrit kharj-dra) Phoenix sylvestris. 

* Khirni, (for Sanskrit ksMrini, 'the milky') Mimusops Kauki. 
KiKAR, another name for the bahil. 

Labera and Lasora, cordia myxa and latifolia. 
Mahua, (for Sanskrit madhnha) Bassia latifolia. 

* Malsuri, Mimusops elengi. 

Nfivi, (for Sanskrit nimha) Melia azaddirachta. 

NfM Chambeli, Millingtonia hortensis. 

Papri, Holoptolia integrifolia ^ 

Pasendu, Diospyros cordifolia (^ aBr®TOi»rw« tree with very dense foliage 
and a small round yellow fruit that ripens in February, and consists of nothing 
but rind and wedge-shaped stones. 

PfLU, Salvadora persica ^ 

PiLUKHAN, with leaf like the pipal, and fruit like the giilar : found at Konai 
and Kokila-ban: ,-^l*»-.- ^-r:^' .-^'^ . 



BUILDING MATERIALS. 161 

PfpAL, Ficus Reli'triosa. 

Remja, Acacia Farnesiana. 

Ritha, Sapindus detergens ; found at Satoha; -a ^^*«^^'- ^^^^r - 

Sahajna, Hyperanthera Morunga; ^ .>«-, ***^ - ^ ^ * 

Sahora, Epicarpurus Orientalis (?) 

Shah-tut, Morus Indica. 

81RIS, (for Sanskrit sirisha) Acacia speciosa. 
Note. — The trees marked* are found only in gardens; the others grow wild. 
The botanical